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Beat the college essays, Robots: How to Get Your Resume Past the essay, System Into Human Hands. Mark Slack and Erik Bowitz. Landing an interview for a position in college about cheerleading a giant organization can feel impossible if you don’t have any personal connections. Death Salesman American Dream Thesis? People often blame the college essays about, sheer volume of resumes that are submitted—HR simply can’t review them all with enough detail to essay, see what a perfect candidate you are! And this is partially true—one study suggests that recruiters spend only six seconds looking at each resume. However, many resumes are trashed before they’re even seen by human eyes. College Cheerleading? How is that possible? Here’s how: Many large organizations rely on death of a american dream thesis, applicant tracking systems (ATS) to help pre-filter resumes. The systems work by scanning resumes for contextual keywords and essays about key phrases, mathematically scoring them for relevance, and sending only the most qualified ones through for human review.
Essentially, they’re the 21st century version of the death of a thesis, troll under the bridge. Undoubtedly, this saves HR managers the time and trouble of sorting through irrelevant, underprepared, and weak resumes to find the golden candidates. Essays About Cheerleading? But it also means that your application could slip through the cracks if you don’t format your resume just right or include the exact keywords the hiring manager is searching for. To make sure you get past the troll and into the door for an interview, check out these tips for writing a resume that an ATS will approve—and a hiring manager will love. While you might want to highlight your creativity or individuality to a hiring manager, ATS require cold conformity and simplicity. Therefore, you’ll need to delete any extra touches you’ve added to your resume, like logos, pictures, symbols, and shadings. Also, stick to standard resume formatting in a normal font like Arial, Courier, or Times New Roman—the ATS can’t read fancy fonts and with outline will reject your resume out of confusion. Furthermore, only include the college essays cheerleading, usual sections of a resume: Qualifications, Professional Experience, Education, Skills, and the like.
Adding unfamiliar headings like Affiliations, Publications, or Memberships can choke up an ATS. Finally, send your resume as a Word doc or in rich text format instead of a PDF. Though ATS software is becoming better at reading PDFs, it can still miss important things when trying to process them. For any profession, there’s always lingo, software, responsibilities, basic skills, and licenses or certificates associated with performing the job well—and an ATS will be looking for key phrases and of a dream thesis contextual information related to college, those qualifications. To make sure the software recognizes that you’re a good fit for of a american, the job, use these tips to successfully keyword optimize your resume: Include verb phrases and college essays skills written in of a thesis the job description on about, your own resume. These are very likely to be the dream, same keywords and phrases the hiring manager has programmed the essays about cheerleading, ATS to pick up—“project manager,” “Final Cut Pro,” or “social media marketing,” for example. Try services like Wordle and TagCrowd to for school, help you figure out college essays about which keywords to with, focus on. Input the job descriptions into college about these tools to create a word cloud that visually highlights the most frequently used words, and make sure they’re sprinkled throughout your resume. Use both the acronym and the spelled-out form of any given title, certification, or organization, so you’re set regardless of which format the provides custom written papers, ATS is looking for. Essays Cheerleading? For example: Certified Public Accountant (CPA). An important note here: Don’t go overboard.
In the past, people thought that they could exploit the system by overstuffing their resumes with keywords, thus ranking them higher in the eyes of the lincoln debate essay, ATS. This is cheerleading, a very bad idea: Not only is the software sophisticated enough to see this kind of keyword stuffing, if your resume does make it into of a salesman american thesis human hands, no one will be impressed by a nonsensical resume dressed to the nines in keywords. Aim for repeating important skills-related keywords two or three times (and no more). How can you do that without repeating job responsibilities or sounding obnoxious? Try this: WANT TO GIVE YOURSELF AN EXTRA BOOST? Are there people who would say no to that?
3. Ditch the Career Objective Section. Career objective sections are kind of a waste of space. About Cheerleading? That boring boilerplate “I am a hard working person who wants to work in (blank) industry” is a bit obvious: Why else would you be submitting your resume? Furthermore, it’s not about how you want to apply your skills, it’s about how the company needs you to apply them. Instead, try replacing this with a qualifications summary—a six-sentence (or bullet pointed) section filled with ATS-friendly keywords. Even better, use those six sentences to concisely present the creme of the short essays for school, crop of your achievements, major skills, and important experiences.
By doing this, you’re killing two birds with one stone: You’re appeasing the college about, ATS with keywords, and you’re also giving the hiring manager the juicy, important bits right at essay counterfeit products the top where he or she can quickly scan and understand the value you would bring the essays about cheerleading, company. Seriously, spelling mistakes are the death of your resume. While a human being can at least figure out what you mean (before tossing your resume into the trash in disapproval), an ATS will terminate you immediately because it will simply have no idea what you’re talking about. So double, triple, and quadruple check your resume before sending it in. Have someone else do the custom, same.
Spelling mistakes can be easily avoided if you’re careful. Essays About? So take the time to follow these tips, and you’ll have a resume that will make it onto a hiring manager’s desk—and ultimately snag you the interview. Death Of A American Thesis? Feeling on a roll with your resume? Why not check out essays about how to optimize your contact information or beef up your skills section? Photo of person on laptop courtesy of Sawitree Pamee/EyeEm/Getty Images#46; Mark Slack and Erik Bowitz are Senior Resume Consultants and content managers of the Resume Companion Blog.
Resume Companion is a leading online resume building company with over 650,000 registered users, and over 8 million resumes created to date. Hmmm, seems you#39;ve already signed up for this class. While you#39;re here, you may as well check out all the amazing companies that are hiring like crazy right now.
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liberal essay The Power of Independent Thinking. Liberalism and Equality. Junior Faculty Winner. Essays Cheerleading. First Prize ($10,000) #147;I think that democratic communities have a natural taste for freedom; left to themselves, they will seek it, cherish it, and view any privation with regret. Debate. But for college essays about cheerleading, equality their passion is ardent, insatiable, incessant, invincible; they call for equality in freedom, and if they cannot obtain that, they still call for equality in slavery.#148; #151; Alexis de Tocqueville #147;Believe me, Sir, those who attempt to level never equalize.#148; While the ideals of freedom and equality are not unique to one age or creed, liberalism differs from its rivals in the specific meaning it attaches to these terms. For a liberal in the original sense, a free society must aim first and re application essays foremost at minimizing the exercise of arbitrary power by limiting all coercion to what can be accomplished by equal, invariable, and indiscriminate law. Thus the rule of law, the absence of arbitrary legal privileges or distinctions of status, appears to the liberal as the legal embodiment of essays about cheerleading, freedom and equality alike, and as his greatest and proudest achievement. Other times and peoples have known liberties, but it is liberalism that can take credit for enshrining liberty. The liberal champion of formal equality before the law will have an eye, to be sure, on inequalities of opportunity, though he will resist the tendency to focus too narrowly on what happens to be most easily quantified; what he will refuse to essay, countenance, however, is the attempt, objectionable in college about cheerleading principle but likely also futile in practice, #147;to impress upon society a deliberately chosen pattern of distribution, whether it be an essays order of equality or of inequality.#148; I. Freedom, Equality, and #147;Social Justice#148;
A concern with the adverse effect of about, material inequality is as old as our philosophical tradition, and essays it is hardly surprising that it should color so much of our political debates. Nonetheless, while the liberal may look with favor upon college about the incidental equalization that may result from legitimate government action, and while he may consider a high degree of material equality desirable and even admirable, he must be wary of any attempt at forcing such an outcome by means of coercion, on grounds of principle and practicability alike. Two fundamental problems will immediately confront those seeking to bring about a more equitable distribution of wealth: the difficulty of lincoln douglas debate, giving principled backing to any particular pattern, on the one hand, and that of making the pattern stick, on the other. For as Hayek argues at length in his Road to Serfdom , the kind of complete ethical code that might warrant a sustained #147;correction#148; of the outcomes yielded by the spontaneous and uncoordinated interactions and about cheerleading exchanges within a society turns out, upon re application essays closer examination, to college essays about cheerleading, be full of gaps at best. The hazy vision of #147;social justice#148; that guides much of the debate over redistributional measures does not bear scrutiny, if it means anything at all, and reduces in the final analysis to little more than a vague sense of dissatisfaction that remains strictly negative, parasitical on essay customary or historical distributions yielded by the market, and that offers little direction beyond taking as much from the rich as possible. About. Since a free society will not produce the kind of uniform, coherent moral scheme that would be necessary to justify systematic redistribution, the ideal of debate, justice that would govern it cannot be that of a society as a whole, but only that of someone within it. To give such a conception of social justice meaning, moreover, it would not suffice to impose it selectively, but a whole society would need to essays about cheerleading, be reorganized around it and forced to conform to it continuously.
As Robert Nozick#146;s #147;Wilt Chamberlain problem#148; illustrates, free exchange will quickly upset any favored distributional pattern, which cannot therefore be realized without persistent, continuous interference with people#146;s lives. Even those who favor the pattern in question may thus come to balk at the methods that would be necessary to enforce it as they #147;will in practice find themselves obstructed at of a american dream thesis, every move by the rule of law.#148; While the resulting conflict between the ideal of college about cheerleading, freedom and the desire to #147;correct#148; the essay distribution of incomes is not often clearly recognized, the college essays about diminished ambitions of most redistributional schemes today may perhaps be taken as an death acknowledgement of sorts. Instead of offering any clear-cut plans or really coherent conceptions of what a manipulation of the market for social justice would require, #147;the new tasks set by the ambition of modern man#148; are thus approached #147;as un-principled, in the original meaning of this word, as never before.#148; Thus the standard procedure of the attenuated welfare state, extracting taxes from some in order to make grants to others#151;all in the name of equality and the eradication of poverty#151;ends up producing, in a largely ad hoc manner, #147;an erratic and contradictory melange of subsidies to essays about cheerleading, special interest groups.#148; Though advocated as an for school antidote to the vagaries of the market, such piecemeal grants must have the effect of leaving everyone else in an increasingly precarious position. In the end, security itself becomes a privilege. II. Merit and college essays cheerleading Value. Closely related to the demand for a less unequal distribution of the good things of the world, and perhaps underpinning much of the sense of for school kids, injustice driving it, is a feeling that market outcomes do not adequately reflect our intuitions of moral merit. Yet, intuitive as it may seem at first, the demand for remuneration proportionate to ascertainable merit#151;rather than the market#146;s reward in college about cheerleading accordance with product, that is, usefulness as assessed by the exchanging parties#151;quickly runs into of a salesman american dream daunting difficulties. A ready source of discontent may be found, for example, in the fact that a free society of any complexity will witness a marked discrepancy between the rewards of individuals within the college essays cheerleading same profession and essay on unemployment even between those possessing the same technical skills or special abilities. College Essays About. Such differences are easily accounted for, however, by for school the fact that in such a society, a person#146;s ability per se and his success in essays turning it into essays kids a good or service valued by others cannot be separated.
As a corollary to an individual#146;s freedom of making his own choices and finding his own way, safe from tutelary instructions by cheerleading a supervising authority, monetary success will increasingly come to depend not only on abilities in the abstract, but on the concrete skill with which they are put to the right uses. Insofar as the burden of discovering how to make optimal use of our abilities is concerned, the free society makes an entrepreneur of every one of us, with all the provides papers attendant frustrations, disappointments, and resentments. Hard as one may find the discipline thus imposed, and bitter as it may be to fail in college essays cheerleading making oneself as useful to of a salesman american dream thesis, others as one might have been (hence failing as well to college essays about cheerleading, reap the rewards of that usefulness), the discipline we may deplore is inseparable from the freedom we cherish. There is a sense, of course, in which we would be relieved of a burden if we were simply told what to do: but few who rue the custom papers hard choices they face wish for such relief. What is essays, more, the hope of ascertaining in a reliable manner the meritorious quality of a given action presupposes just those conditions#151;comprehensive knowledge of everything that is death american, motivating someone#151;whose general absence furnishes such a powerful argument for liberty. The information we would need for an adequate assessment of merit is of just the kind that exists nowhere as an integrated whole. In all but the most exceptional circumstances, the very most that could be hoped for#151;and even this may strain credulity#151;is the judgment that a particular service was especially meritorious in the sense of costing its producer particular pain and effort. College About Cheerleading. If we were to essay with outline on unemployment, be guided by the moral character of an college cheerleading action, however, rather than by the value it has for essay, us as consumers, the allocative dimension of the problem would surely lead us to just the opposite conclusion. For inasmuch as we all have an essays cheerleading interest in seeing resources guided to their most productive uses, as the price-mechanism does with such efficiency, #147;we do not wish people to earn a maximum of merit but to achieve a maximum of usefulness at a minimum of pain and sacrifice and custom term papers therefore a minimum of college cheerleading, merit #148;! What is more, one of the essay with on unemployment most appealing aspects of the free-market order, succinctly developed by Friedman, is precisely that it frees us from the college about personal judgments others may make about provides term us, thus tending to minimize the cheerleading expression of prejudices precisely by making all discrimination on the basis of re application, anything other than quality and price relatively costly.
That not only about cheerleading hard work or skill, or foresight, or even a particular knack for making one#146;s abilities serviceable to re application essays, others, but also sheer chance and about cheerleading good luck should often make a crucial difference to a man#146;s success is essay, sure to grate on those who fail to be so successful through no particular fault of their own. What seems a lot less certain, however, is whether those falling short would be any happier in a more strictly meritorious world, in which their lack of success could be directly and reliably attributed to their own shortcomings. Surely we should at least pause to college about cheerleading, consider that such a world might be far crueler than even the capriciousness we may deplore and of a dream thesis lament. Rather than wishing for a closer relationship between merit and value, perhaps we should acknowledge more frankly that there need not be much of college essays cheerleading, a relationship at all and should check our inclination to ascribe merit where there is in fact only superior value. What is more, as Friedman observes so incisively, competitors tend in fact to resign themselves rather more easily to the blindness of the essay on unemployment goddess of chance than to deliberate judgments of relative merit. We might also be disappointed to essays about, find envy intensifying, rather than abating, if great strides were ever made towards a more egalitarian world. III. The Vagaries of counterfeit products, Redistribution.
True or not, Burke#146;s dictum that #147;#146;too much#146; and #145;too little#146; are treason against property#148; does little to persuade the skeptic. What might give more pause to the advocates of essays about, redistribution, however, are the unintended consequences and perverse effects that are likely to result from lincoln douglas debate, any serious effort at leveling material fortunes. Revenue needs to college, be raised for legitimate state purposes, of course, and surely Adam Smith was right to find it #147;not very unreasonable that the rich should contribute to the public expense not only in proportion to their revenue, but something more than in that proportion.#148; Hayek and lincoln essay Friedman, too, have little trouble conceding that there are good reasons, when it comes to taxation, for #147;some measure of graduation, both on grounds of college about cheerleading, assessing costs in accordance with benefits and on grounds of lincoln douglas debate essay, social standards of equity.#148; Where the purpose of reducing inequality takes precedence over college essays about cheerleading, the need to raise revenue fairly and effectively, however, more deliberately egalitarian policies quickly reveal a short-sighted and self-defeating dimension. The farce of confiscatory marginal income tax rates approaching a hundred percent on paper, combined with myriad special provisions and loopholes that render them ineffective, has been playing itself out at great length over the past half-century and seems to have run its course at last. Meanwhile the #147;progressive#148; penchant for high marginal rates tempered by exemptions remains alive and well#151;with all the resulting capriciousness and real inequality in actual tax levels, all the perverse incentives and pervasive misdirection of resources that it invariably engenders. Perhaps the greatest paradox facing leveling ambition, however, is the fact that taxation hampering the accumulation of essay counterfeit products, wealth will have the unintended side-effect of protecting established fortunes from the competition of newcomers, in fact perpetuating the most glaring inequalities and turning wealth into the very privilege to which both the liberal and the egalitarian stand opposed! Second, market-incomes no less than other market-prices contain much information that could otherwise be collected only very inadequately. Behind many a seemingly unwarranted discrepancy in income are a host of about cheerleading, equalizing factors that need to be considered, and that would be all but impossible to calculate, except in a few cases, without reliance on the information gathering power of the lincoln douglas debate market.
A snap-shot of income distributions at any one point in time will fail to essays about cheerleading, distinguish, for one, between merely temporary, short-run differences and long-run differences in income, even though the former is the very mark of with outline on unemployment, a dynamic, socially mobile society as opposed to one dominated by status. What is more, compensation for different kinds of employment will in some measure reflect such factors as their unpleasantness or dangerousness, the difficulty and expense of acquiring a particular skill, the regard in which an activity is college about cheerleading, held (honor making, as Adam Smith observed, #147;a great part of the reward of for school kids, all honorable professions#148;), the college about cheerleading probability or improbability of death of a dream, success or the shortness of the typical working life in college about cheerleading a particular career, and so forth. Death Of A Dream. Anyone who would presume to combine, weigh, and reconcile all these considerations without recourse to market forces would somehow have to college about, overcome the most daunting obstacles. The more freely market forces are allowed to re application essays, operate, on the other hand, the more reliably can they fulfill their function of signaling, to those who need to decide what to do with themselves, just what skills or services are in particular demand or especially scarce at college about, the moment. The level of remuneration offered thus transmits some of the vitally important information necessary for an individual to written term papers, decide where to invest his energies, and creates an incentive to direct them where others value them most. Though market prices cannot, of course, capture inherent or permanent value, and though one may have good reasons to, and must remain free to, pursue activities upon college essays about which others place little value#151;and which may yet prove of great benefit!#151;market valuations do offer a #147;readily available yardstick#148; by debate which to measure the usefulness of any given endeavor at any given time, and thus a basis for determining whether a particular level of effort, risk, inconvenience, or whatever else, is likely to prove worth the sacrifice or trouble. No such determination can ever be fail-proof, of course, and many actual options may be unappealing; yet such risk, uncertainty, and college about cheerleading frustration is but the lincoln douglas debate converse of that unrestricted freedom and opportunity which can only essays about thrive in a society where none but the individual himself bears the responsibility for finding his way. The impediments we will all encounter in the form of unfavorable market valuations are real and serious, and at times truly bitter, but at least they do not reflect anyone#146;s disapproving our ends so much as the simple fact that the same means are also wanted elsewhere, by others prepared to lincoln douglas, put a higher price on them.
If it is true, as Hayek contends, that the parallel growth of knowledge and college civilization depends on a process whereby successful institutions and habits are imitated and adopted ever more widely, while less successful ones are correspondingly marginalized or eliminated, then the relative rise of lincoln douglas essay, individuals and college essays cheerleading groups alike is precisely the mechanism by outline which we are able to advance, and it would be foolish to seek to suppress, let alone eliminate it: #147;If the result of individual liberty did not demonstrate that some manners of living are more successful than others, much of the case for it would vanish.#148; Clearly, then, a free society will unleash a process of #147;creative destruction#148; whose fury will be felt by all, and college about cheerleading resented by many, and it would be naive to written papers, think that freedom will always console us for what progress may take away, or for the chill we may feel as we face #147;the perennial gale.#148; We cannot count on freedom making us better off, or reliably happier, and essays about we may even find ourselves as much the captives as the masters of our advances. Some may therefore despise liberalism as promising little more than the freedom to make a mess of our lives; still the liberal condition is of a, a distinctive one, with its own great rewards and a vision of true dignity such as no more paternalistic arrangement could offer. IV. Inequality and Progress. Finally, even granting for the purposes of argument that the about cheerleading principled objections and the practical obstacles to a policy of ruthlessly #147;soaking the rich#148; could somehow be overcome, the results of such a policy are sure to disappoint. There is, for one, the straightforward fact that even billions concentrated in the hands of a relatively few will have only a modest impact when distributed among millions. More fundamentally#151;and again leaving aside both the most principled and the most practical objections to such a course of action#151;such redistributionist fantasies disregard, to everyone#146;s great detriment, the lincoln douglas essay subtle relationship between inequality and college cheerleading the observable course of progress. For, implausible as it may seem at first, we all stand to benefit from the existence of a class of the rich, even if their ways may strike us as often idle and vain, frivolous and wasteful. Two considerations stand out particularly. First, there is the essay counterfeit products important role of the wealthy as independent foci of support to foster experimentation and cultural diversity, especially in the arts (never yet adequately supported where the essays about cheerleading majority has displaced the wealthy patron), but generally wherever else new ideas have fought for recognition. It is too frequently overlooked, as Hayek rightly points out, that action by collective agreement must be limited, by its very nature, to instances where previous efforts have already produced consensus. To advance an unpopular or marginal cause in a free society#151;often mere idiosyncrasy and eccentricity, to be sure, but occasionally just the kind of example on which the progress of re application, civilization depends#151;it may suffice to convince a single wealthy patron, whether engaging his sincere enthusiasm or merely his sense of profit. A society that did not allow such independent centers of support to emerge spontaneously, or found a way to replicate the dynamics of a free society, would soon jeopardize its political health no less than its cultural fecundity.
Then there is a second, more strictly economic, respect in which even the cheerleading most egalitarian society would have to mimic the dynamics of a free society or else face stagnation. For as Hayek shows in an especially thought-provoking chapter, #147;there is no way of making generally accessible new and still expensive ways of living except by their being initially practiced by some.#148; In a free society, it is initially the essays for school wealthy few who, by spending freely on whatever catches their fancy, get to experiment with new goods and lifestyles that cannot yet be more widely dispersed. A different kind of society might find a different basis on college essays about which to make such new possibilities available on an experimental basis, for example through deliberately privileging some by political fiat in lincoln debate the very way that liberal society seeks to avoid; whatever the alternative mechanism, however, it is hard to see how even socialist societies could avoid glaring inequalities between their own privileged classes and the masses. What is distinctive about free capitalist society, then, is not that some goods will initially come within reach of only a few, but rather the echelon fashion in which new possibilities will be made much more widely available before long. Essays Cheerleading. For in effect, though also inadvertently, the expenditures of the rich will serve to provides custom papers, defray the initial cost of experimentation and development that must precede the introduction of any consumer good on a large scale. College Essays About Cheerleading. To put it differently, the counterfeit products rich, while intending nothing of the sort, end up making a #147;free gift#148; of the knowledge acquired by their spending on what often appears, at first, to be no more than frivolity and college essays about caprice. Ultimately, then, #147;new things will often become available to re application, the greater part of the people only college because for some time they have been the luxuries of the few#148; and the assumption that they would have been created under more egalitarian conditions just as well is provides custom papers, as mistaken as it is widespread. Thus we arrive at the conclusion, counter-intuitive as it may seem at first, that if everyone had to wait until new and better things could be provided for all, that day might never come, and that even the poorest, let alone the broad masses, owe much of their relative material well-being to the results of past inequality. At any given moment, it is college about cheerleading, true, we might be able to improve the essay counterfeit position of the college poorest by taking from the wealthiest: #147;But, while such an equalizing of the positions in the column of progress would temporarily quicken the closing-up of the ranks, it would, before long, slow down the movement of the whole and in the long-run hold back those in the rear.#148; That there will also be real waste, bad choices and bad taste, lining the death american dream thesis paths of progress is undeniable#151;but we may well conclude with Hayek that such is everywhere the about cheerleading price of freedom and progress, and that what is squandered by for school kids the rich pales by comparison to about cheerleading, what is with, consumed, in the aggregate, by such amusements of the masses as would strike most inhabitants of the world, and most of our own ancestors, as no less extravagant and unnecessary.  Alexis de Tocqueville, Democracy in America , volume II, edited by Phillips Bradley (New York: Vintage, 1990), p. 97.  Edmund Burke, Reflections on the Revolution in France , edited by J. G. A. Pocock (Indianapolis and Cambridge: Hackett, 1987), p. 43.
 This essay will use #147;liberal/liberalism#148; in the original sense that still prevails in Europe#151;#147;the rightful and proper label#148; for college, a philosophy of counterfeit, freedom. (Compare Milton Friedman, Capitalism and Freedom [Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1982], p. 5.) For a discussion of the issues raised by these terms under contemporary North American conditions, compare Friedrich A. Hayek, #147;Why I Am Not a Conservative,#148; Postscript to The Constitution of Liberty (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1978), pp. 397-411 [hereafter Hayek, CL].  Compare Tocqueville#146;s statement to the French Constituent Assembly of essays about cheerleading, 1848: #147;Democracy and socialism have nothing in common but one word: equality. But notice the difference: while democracy seeks equality in liberty, socialism seeks equality in restraint and custom papers servitude.#148; (Alexis de Tocqueville, #147;Discours prononce a l#146;assemblee constituante le 12 septembre 1848 sur la question du droit au travail,#148; #140;uvres completes d#146;Alexis de Tocqueville , IX, 546. Quoted in Friedrich A. Hayek, The Road to essays about cheerleading, Serfdom (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1994), p. 29 [hereafter Hayek, RS])  Hayek, RS 87, 90; CL 88. Thus also Hayek, RS xxxvi: #147;The essence of the liberal position . Death Of A Salesman American Thesis. is the college about denial of all privilege.#148; (Compare Ibid.
23, 45)  Compare Hayek, CL 19, 154, 163. Even Karl Marx#146; bitter indictment of the #147;bourgeois order#148; speaks almost admiringly of the bourgeoisie#146;s #147;most revolutionary part#148; in putting an end to #147;the motley feudal ties that bound man to his #145;natural superiors.#146;#148; (#147;Manifesto of the provides written term papers Communist Party,#148; in The Marx-Engels Reader , 2 nd edition, edited by Robert C. Tucker [New York: Norton, 1978], part I, esp. p. 475.) Thus also Joseph Schumpeter#146;s observation that capitalist civilization and its rationalization of the college essays cheerleading soul #147;rubs off all the glamour . from every species of classwise rights.#148; (Joseph A. Schumpeter, Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy [New York: Harper, 1976], p. 127)  As both Hayek and Friedman make clear, #147;There is, indeed, a strong case for reducing . inequality of opportunity as far as congenital differences permit and as it is possible to do so without destroying the impersonal character of the process by which everyone has to take his chance and no person#146;s views about what is right and essay desirable overrule that of others.#148; Problems arise, however, when the exceedingly complex interplay of essays about, nature and death salesman american nurture, material and cheerleading non-material factors, by which families transmit their differences is reduced to provides written term papers, a question of compensatory redistribution of family wealth. Of course the possibility of passing on material goods is an important factor in perpetuating family traditions and standards, but that does not mean that such transmission is primarily material, let alone pecuniary. Essays About Cheerleading. Cultural values and customs, moral habits, the intelligence and kindness of parents, and counterfeit products everything else that goes into a good and loving home are surely at least as important, and probably far more so, than the material circumstances in essays cheerleading which they are embedded. Perhaps one should give some credit to those who shrink from the colossal presumption of assessing these complex qualitative differences by outline on unemployment focusing instead on what can be gauged more readily; by the same token, however, the reduction of inheritance to a matter of money is a crude materialism curiously at odds with the higher motives egalitarians commonly claim for themselves. It might also be noted that rich and college about powerful parents will always find ways to pass on their wealth and influence, and essays kids that the bequest of college, money is re application, likely to about cheerleading, be far cheaper from a social point of view than the alternatives (Hayek, RS 113, CL 89-91; Friedman 163-64).  A few representative examples are Plato#146;s discussion of the #147;two cities#148; in the Republic (423), Aristotle#146;s celebration of the middle class ( Politics , book IV), Machiavelli#146;s reflections on constitutional balance between the different #147;humors#148; in re application a city, and Hobbes#146; fifth law of nature, demanding #147;complaisance,#148; in his Leviathan , chapter 15.  Compare Hayek, CL 87-89.  Hayek, RS 85-86, 109, 120-22; CL 99-100.
 Robert Nozick, Anarchy, State, and Utopia (New York: Basic Books, 1974), pp. 160-64.  Hayek, RS 38; CL 232.  Introduction to Hayek, RS, p. xiii (by Milton Friedman). Hayek speaks of #147;that hodge-podge of ill-assembled and often inconsistent ideals . Cheerleading. under the name of the Welfare State.#148; (RS xxxiv)  Hayek, RS 137, 141-44. Written. Thus Ibid. 141: #147;If you grant to some a fixed part of a variable cake, the share left to the rest is bound to fluctuate proportionally more than the essays about cheerleading size of the whole. And the essential element of security that the competitive system offers, the short great variety of opportunities, is more and more reduced.#148;  So long as collective measures against the threat of severe privation are undertaken with caution and outside the market , they may be quite legitimate#151;to overcome collective action problems, for example. Thus both Hayek and Friedman are open to some minimal guarantees for college essays about cheerleading, the weak and the infirm by means of cash benefits for short essays kids, housing, for college essays cheerleading, example, or a negative income tax, though not without expressing #147;regret at having to substitute compulsory for voluntary action#148; and drawing attention to likely unintended consequences and the dangers of crowding out private efforts (Hayek, RS 133, 146, 230; CL 101; Friedman 178, 190-95).
Thus Hayek, CL 257-58: #147;There are common needs that can be satisfied only by collective action and essay with outline that can thus be provided for without restricting individual liberty. It can hardly be denied that as we grow richer, that minimum of sustenance which the community has always provided for college essays, those not able to look after themselves, and essay with outline on unemployment which can be provided outside the market, will gradually rise, or that government may, usefully and without doing any harm, assist or even lead in such endeavors.#148;  As Hayek points out at RS 121, it is certainly not a blind, complete, mechanical equality that people in general consider desirable, not equality in the absolute sense, but only #147;greater equality,#148; or a greater sense of proportion to we know not quite what, that is seriously aimed at.  Hayek, CL 80-81; RS 107, 124.  The great problem of college essays about cheerleading, society in general, as Hayek formulates it, is precisely #147;how we can all profit from this knowledge, which exists only dispersed as the separate, partial, and death of a sometimes conflicting beliefs of all men.#148; (Hayek, CL 25)  As Hayek points out, we may on occasion wish to reward exceptionally meritorious actions that have not received adequate recognition or recompense; but these are precisely exceptions that stand apart from the college essays incentives on which the ordinary functioning of society rests (Hayek, CL 99).  Hayek, CL 96, italics added; compare Friedman 166.  Friedman 108-111. Compare Hayek, CL 98: #147;[T]he mark of the free man is to be dependent for his livelihood not on douglas debate other people#146;s views of essays about, his merit but solely on what he has to offer them.#148;  Hayek, RS 112. Thus also Hayek, CL 98: #147;A society in re application which it was generally presumed that a high income was proof of merit and a low income of the lack of it . would probably be much more unbearable to the unsuccessful ones than one in which it was frankly recognized that there was no necessary connection between merit and success.#148;  Hayek, CL 99, 388; RS 117-19.  Compare Friedman 166: #147;Despite the lip-service that we all pay to #145;merit#146; as compared to #145;chance,#146; we are generally much readier to accept inequalities arising from chance than those clearly attributable to merit. The college professor whose colleague wins a sweepstake will envy him but is unlikely to bear him any malice or feel unjustly treated. Let the about cheerleading colleague receive a trivial raise that makes his salary higher than the essay counterfeit products professor#146;s own, and the professor is far more likely to feel aggrieved.
After all, the goddess of chance, as of justice, is blind. The salary raise was a deliberate judgment of relative merit.#148;  As Nozick has observed, success in reducing the about dimensions of difference would reduce the scope for weighing strategies that favor just the essay dimension someone happens to do well in. Envy will become more severe as competitors are pitted more directly against essays about each other on dream the same dimension, creating frustrations among the losers that are much more difficult to college essays about, reason away (Nozick 245).  Adam Smith, The Wealth of Nations , edited by provides custom term papers Edwin Cannan (New York: The Modern Library, 2000), p. College About. 907.  Friedman 174 and Hayek, CL 307.  Today Hayek#146;s principle of limiting the with outline on unemployment maximum admissible marginal rate of direct taxation to that percentage of the total national income collected in college essays about cheerleading taxation by custom the government is at least in sight in most countries#151;though at higher levels than Hayek would approve (Hayek, CL 323).
 Witness not only the energies and resources wasted directly in pursuit of tax-avoidance strategies, but also the loss consequent to essays cheerleading, resource-allocation with a view to the taxman, rather than to profitability per douglas debate essay se#151;to say nothing of outright tax-evasion. (Compare Friedman 172-176.)  Compare Friedman 173, Hayek, CL 321.  Compare Friedman 171.  Smith 116. Smith offers an intriguing discussion of the #147;Inequalities arising from the college about Nature of the Employments themselves#148; in book I, chapter X, part I of his Wealth of re application essays, Nations (pp. 115-136).  The latter two factors go some way towards explaining the seemingly outsized rewards earned by college essays cheerleading certain actors and athletes. Success in the former comes closest, perhaps, to Smith#146;s career lottery, in which twenty (or more likely twenty thousand) fail for one that succeeds, and where the one prevailing gains what is forgone by death american his or her myriad unsuccessful competitors (Smith 122). The length of a professional athlete#146;s working life is more narrowly conscribed than most. (For some related considerations, compare Friedman 162-63, 170; Hayek, CL 95-97.)  Hayek CL 82, 89, 96, 98; RS 42, 55-56, 103, 137, 138. Money has been the object of particular opprobrium, of course, inasmuch as it makes the limitations on our choices painfully obvious.
Yet such limitations would exist even where money was not used, and money does at least allow us all to let losses fall on our relatively least important, most marginal needs. Cheerleading. In this sense, Hayek is surely right to call it #147;one of the greatest instruments of salesman dream, freedom ever invented by man.#148; The only way we could be relieved of having to make sometimes painful choices would be for someone to make them for us (RS 98-101, 106-107, 113-114).  The memorable image is Schumpeter#146;s (Schumpeter 84).  Hayek, CL 36, 41, 50-53.  Or #147;all the college essays about cheerleading individualist rope needed to hang oneself,#148; as Schumpeter puts it (Schumpeter 129, 136).
 Hayek, CL 26, 28, 30, 36, 59.  Hayek, CL 125-29; Friedman 17-18. It is ironic how much the development of socialist doctrine, and especially of Marxism, owed to counterfeit, precisely this kind of patronage, which it everywhere suppressed once ensconced in power.  The below discussion draws heavily on Hayek, CL 42-49, 51-52, 130. Compare also Friedman 168, 170.  Compare Hayek, CL 125-26: #147;If we knew of no better way of providing such a group, there would exist a strong case for selecting at essays about cheerleading, random one in a hundred, or one in a thousand, from the population at large and endowing them with fortunes sufficient for the pursuit of whatever they choose.#148;  In the #147;real-existing socialisms#148; of Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union, members of the apparatchik class were of course in just such a privileged position, and essay the degree of college essays about, inequality prevailing there in salesman american dream thesis matters of access to cheerleading, scare or foreign goods, opportunities for travel and foreign contacts, or even such basic amenities as apartments, phone service, or standard-issue cars were surely at least pronounced as in the West#151;as well as being more intractable, surreptitious, and hypocritical.  Thus Schumpeter 67: #147;It is the cheap cloth, the cheap cotton and rayon fabrics, motorcars and so on american thesis that are the typical achievements of capitalist production, and not as a rule improvements that would mean much to the rich man.
Queen Elizabeth owned silk stockings. The capitalist achievement does not typically consist in providing more silk stockings for queens but in bringing them within the reach of factory girls in return for a steadily decreasing amounts of effort.#148; That in the course of such progress, the wealthy will often be deprived of exclusive advantages for which the masses can eventually compete is also worth considering (Hayek, CL 51).  We should remember that the stock items of even the most modest households today, like flushable toilets or refrigerators or cars, were not so long ago coveted luxuries undreamt-of by the masses. To take more recent examples from the world of consumer electronics, one might marvel at the pace at which the cell phone or the college about cheerleading laptop computer has moved from a plaything of the re application essays very rich and ostentatious to an everyday item within reach of college, virtually everyone. The dismal performance of the essay products East bloc economies in this regard#151;even then almost entirely parasitic on what had been developed in the West#151;offers a cautionary tale that progress of essays, this kind cannot be taken for lincoln, granted.
* Department of Political Science, UC Davis; email@example.com. This essay was awarded first prize in the 2005 Olive W. Garvey Essay Contest and essays about the author would like to express his thanks and appreciation to The Independent Institute. 2017 INDEPENDENT INSTITUTE, 100 SWAN WAY, OAKLAND CA 94621?1428 | (510) 632?1366 | (510) 568?6040 FAX | SEND EMAIL.
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10 Resume Tips From A Legal Recruiter. About. Ed. note : This is the latest installment in a series of posts on lateral partner moves from Lateral Link’s team of expert contributors. Salesman American Dream. Abby Gordon is a Director with Lateral Link’s New York office. Abby works with attorney candidates on law firm and in-house searches, primarily in New York, Boston, and college about cheerleading Europe. Prior to joining Lateral Link, Abby spent seven years as a corporate associate with Cleary Gottlieb, focusing on capital markets transactions for provides written papers Latin American clients in New York and for the last five years for European clients in Paris. A native of Boston, Abby holds a J.D., cum laude, from Georgetown University Law Center and a B.A. in government and cheerleading romance languages, magna cum laude, from Dartmouth College.
Abby also worked with the International Rescue Committee as a Fulbright Scholar in Madrid, Spain. She is a member of the debate essay, New York Bar and is fluent in college essays cheerleading French and Spanish (and dabbles in with outline Portuguese and college cheerleading Italian). As a legal recruiter, I review numerous resumes each week in lincoln debate an effort to assist my candidates with the college essays about, substance and written term papers presentation of their one-page life summaries. Here are ten tips based on college essays the most common problems I see and questions I am asked: 1. Assume no one will read your resume word-for-word. Picture your interviewer pulling your resume off the printer and reading only what he can in the time it takes to with outline on unemployment walk back to his office. You need to make the most important stuff jump off the page. Cheerleading. Use bold. Use bullet points.
Use headings. Give some thought to the format that will convey the debate essay, necessary information in the most logical way. 2. Be concise and make every word count. This is related to Tip #1. You want the most important stuff to jump off the page, but every word on your resume should serve the purpose of showing that you are the best candidate for the specific job. It’s just one page. College Essays About Cheerleading. 3. Tailor your resume to the specific job. Keep in the forefront of your mind that you are applying for a legal job.
Do not view “updating” your resume as merely adding to written term the same document you first created 20 years ago. Delete information that is college about cheerleading, no longer relevant #8212; remember, every last word should serve the purpose of getting you this job. If you are applying to 10 general litigation openings, one version may be just fine. But if you are applying to some general litigation spots and some patent litigation spots, you may want to have two versions of your resume, with each tailored to the specific opening or category of opening. 4. Be sure you can talk intelligently about every last thing you include on douglas your resume. College Essays Cheerleading. If you can no longer remember the for school kids, main argument of your senior thesis from college, delete it from your resume or refresh your memory before any interviews. You also must be prepared to talk about the college about, any legal matters you claim to have worked on, including about the underlying legal issues. Douglas Essay. 5. When describing your legal experience, give concrete examples . Instead of merely asserting that you are a capital markets lawyer, note that you “Drafted the underwriting agreement as lead associate representing the underwriters in the offering of $300 million in floating rate notes by a large U.S. manufacturing company.” Even if you have a separate representative matters sheet, it may be helpful to essays about cheerleading include a few bullets points showing this experience in your actual resume as well. And remember from Tip #2, every word counts. Kids. Don’t use neutral words where a more positive word could convey more meaning.
For example, which is more powerful, stating that you “worked on” a project or that you “successfully implemented” a project? 6. Be sure all information is college essays about cheerleading, up-to-date. If you are no longer on death american a committee, delete it from your resume or indicate the proper dates. Change the college essays about cheerleading, verbs (“represent,” “draft,” “negotiate”) from the descriptions of your prior jobs to the past tense (“represented,” “drafted,” “negotiated”). No longer fluent in debate essay French? Be accurate in college cheerleading the assessment of your language ability as of today, not as of mid-way through your junior year abroad.
7. Additional Information: Space is a commodity, but you should still make room for two or three lines that show you are a human being and not just a robot. Provides Custom Term Papers. Include a few interests (but be sure they are real interests of essays cheerleading yours and not aspirational hobbies). Maybe you and one of the with, interviewers will find you have a hobby in common. If nothing else, this “fluff” gives interviewers some material for college essays about a few softball questions to break the ice or end the interview on a lighter note. Aside from provides written true interests/hobbies, include language abilities, bar admissions, and memberships/affiliations so long as you are an active and not just passive participant in these organizations. College Essays Cheerleading. Remember the essential test: “Can you talk intelligently about it if asked?” If someone asks about your membership in an alumni network, will you state proudly that you assisted in raising $500,000 in alumni contributions for a scholarship fund or will you cower in your chair and confess that you are on the e-mail list for the committee but have yet to attend a meeting? 8. Education first or work experience first? This is a common question. Remember Tip #1 #8212; you want the salesman dream thesis, most important stuff to jump off the page. Essays. So if you went to essay a top law school, you may want to list education first.
If your law school was not as highly ranked but you somehow landed a job at Wachtell, list work experience first. In the case of a tie, I’d go with work experience first. 9. The squint test : It seems a bit unsophisticated but it works. Tape your resume to a wall about 10 feet away or just hold it far out in front of you and college cheerleading squint. Does the balance of black and re application essays white on the page make your eyes happy?
Is there much too much dense text? Or way too much white space? If you’ve ever strung lights on about a Christmas tree, it’s the same principle. Squint and then follow your instincts. 10.
Proofread your resume carefully. Then proofread it again. Then ask a friend to essay counterfeit proofread it. And another friend. And your legal recruiter. Then proofread it again. Nothing screams “Don’t hire me!” like a glaring typo or spelling mistake. 10?. Here’s a freebie.
It’s not the most important tip unless… well if it is, you know who you are. You know that photo of about you in counterfeit the Bahamas in your bikini? Shirtless? You remember how you uploaded it to your Google profile? And now you list your Gmail address on your resume?
Well guess what… When I am e-mailing you at college essays your Gmail address, yes, I can see that photo of essay outline you in the right-hand sidebar on my screen. If I can see it, so can the recruiting coordinator and so can the partner at college about cheerleading the firm where you’re interviewing. Oh, and one more thing: your Twitter feed will also now show up on the right-hand sidebar. I’m not asking you to stop using social media. But if you are indiscriminate about counterfeit products your tweets, think about about setting up a separate e-mail address for the job search process. There is not just one right way of designing a resume. But there are wrong ways.
Look at models but don’t just copy someone else’s. This singular piece of on unemployment paper is your key to getting your foot in the door in the next step of your career… or not. It’s worth spending a few extra hours getting it right. Lateral Link is one of the top-rated international legal recruiting firms. With over 14 offices world-wide, Lateral Link specializes in placing attorneys at the most prestigious law firms in the world. Managed by former practicing attorneys from top law schools, Lateral Link has a tradition of hiring lawyers to execute the lateral leaps of practicing attorneys. Click ::here:: to essays cheerleading find out more about us. Sign up for our newsletter.
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Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg Still LOVES Being Called #8216;The Notorious R.B.G.#8217; Interviewing Advice For People Who Hate To Interview. Cheerleading. 7 Things To Do (And Not Do) Before Giving Notice. Apply To Y Combinator And Other Things I Tell Legal Innovators. Was UVA Law Alum Johnathan Perkins Pressured By The FBI Into Recanting His Account Of Racial Profiling? Subscribe and get breaking news, commentary, and provides custom term opinions on law firms, lawyers, law schools, lawsuits, judges, and about cheerleading more.
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cymbeline essays This essay explores Cymbeline as a meditation on ways of reading. College Essays? The play relentlessly, amazingly, and at times exasperatingly offers scenes of misreading people and douglas debate, texts often by conflating one with the other but gives us, in its final scene, less a synthesis or even productive concatenation of interpretive practices and more a profoundly experimental deferral of interpretation itself. As a result, it proposes a radical reconsideration of literary analysis by celebrating an intimate engagement with the sensations of cheerleading, reading without recourse to essay with outline strong-arming the text into theoretical obedience. College About Cheerleading? Cymbeline does this by quite literally ‘staging’ strategies of reading as embodied and performed acts, locating theoretical scrutiny within interpersonal dynamics. The play thus intervenes in the discursive tradition in literary studies of “suspicious” reading, along with the work of suspicion’s discontents, personified here by Eve Kosofsky Sedgwick’s brilliant defense of “weak” reading. The last scene takes up Imogen’s call for “timely knowing” by denying the kids, satisfaction of interpretive closure and instead celebrating close and about cheerleading, particular reading as an ethical and specifically theatrical mode of interaction.
It is tempting to make far too much of Shakespeare’s Cymbeline. The play is so filled with discordant shifts of tone, geography, language, and character, and so stuffed with twists, deceptions, and provides custom written papers, revelations, that it both invites and repels attempts to constellate its multitude its persistent too-much-ness into a pattern. The attentive reader can quickly turn into an amateur conspiracy theorist who fits the play’s assemblage of ideas into an analytical container both capacious enough to college essays about contain its abundance and specific enough to account for short essays for school its many discrepancies. Often, critical work on the play flickers between acknowledgment of its messiness and eager pursuit of a model that accommodates secret reasons for apparent chaos: scholars almost ritualistically note its formlessness before moving on to an explanation of its tacit form. For Arthur Kirsch, the fact that Cymbeline is college essays cheerleading, “resistant to any coherent interpretation” and has a “frankly experimental” feel results from the material circumstances of its possible production at Blackfriars (294, 296).
Janet Adelman notes that Cymbeline is “conspicuously without a center” before proposing that this destabilization is “related in re application ways not merely structural to essays cheerleading the absence of Cymbeline himself as a compelling male figure” (200). The lack of cohesion in the text reflects the lack of paternal cohesion in the state. Ros King’s introduction to her book-length study of the with outline on unemployment, play describes its motley assemblage as “part history, part myth, with elements of fairy tale, romance and murder thriller thrown in, it does not fit common conceptions of Shakespearean design” as a contrapuntal prologue to her moment of realization “how very carefully and cleverly the play had been constructed” (1). King elaborates that the play’s at-times difficult language reflects (or, more accurately, enacts) the inchoate quality of consciousness itself, since. [s]ensory experiences do not come in logical order although the brain sorts them out that way in order to try to make sense of them. Essays About Cheerleading? Indeed, the play’s most powerful images are all carefully presented to take the audience as well as the characters through a strange, perverse immersion in sensibility in order to arrive at some rather more complex and uncomfortable truth. (30) Cymbeline offers no neat textual alchemy to transfer the vicissitudes of life into pithy and understandable platitudes or comfortable narrative rhythms. Instead, King suggests, it submerges the audience in deliberate confusion, to keep everyone guessing. And yet its rudderlessness is still by careful design a brilliant move that King unpacks through her close attention.
Less attention has been paid to the reflection of the hapless and grandly theorizing scholar in the hapless and grandly theorizing characters that populate Cymbeline. It seems only counterfeit products, appropriate, after all, to make too much of essays about, a play that itself obsessively makes far too much out of far too little, or even of nothing at all. Characters constantly leap from one interpretive scheme to another and, in a pattern that should give us pause, each new interpretation is often incorrectly understood, founded on custom, overzealous suspicion. Essays About? Perceived plots emerge at such a blur that the essay counterfeit products, construction of Cymbeline becomes stitched together almost entirely by erroneous reports and dangerous misprisions, a cavalcade of what Pisanio laments as “too ready hearing” (3.2.6). 1 Actual conspiratorial plans, like the college, queen’s, tend to short essays kids fizzle and die, but the wildly mistaken perception of a plot one that would account for the stream of inexact and madly inconsistent signs might spark an entire top-to-bottom shift of identity and epistemological certainty. One way of reading Cymbeline, then, is as a text that is itself preoccupied with ways of reading and with locating how an act of reading can turn into an act of interpretation. Surely many other Shakespearean works similarly obsess over about detecting hidden plots and meanings.
But Cymbeline is lincoln douglas essay, unmatched in its sheer density of deceptions, and stands as a particularly powerful test case to explore the effects, alternately perilous and beneficial, of over-reading, of imagining theoretical schemes in which the cacophony of experience can resolve into a seductive, though inevitably false, model of reality. And as Kirsch, Adelman, King, and others have shown in college cheerleading their own interpretations, the play’s acts of overreading also double the scholarly acts of reading Cymbeline itself, which has clearly long both confounded and death salesman dream, compelled cohesive theoretical schemes. This essay finds in the play a therapeutic caution against the habitual over-reader and obsessive theorizer. More specifically, Cymbeline’ s exaggerated uncertainties and compensatory certainties, I believe, engage with the critical tradition that lurks in the background of the disparate interpretations surveyed earlier that of about, ‘suspicious reading,’ a practice somehow anxious and institutionalized, tired and death of a dream thesis, provocative, radical and canonical. Rather than simply reflect a healthy suspicion of suspicious reading, though, the play proposes a deeply ethical dimension to this strain of literary practice by college essays about cheerleading, embodying its processes of re application essays, reading. Texts can be read, and so can people, but Cymbeline teaches us that to treat life as a text, one whose meanings can be excavated and played with, carries with it enormous consequence.
What makes the play particularly powerful, then, is how it quite literally stages its hermeneutic practices and explores the essays cheerleading, implications of embodiment to short for school interpretive ethics usually reserved for literary study. Thus conspiratorial interpretation becomes thematized and performed as belief in actual conspiracy. But the way out of conspiracy, the play proposes, is not to essays cheerleading dismantle its illusion but instead to re application remain in the state of abeyance, between deception and disenchantment, that lingers in the moment of reading before its tips into an act of interpretation. Essays Cheerleading? If Cymbeline uses performance as a way to illuminate the perils of of a thesis, too-ready hearing, it also locates performance as the solution, albeit a different kind of performance, one intimate and immediate, particular and practical, content to acknowledge but not to derive meaning. When we read or observe Cymbeline , we witness, time and again, characters reading and observing each other as if they were texts, as if their psyches could be rendered scriptural. At times this analogy is made explicit, as when the about cheerleading, scheming Iachimo sizes up Posthumus who will appear shortly on the scene, fresh from banishment as a potential mark. Posthumus, he relates, has dignity to spare: “I have seen him in Britain; he was then of a crescent note, expected to short essays prove so worthy as since he hath been allowed the about cheerleading, name of” (1.5.1-3).
This virtue, however, obscures a trait that Iachimo, in his predatory search, finds more salient: “But I could then have look’d on him without the help of admiration, though the catalogue of his endowments had been tabled by his side and I to peruse him by items” (ll. 3-6). Putting aside the “help of admiration,” Iachimo finds a veritable book of characteristics that render Posthumus highly legible. This legibility in custom papers turn allows Iachimo to read Posthumus sensitively, detect his vulnerabilities, and, with precisely improvised tactics, set the wager concerning Imogen’s chastity. Like a list a catalogue 2 Posthumus can be read, in just the manner that Imogen cannot be, as evinced in essays cheerleading a later scene in which Iachimo attempts a similar ruse only to be rebuffed: “If thou wert honourable,” Imogen scolds him, “Thou wouldst have told this tale for virtue, not / For such an end thou seek’st, as base, as strange. / Thou wrong a gentleman, who is as far / From thy report as thou from essays, honour” (1.7.141). Essays About Cheerleading? The symmetry of these scenes extends beyond the young lovers’ opposing levels of readability. Debate Essay? Posthumus’s crescent note of college about cheerleading, admiration can easily be parsed from his catalogue of written papers, endowments, but Imogen’s dignity is inextricable from her character; Iachimo’s lack of honor, for Imogen, allows for a mere tale of virtue to college about cheerleading stand out in contrast to virtue itself. Iachimo’s deception of with on unemployment, Posthumus preys on both his readability and his haste to over-read the textual appearance of about, others. After Posthumus becomes convinced of Imogen’s infidelity he curses not only her particular person but her entire gender: “Some coiner with his tools / Made me a counterfeit: yet my mother seem’d / The Dian of that time: so doth my wife / The nonpareil of this” (2.4.157-60). The imagery suggests that Imogen has been replaced by a replica crafted by a flawless artisan a thought that leads him to suspect his own mother as a false “Dian” of her age. The reference adopts the details of Iachimo’s own citation of Diana in his description of re application essays, “the chimney-piece” of Imogen’s bedchamber as “Chaste Dian, bathing: never saw I figures / So likely to report themselves; the cutter / Was another Nature, dumb; outwent her, / Motion and breath left out” (2.81-85).
The perfectly carved Diana on essays about cheerleading, the chimney could fool the viewer to think it was real just as Posthumus’s mother would appear to be a perfect Diana herself. 3 But the Diana in both cases is perfectly, deceptively fake as is the story that contains it, though Posthumus’s suspicions do not extend to custom written such narrative foundations. Essays About? The next target of his delusional disillusionment is instead himself, as partially deceitful and salesman american dream, thus partially womanly: “Could I find out / The woman’s part in me for there’s no motion / that tends to vice in man, but I affirm / It is the woman’s part” (2.4.171-74). The terms of his revenge are literary: he will “write against them” (2.4.183). Adelman has persuasively suggested that Posthumus adopts, in this speech, the misogyny and dangerous desires of Iachimo, his supposed foil (200). But the college essays about, desire that Posthumus doubles is not bluntly sexual not the provides written term, direct rape fantasy of Cloten but one of mastery.
And the mastery Iachimo exhibits and Posthumus mimics takes the form of textualization, rendering woman as legible and consumable writ. In Iachimo’s own words, he is the “master of my speeches” (1.5.137-38). To turn a woman into essays, a speech would thus allow for a form of absolute mastery; Iachnimo, then, does not physically rape Imogen but instead plays out what Lawrence Danson calls a “male voyeuristic fantasy” of “controlling a woman without risking the failure which consummated sexuality so often entails”; Imogen is thus “open” to Iachimo and only by “not taking sexual possession of her can the fantasy of possession be gratified” (76). She is “open” like a text similar, in fact, to the Ovid opened by her bedside, ominously turned to the story of re application essays, Philomel’s rape (2.2.45). More than simply blazoning her into admiring if objectifying lyricism, Iachimo surrogates her completely, rendering Imogen to Posthumus as a collection of details that concretize into truth as Posthumus puts it, “More particulars / Must justify my knowledge” (2.4.78-79). Posthumus, who, as we learn in his misogynistic tirade, writes, and college essays cheerleading, will later dabble in satirical verse, promises to combat this interpretation through a reappraisal of women and himself and to custom term counter through the production of text. Posthumus, then, replicates in college about cheerleading his vengeance Iachimo’s technique of mastery-through-textualization: the creation of a fantasy of complete readability and interpretation. Before further elaborating on how Cymbeline meditates on the readability of bodies and behavior, an explanation of the lincoln douglas debate, more contemporary theoretical concept echoed in this readability that of suspicious reading and its placement in the tradition of literary studies is in order. Such a genealogy no doubt will be overly familiar, but is worth reviewing so as to weave its implications more closely with Cymbeline ’s acts of reading. The locus classicus , or perhaps patient zero, of suspicion in this genealogy is the college essays, foundational case of Daniel Paul Schreber, a German judge who suffered from re application essays, severe and debilitating delusions, as examined by cheerleading, Freud in his vastly influential essay “Psychoanalytic Remarks on an Autobiographically Described Case of Paranoia.” Freud closely reads Schreber’s Memoirs of a Nervous Disorder as he would the speech of an analysand. With Outline? The exegesis of Schreber’s condition, then, practices a form of actual textual interpretation that wholly supplants the about, biological entity of the essay counterfeit products, patient with the production of language and so Freud himself, as is often noted, practices a kind of literary criticism as his treatment.
By situating himself as a “reader” of Schreber’s condition, furthermore, Freud ironically exhibits, by his own admission, the same exaggerated practice of overly “reading” the world that so hobbles Schreber. Essays Cheerleading? The memoir is essay products, a perfect Diana, and Freud’s efforts to tear down its symptomatic defenses occasion the construction of a new set of interpretations that uncannily double the disease he attempts to cure. Delusion, for Freud, maps the narrative of college essays cheerleading, conspiracy onto the personal life of the patient to distort real-life details into an overpowering fiction. The sufferer of delusion focuses on someone close to them “in whose hands all the threads of the conspiracy are brought together” and who is “the same one as of no less importance for the emotional life of the with outline, patient before the onset of the illness or an easily recognized surrogate” (31-32). In Schreber’s case, according to Freud, the conspiracy centered on about cheerleading, Dr.
Flechsig, the doctor who treated Schreber while he was institutionalized; Schreber first thought Flechsig was persecuting him and then that Flechsig was God. The primary motives for psychotic delusion are naturally, for Freud, sexual, and in Schreber’s case, the shameful desire in question is homosexuality. One manufactured conspiracy that can result from repression as Posthumus enacts in his tirade against women is jealousy; the dream thesis, patient creates a rich conspiratorial story to divert attention from the taboo desire. College Essays Cheerleading? Freud’s pithy summary is re application, “It is not I who love the man indeed, it is she who loves him ”; the patient is “suspecting his wife with regard to all the men whom he is tempted to love” (54). The details of this case are well known and codified in traditions of critical theory. And no wonder: what Schreber’s delusion and treatment model are an endless set of cheerleading, ways for the patient critic to essays find meanings outside of the immediate frame of perception. The patient both is and produces a text, an eminently readable artifact that rewards the attentive examiner with profound ideas lurking in about cheerleading its subterranean depths or outside of its borders entirely, traceable only in short essays symptomatic gaps and elisions. The conflation of ‘reading’ the subject and reading the text, articulated repeatedly in college essays Cymbeline and realized fully in the Schreber case, offers a link between the science of essay, psychoanalysis and the pursuit of textual interpretation.
The seduction to interpret, to connect dots into college essays about, a structuring pattern, haunts Schreber, but also Freud, who pathologizes same-sex desire as a way to essay with identify and isolate a behavioral pattern. So, too, does today’s reader of Shakespeare and psychoanalytic theory feel beckoned by the possibility of unmarked understanding I might be tempted, for instance, to college essays suggest that Iachimo and Posthumus wrestle, through their wager, with their own homoerotic longing. And yet this suggestion must be measured against how well the structure of my reading holds together, a process as delicate as the treatment of kids, a traumatic patient. I can find details, perhaps speciously connected, perhaps compellingly so, in order to ascribe a certain interpretation to college about a literary text as if it were the dream of the psychically damaged. But I would open myself up to essay with charges of my own delusion. That ‘theory’ obliterates the text in essays about cheerleading order to proffer its own set of conclusions is a popular, if overly broad and often unfair, charge leveled against it. Lincoln Douglas Debate? 4 This threat of college essays cheerleading, overinterpretation and fabrication is characterized by essays, Freud himself as the psychotic belief in college essays cheerleading a world-leveling catastrophe on the horizon: the paranoiac patient hopes for disaster in order to rebuild the debate essay, world “in such a way that he can live in it again,” although this effort must fail, as “a ‘profound internal change,’ as Schreber has it, has befallen the world”; what results in the ruins of the old world is a close but tenuous relationship with the about, new, as “the individual has regained a relationship to the people and things of the custom written, world, often a very intensive one, even if what was once a relationship of expectant tenderness may now be one of hostility” (60). 5 The dramaturgy of Cymbeline and, more broadly, the mechanics of the college about cheerleading, Romance genre, with its tropes of lost royalty, resurrections, and geographic scattering, allow for an explicit, literalized demonstration of essay counterfeit products, this effect: Posthumus swears revenge on Imogen and college cheerleading, all women; Imogen rebuilds her life with a new identity at the hint of death dream thesis, Posthumus’s vengeance; Belarius, before the college about cheerleading, play begins, fled under suspicion of treason and stole the princes; and so on. Characters repeatedly reconstruct, with theatrical facility, a new mode of interpretation in of a salesman order to replace the old.
And they do so, the play repeatedly tells us, based on a fiction. Paul Ricouer, who coined the term ‘hermeneutics of suspicion,’ adapts Freud’s doubled paranoia of subject and college essays about, methodology into a broader consideration of critical practice. For Ricouer, the re application essays, psychoanalytic tradition relies on a mode of reading that does not seek to essays cheerleading attain “a restoration of a meaning addressed to me in the manner of a message, a proclamation,” but instead “is understood as a demystification, as a reduction of illusion” and as a result finds itself in a tense standoff between contradictory imperatives: On the one hand, purify discourse of its excrescences, liquidate the idols, go from drunkenness to sobriety, realize our state of poverty once and for all; on the other hand, use the most ‘nihilistic,’ destructive, iconoclastic movement so as to let speak what once, what each time, was said, when meaning appeared anew, when meaning was at its fullest. Hermeneutics seems to me to be animated by this double-motivation: willingness to suspect, willingness to listen; vow of rigor, vow of obedience. (27) 6. This influential account describes a way of reading that thrives on a reconfiguration of the very term ‘meaning’ as something not explicit, stable, or even possible. As any instructor of a literary studies class knows when faced with the inevitable and understandable confusion of essays kids, students pointing out politely that Shakespeare died long before Freud was born a too-simple but pedagogically helpful division exists between such ‘suspicious’ readings and ‘reparative’ readings. Essays Cheerleading? The latter is the more positivist impulse to gain back an objective and unchanging meaning.
The critic is caught between both; she must listen and restore and also destroy and essays, doubt. The over-readers of and in Cymbeline fall prey to this suspicious aporia: they textualize humans and essays about, humanize texts in acts that echo Freud’s textualizing of his patient and written term, Schreber’s delusional reconstruction of an imperfect world of meaning. Eve Kosofsky Sedgwick, in a powerful critique of such criticism, finds a tacit desire for reparative reading lodged within the college cheerleading, suspicious critic. 7 Though clouded with apparent doubt, Sedgwick asserts, suspicion actually argues for the instantiation of short essays, what she calls ‘strong theory,’ a mode of interpretation that creates, ironically, a deadeningly broad framework. College About Cheerleading? What results is less an exploration of a text and re application, more the construction of essays about cheerleading, a jewel box of ideas that severs its ties to the supposed object of study and contains only its own infinitely scrutinizable design. Strong theory, even if masked in a sense of suspicion and anxiety, is bent on re application essays, reparation and aims to construct its own holistic interpretive system that doubles the very same unified and restorable texts it purports to college essays about cheerleading be impossible: “The powerfully ranging and of a salesman american thesis, reductive force of strong theory can make tautological thinking hard to identify even as it makes it compelling and near inevitable; the result is that both writers and readers can damagingly misrecognize whether and where real conceptual work is getting done, and precisely what that work might be” (136).
The distrustful reader becomes so suspicious that everything presented or not presented textually must be taxonomized, albeit in a taxonomy constructed with the express purpose of college essays, critiquing overly categorical forces. What Sedgwick calls for, in her thoughtful polemic, is not for suspicious reading to be somehow more successful in recovering knowledge but a study of lincoln douglas debate, how that knowledge came to be thought of as knowledge at all. Rather than be concerned with the college about cheerleading, truth of a claim, we should be asking “What does knowledge do the pursuit of it, the having and exposing of it, the receiving again of knowledge of what one already knows? How, in lincoln douglas essay short, is knowledge performative, and how best does one move among its causes and cheerleading, effects?” (124). How is knowledge performed? Sedgwick leaves the question open-ended, but Cymbeline offers many answers. It can be performed unconsciously, as when Belarius ruminates on the isolation of the lost princes he has raised in Platonic isolation. The time has come, he believes, to tell the princes the truth; for of a salesman one, Guiderius, the sign of college about, this overdue revelation is an on unemployment eagerness to perform: When on my three-foot stool I sit, and tell. The warlike feats I have done, his spirits fly out.
Into my story: say ‘Thus mine enemy fell, And thus I set my foot on’s neck,’ even then. The princely blood flows in about his cheek, he sweats, Strains his young nerves, and puts himself in re application posture. That acts my words. (3.3.89-95) The other, Arviragus, similarly “strikes life into my speech, and essays about, shows much more / His own conceiving” (ll. 97-98). The willingness of the princes to participate in his stories demonstrates the imminent end of their unwilling conscription in the false “story” of their upbringing.
This realization, in turn, leads us to Belarius’s proclamation that the “game is up” (l. 107). Essay? By seeing the princes corporealize his tales, Belarius reflects on how they similarly act out the tale of their identities. He reads the princes reading and embodying his own stories and reflects on the fabrication of the wider story that they take part in without knowing it. 8 Like the perfectly created false Diana that Posthumus fears has replaced his mother and like Iachimo’s persuasive lie about a different kind of conquest, his sexual encounter with Imogen, which he had promised to college essays about be “so near the re application essays, truth” as to be convincing (2.4.62, emphasis mine) the stories operate as such well-constructed artifacts that they can become substitutes for actual life. Later, in the traumatic shock of about cheerleading, discovering what she thinks is re application, Posthumus’s decapitated body, Imogen too will piece together particulars into a false narrative. “Thou,” she curses Pisanio, “Conspired with that irregulous devil, Cloten, / Hast here cut off my lord” (4.2.314-16). Guiderius and Arviragus vividly exemplify the ‘strong readings’ that Sedgwick cautions against: the espousal of paranoia while practicing a crypto-mystical affirmation of finding an absolute, if obscured, truth. Another exaggerated form of “performed knowledge” as seduction into embodied, paranoid belief occurs when Iachimo, wracked with guilt, takes to the battlefield and reports on his fears: “the heaviness and guilt within my bosom / Takes of my manhood: I have belied a lady, / The princess of this country; and about, the air on’t / Revengingly enfeebles me” (5.2.1-4). In his paranoia, he believes hyperbolically, certainly that even the British air has turned against him to visit signs of his guilt to his body. Provides Custom Term Papers? More subtly, Posthumus and Imogen’s deceptions spring from readings that are somehow overly reparative in their searches for a clear and absolute explanation and overly suspicious in their belief in a secret, unsaid aspect of their realities. Their conclusions are, furthermore, quite non-metaphorically conspiratorial: they believe that invisible and college essays about cheerleading, harmful forces all women, Cloten’s secret cabal have banded together to plot their undoing.
The belief in conspiracy affirms doubt but replaces the unknown with the overly known, a smoothly-run vast organization behind the scenes. Imogen and Posthumus’s shift from one belief to another, more conspiratorial, understanding results from the application of ‘theory’ as a form of practice, as a lived experience; conspiratorial reading, here, becomes staged, in term a play so concerned with the conflation of person and text, as a lived reality. This kind of belief in a sweeping, secretive plot also resonates historically. College Essays About? In a defining instance of conspiratorial reading countering an actual conspiracy, King James’s near-fantastical explanation of how he uncovered the gunpowder plot presents a supernatural fluency in re application essays detecting unseen truth. 9 Demonstrating a keen balance of humility and divinity, James relates in his speech to college about Parliament one of the miraculous aspects of the lincoln douglas debate essay, discovery of the subterfuge: For as I ever did hold suspicion to be the sickness of college cheerleading, a Tyrant, so was I so far upon the other extremity, as I rather contemned all advertisements, or apprehensions of practices. And yet now at this time was I so far contrary to myself, as when the essay counterfeit, Letter was shewed to me by college essays, my Secretary, wherein a general obscure advertisement was given of some dangerous blow at this time, I did upon the instant interpret and apprehend some dark phrases therein, contrary to the ordinary Grammer construction of them. (7)
The passage captures many of the paradoxes of suspicion that Sedgwick identifies in critical practice: James is typically not suspicious, because a surfeit of suspicion sickens rulers so the fact that he felt suspicious is itself suspicious to him. 10 Furthermore, the letter (delivered anonymously and thought to be a tip-off from one of the Catholic conspirators) belies a sense of authenticity because of its “ordinary Grammer” and this authenticity in turn means that its “dark phrases” must mean what they say, rather than merely be fictional. The account depicts the impossible, paradoxically sought-after goal of custom papers, suspicious reading, the possibility that sheer distrust can yield evidence of an actual plot buried beneath the narrative of the text. Innately aware, somehow, of wrongdoing, James gives us a fantasy of college, suspicious reading successfully mapping itself onto reality. But barring a magical eye to match James’s, we can comfort ourselves in the impossibility of the venture and be at re application, play, instead, in the fruitless pursuit. A text will never conform entirely to a theoretical approach, by definition it would be the equivalent of a conspiracy theorist discovering they were right, and only kings can do that (or, more accurately, mythologize themselves as doing that). There is no overarching conspiracy in Cymbeline to match the gunpowder plot; the closest the play comes to college essays cheerleading high-level treason is the short for school kids, queen’s attempt to poison Imogen, which fails almost immediately. There are instead attempts by college essays cheerleading, characters to detect and construct a conspiracy where none exists, to be seduced by a fiction with the same ease and passion as Guiderius and Arviragus. Written Papers? But even the fabrication of conspiracy the charge of it in hopes that one will be imagined characterizes the suspicious reading practices of early modern era. Peter Lake identifies a complex pattern at play in the popular habit, for Catholics and puritans alike, of leveling accusations of conspiracy at the crown. Allegations of secret cabals of about cheerleading, elite rulers that manipulate the government led, ironically enough, to the creation of a more public sphere of lincoln, republican values: “throughout the reign, the supposedly intimate and confidential circles within which counsel was supposed to be given and politics conducted were intermittently and yet consistently breached and broadened, by a variety of groups, each claiming to be responding to a conspiracy.” 11 And yet, in Lake’s reading, this interpenetration of the college cheerleading, public and governmental forces was less an death of a dream thesis idealized political effort than a temporary symptom: “Once the emergency had passed, once the conspiracy had been frustrated, things could go back to ‘normal’ and the various ‘publics’ thus created and essays about cheerleading, appealed to could be closed down” (107).
Rather than espouse truly communal values, then, the state adopted their guise temporarily in order to dispel charges of conspiracy. Cymbeline takes place in a similar breach of public and re application essays, elite barriers, and not coincidentally also within a deeply imbricated set of contrived conspiracies. As Posthumus explains to Philario, as they discuss the essays about cheerleading, strained relations between Britain and Rome, “I do believe / (Statist though I am none, nor like to be) / That this will prove a war; and you shall hear / The legion now in Gallia sooner landed / In our not-fearing Britain than have tidings / Of any penny tribute paid” (2.4.15-20). Re Application Essays? His aside is crucial here he is no ‘statist,’ no diplomat or political expert. (There is, of course, obvious dramatic irony at play here given his ultimate fate.) His participation in this debate can only take place at a time when national and international paranoia has taken hold, when banished gentlemen can gauge the affairs of the country as a whole, as if they themselves were as privileged as a king. Posthumus shows the political ramifications of suspicious reading as applied to the wider text of the monarchy, excavating the tacit desires and intentions of the kingdom as if it were his patient: the exceptional conspiratorial tenor of the essays cheerleading, times condones the suspicious interpretations of the citizenry, even if especially if they are exiled and marginalized. At its close, Cymbeline dispels the illusions that allowed conspiracy to death salesman american dream thesis flourish while maintaining the contingently communal ethos that Lake finds can result from conspiracy’s production.
Ending in the delicate moment between the dissolution of one belief and the reinstatement of college about cheerleading, another, the play attempts to essay with outline on unemployment live in the breach of public and private spheres, a break where the assembled characters can coexist without the rigor of essays cheerleading, broadly systemized interpretation. It does so by custom papers, almost perversely slowing down and magnifying the unraveling of its mysteries. The final scene of the play, with its avalanche of revelations and confessions, promotes a practice of reading far more particular and immediate than the strong theory of paranoia, though no less politically significant. 12 Many formalist readers of this alternately lugubrious and essays, enchanting scene have, appropriately, struggled to find structural unity in the ending; F.R. Leavis, summarizing the opinions of many critics, dismisses the ending as simplified and jejune, as the “reunions, resurrections, and essay outline on unemployment, reconciliations of the close belong to the order of imagination in college which ‘they all lived happily ever after’” (176). The too-tidy resolution, with what Leavis sees as the imposition of artificial morality, presents none of the psychological depth of the tragedies or even of lincoln, The Winter’s Tale. Traditionally, even more positive interpretations of the ending still account for its lack of unity in college essays about asserting a transcendence that occurs outside the text entirely. J.M.
Nosworthy, in the introduction to provides custom written papers the second Arden edition, sees the many revelations and confessions as an ecstatic, metaphysical moment of paratexutal synthesis worthy of Thomas Browne: “It is not extravagant to claim that Cymbeline , in its end, acquires a significance that extends beyond any last curtain or final Exeunt . About Cheerleading? There is, quite simply, something in this play which goes ‘beyond beyond,’ and that which ultimately counts for more than the traffic of the stage as the Shakespearean vision of unity certainly, perhaps of the Earthly Paradise, perhaps of the Elysian Fields, perhaps, even, the vision of the saints” (133). 13 But Harley Granville-Barker seems to products sum up the consensus when he asks rhetorically how Shakespeare can “make such a mess of a job” (462). 14. The scene itself seems to reflect this very doubt in its own ability to facilitate closure. And yet it does so without recourse to a doubled conspiratorial delusion to replace the erasure of stability. This lack of finality, I am suggesting, is about cheerleading, not an opportunity to ascertain a Romantic horizon of ineffable unity nor to dismiss the dramaturgy as overly jumbled. If we read the play as an inquiry into the act of reading, broadly construed, I believe we can find in the resolute un-resolution a profound suggestion of interpretive ethics and an a satisfactory answer to Sedgwick’s question of how knowledge can be performed without recourse to the strong theory that has marked the play up to re application essays that point. About Cheerleading? This mise-en-scene offers a different understanding of “performed knowledge” than the counterfeit, sweaty embodiments of Guiderius and Arviragus or the delusional fits of Posthumus and Imogen. What we have instead is a distinct lack of closure that results from a mode of college essays about cheerleading, practiced reading dependent only on the present moment, without universalizing claims of either suspicion or reparation.
15. The scene’s fragility finds its summation in its and the play’s final speech, in which Cymbeline sounds worlds away from the bravura exhibited in the earlier refusal of a tribute to lincoln debate essay Caesar, a tense standoff where Cloten noted that “There be many Caesars ere such another Julius: Britain’s a world by itself, and about, we will nothing pay for wearing our own noses” (3.1.11-13). In this earlier detente, Cymbeline rebuffs Lucius, the emissary from essay with outline, Rome, with more tender language that hints at the subsumed paternal drama of the political struggle. More broadly, Cymbeline’s words in the denouncement of Lucius capture the anxious position of early modern London in relation to college essays cheerleading Rome, its valiant predecessor and rival urban center. The king relates that Caesar “knighted me; my youth I spent / Much under him; of douglas debate, him I gather’d honour, / Which he to seek of me again, perforce, / Behoves me keep at utterance. I am perfect / That the Pannonians and Dalmatians for / Their liberties are now in college about cheerleading arms: a precedent / Which not to readwould show the Britons cold: / So Caesar shall not find them” (3.1.70-77).
The logic of this argument is products, roughly as follows: Caesar knighted Cymbeline, but the cheerleading, rebellions of the Pannonians and Dalmatians serve as a proper precedent that must be “read” so as to inspire a similar spirit in of a dream Britain. Cheerleading? Not rebelling would “show the Britons cold.” Cymbeline craves a kind of re application, mingled freedom and submission, a liberty that still thrives on indebtedness to exemplarity but refutes a straightforward honor through payment. The hint of discord, of hesitation, in Cymbeline’s words unsettles Cloten’s earlier patriotic declaration. And so by the end of the fifth act, that hint has become proudly explicit, as Britain is not a world by itself but back precisely where it began, paying tributes anew to Rome. In his final speech, the king declares that “Although the victor, we submit to Caesar, / And to the Roman empire; promising / To pay our wonted tribute, from the essays cheerleading, which / We were dissuaded by our wicked queen, / Whom heavens in lincoln debate essay justice both on her, and hers, / Have laid most heavy hand” (5.5.461-66). Constance Jordan observes that the tribute is essays about cheerleading, thus “paid not from the abject position of a conquered people but granted in conscientious observance of a contract” and as a result “paradoxically signals their freedom, not their servitude” (54). Rather than simply antagonize Rome, Britain evinces its own power by choosing to supplicate. The dissolution of Britain’s unique sovereignty is miniaturized in the scene’s repeated images that dissolve Britain’s subjects, as with Imogen, figured as a piece of “tender air” in the translation of the prophecy (5.5.447) and rendered by her father as “harmless lightning” that “throws her eye / on him: her brothers, me: her master hitting / Each object with a joy: the counterchange / Is severally in all” (ll.393-96). Of A Dream? Cymbeline practices a kind of interpretation here that is closer to description than any solid kind of ‘theory’ at college cheerleading, all, and what he describes is a harmony of bodies figured as absences that hang in the present, exchanging nothing of value or even tangibility only glances.
For both the realm and its people, nothing is construed or solidified; no false Dianas seamlessly surrogate the actual figures; no synthesis is debate, reached. The other characters reflect this lack of interpretive trade-off. After Iachimo confesses partially to his deceitful actions, Posthumus responds by actively doing nothing. His gift is to conspicuously not evoke vengeance. Posthumus notes that “The power that I have on you, is to spare you” and leaving his erstwhile nemesis with the imperative that he “Live / And deal with others better” (5.5.419-21). And while the prophecy delivered to college about Posthumus after his mystical dream should represent precisely the kind of products, strong-theory thinking that calcifies images into about cheerleading, symbols and actions into portents, it is shrugged off by Posthumus himself as “such stuff as madmen/ Tongue, and brain not: either both, or nothing, / Or senseless speaking” (5.4.146-48). 16 Later, when the prophecy attempts relevance through the soothsayer’s hasty unpacking, it is far too late to affect anything and provides custom term papers, instead only confirms what has already happened. College About Cheerleading? The only reaction the lengthy exegesis receives is Cymbeline’s dismissive “This hath some seeming” (5.5.453).
If anything, the providential words delivered to Posthumus are an anti-prophecy, a set of deliberately ignored signs that provide slight curiosity rather than a typological blueprint. What is death american dream, crucial and college essays about cheerleading, absurd in these repeated gestures of pausing, bestowing gifts of nothing, ignoring divination, and denying conclusiveness is that all of the major surviving characters are in essay counterfeit the same space. Strong theory, which flourished when all were scattered, becomes replaced by intimate theatre; the modes of essays about cheerleading, reading on display localize themselves to immediate interpersonal relations. In a play so concerned with geographical relations Imogen famously notes “the diminution of space” that would have pointed Posthumus’s disappearing ship “sharp as my needle” (1.4.18-19) we end with the essay counterfeit, return of bodies to the court and to college essays about each other. Re Application? In both political and social registers, all are reading each other without a governing structure, but instead with only the accretion of individual points as disparate as the plot of the play itself. As Sedgwick notes, such particularized points of observation, in literary studies, often silently tissue themselves to create the college essays about cheerleading, very structure of strong theory: buried within a work of strong, paranoid theory is often “a wealth of essays, tonal nuance, attitude, worldly observation, performative paradox, aggression, tenderness, wit, inventive reading, obiter dicta, and essays about cheerleading, writerly panache,” which are so “local and death of a american thesis, frequent that one might want to say that a plethora of only loosely related weak theories has been invited to shelter in college about the hypertrophied embrace of the for school kids, book’s overarching strong theory” (135-36). But in this scene, as if in response to Sedgwick’s powerful diagnosis, these points stand for themselves, and while the assembled figures construct a sense of the past, they linger wholly in the present. How can proximity matter so much when nothing actually progresses, when no gifts are given, vengeances extracted, or political independence gained? The answer arrives, in part, from a surprising admission by Granville-Barker, who in his largely scathing account of the play asserts that a key element for the scene to college cheerleading “work” is that the actors listen . In discussing the final scene, Granville-Barker notes that for it to be effective, one rule must be observed in its acting; it is a fundamental rule in custom written all acting, strangely liable to neglect.
Each actor must resolutely sustain his part through his long intervals of listening….We, who are not surprised, find our interest in watching for each turn to essays come, and douglas, the producer must see that each figure in about cheerleading the group has its point of vantage” (490). 17. The instructions for the actor are the same for the character: abandon action and embrace listening. The final scene gathers all the furtive readers whose misreadings and delusions have asserted a powerful and provides written, destructive mode of suspicion, the kind that rebuilds an imperfect world after the self-willed catastrophe. Once together, they become resolutely de-textualized. Thus rendered, all practice an interpersonal behavior that hearkens back to Imogen’s proleptic words in the face of Iachimo’s repeated attempts to seduce her into college, too-powerful suspicion: “Since doubting things go ill often hurts more / Than to be sure they do for certainties / Either are past remedies; or timely knowing, / The remedy then born discover to death of a salesman thesis me / What both you spur and stop” (1.7.95-99). This kind of knowing is college, timely and not absolute, localized and death american, not global, limited and not extensive. It refuses the textualizing warpath that results from the paranoia of Schreber and his diagnosticians. Her belief is that all ills need not be immediately furrowed out, but rather allowed to emerge through experience. Another way of saying this is Stanley Cavell’s often-quoted and college about cheerleading, productively mystifying injunction to outline “let the object or the work of your interest teach you how to essays about cheerleading consider it” (10).
But the work of interest here is another person, and the consequences are social and political as well as academic. And by definition, the action of allowing becomes active, embodied, and fleshed-out when staged a reminder of with, its more invisible nature when read and written. And now for my turn at the confessional merry-go-round: my impetus for this essay was in fact a desire to “just” read my own love of this play without recourse to defensiveness or desperate application of theory, or without listening to the siren song of discovery to match the impossible revelation of King James as he immediately ascertains the about cheerleading, truth. How does one write about essay on unemployment, loving a text? The act could descend into treacly solipsism or banal generalization. But what I found as I read and re-read the play was a reflection of my own desire to essays cheerleading let go of any large scaffolding of academic professional interest.
The mise-en-abyme that results from outline, this reflection can contain an obsessive self-doubt of wondering if the rejection of theory can itself be theory. It can, the about cheerleading, play asserts, only douglas debate essay, if it is realized as theatrical or only with the reminder that reading is already theatrical. Perhaps this kind of thinking, of grappling with love, is cheerleading, still a strong theory; perhaps Cymbeline shows us that structure is a dogged partner to reading regardless, and that attempts to think through that act of reading always come up short. But coming up short is again what the play anticipates in its bookend of close listening and tender stillness and, historically, readerly disappointment. What is gained in lincoln douglas debate essay this kind of particularized and intimate engagement is a secured sense of active acknowledgment, but what is lost is cheerleading, a different kind of american, security, one that would provide a less human but more interconnected map of connections, a theory that when executed can explain unknowns by wiping out the perceived world and replacing it with the smoothly-running, machinic power of a literary reading, a template for all readings. The last scene still proffers a conspiratorial mode of reading that distrusts an cheerleading absolute narrative, but it also avoids a recapitulation into its own form of paranoid absolutism to fill the void. The scene revels in intimacy, which in provides custom written papers turn alludes to a truly close mode of reading; as Rita Felski writes, A skillful reading is, in this sense, also a close reading, requiring an intimate familiarity with its object. College Cheerleading? Indeed, the words that are being dissected may be the words that once seduced and entranced the same reader. This reader must inhabit the text, come to know it thoroughly, explore its every nook and cranny, in order to draw out its hidden secrets.
Suspicion, in papers other words, may not be so very far removed from love. (231) Felski’s language is tactile and sensual, and college about cheerleading, indeed the form of close attention manifested in douglas debate Cymbeline ’s end suggests an college inescapable embodiment in counterfeit the act of reading. The form of love that results from closely attending to this play is the same as the form of trust put into the non-future secured by all assembled at the close, one without foundations of essays, conviction. Re Application? The reader, like Cymbeline and his crowded ensemble, embraces the closeness of experiential intimacy that both results from and motivates sustained observation, all while avoiding the more clinical sense of closeness that paves the way to analytical speculation. College Essays About? As Russ McDonald elaborates, the enjoyment of the final scene stems from a persistent unsteadiness wherein its “managed complexity generates a feeling of pleasurable uncertainty” (40).
Ann Thompson reminds us that “there is in a sense no such thing as ‘ Cymbeline ,’ but a multitude of different Cymbeline s available to audiences and readers” (217). This is a valuable observation, arrived at after rehearsing a long genealogy of the many versions of Cymbeline that have been rewritten and re-embodied over the centuries. Essay With? But if we take a lesson from the timely knowing on display in the last scene, with its fragile construction of a story, it is that there are many Cymbeline s not only because directors and actors can alter its words and inflections but because there are infinite moments in which to encounter it immediately in college about the present. Critics are always aware that viewing a play is provides term papers, a singular instance; less so is the act of reading thought of as temporalized and immediate. And yet this is how the play asks to college about be read: as an experience one particular time , with no promise of prophecy or new order. What would such a practice of death of a salesman american thesis, non-theoretical reading look like? It would foreground the conditions of interaction with the text, rather than violently fit the text into a precisely-rendered model of essays cheerleading, our own thought.
It would risk narcissism and irrelevance for provides written term papers the sake of college about cheerleading, reporting an essay intimate and lingering dialogue, an intermingling of subject and text with the same democratic exceptionality that, Lake tells us, conspiracy briefly affords. But this moment would be extended nearly infinitely. The power of Cymbeline, after all, lies in its audacity to slow down the process of revelation and knowledge precisely when we would expect it to speed up, to defer answering questions as Cymbeline says, “But nor the time nor place / Will serve our long inter’gatories” (5.5.393-93) when we would expect a future to be secured. The king concludes the play with the proclamation to “Publish we this peace / To all our subjects” (ll. 479-480). But I cannot fully imagine what this peace would look like would it be a book? An announcement? (The definition of the verb is ambiguous.) 18 How could the peace of the ending be replicated so as to report it? It could, I believe, be a reenactment of the very scene before us, which is to say another interaction with the play, which will surely always follow.
We are left in the threshold of experience and codification, told that an about cheerleading explanation will be forthcoming but at the same time, the lesson seems to be that we should be wary of the provides custom written papers, future taking any form of definite explanation. Of that outcome, the play tells us, we should be suspicious. This essay has benefited enormously from the feedback of Upstart ’s reviewers. An earlier version received fruitful responses at the “Error in Early Modern Studies, Part One” seminar, chaired by Adam Zucker, at the 2015 meeting of the Shakespeare Association of essays about cheerleading, America. 1 All in-text citations are from the Arden edition, from which I also derive my spelling of character names. 2 The OED defines a contemporary definition of “catalogue” as “a list, register, or complete enumeration.” 3 Of course, the immediate reference is to the story of Diana and Actaeon, another troubling Ovidian citation found in Imogen’s chambers. For a profoundly thought through psychoanalytic and feminist reading of this myth, see Vickers, who describes the masculinist impulse, personified by Petrarch, to blazon the outline, woman’s body as a lyrical gesture to compensate for the threat of physical evisceration that the Diana myth presents. 4 The most famous battle in the “theory wars“ is the case of Alan Sokal, who successfully published an essay in Social Text that he believed to be nonsense.
Sokal’s charge against what he calls “postmodernism“ is absolute; for more discursively productive, if equally polemical, discussions about the value of theory, see Against Theory , a powerful collection of responses to the titular essay by about cheerleading, Walter Benn Michaels and essay, Stephen Knapp. 5 If Freud gives us the template for paranoia with the Schreber case, it seems clear why psychoanalysis has had a kinship with cinema, both as a theme think of the rise of the 'paranoid thriller' in the 1970s and as a reflection on its medium, which mimics bodily presence while retaining the textual character of media. 6 Though an essays about cheerleading elaboration of counterfeit products, this observation is essays about cheerleading, outside the concerns of this essay, it is worth noting that Ricouer is more concerned with the death of a, tension between suspicion and reparation than the tradition of “suspicious reading“ would lead one to believe; this tension becomes lost in many of the more poststructuralist critics for whom reparation is off the table completely as too suspicious to begin with think of Derrida’s “arche-teleology“ or the utter hopelessness of the liberal state in Foucault’s Discipline and Punish . 7 The two paradigmatic texts she uses as emblematic of these strains are D.A. Miller’s The Novel and the Police and college essays, Judith Butler’s Gender Trouble. 8 We have, in Belarius’s retelling, an antitheatricalist’s nightmare: storytelling has become so life-like that an essays kids audience member could believe it were true. Such a Platonic reading only college essays about cheerleading, heightens the symbolism of their imprisonment in an actual cave. The tone of the scene seems to place it somewhere between the period’s timid theatrical optimism and douglas, outright puritanical horror; see Heywood and Stubbes, respectively. For an influential account of college essays cheerleading, early modern antitheatricalism, see Barish. 9 We are certainly in a conspiratorial moment at present, in the wake of Edward Snowden’s revelations of the NSA’s wiretapping and re application essays, Wikileaks before it.
Yet as opposed to the conspiratorial modes of encountering literature, which thrive on the sparseness of explicit mentions and furrow out ideas outside of the consciousness of a text, today’s conspiratorial mode seems prompted by college essays, the sheer, oppressive amount of data that could yield a pattern or hide a shocking nugget of information. Custom Written? The elision has been replaced by the terabyte. 10 The parallels I am drawing out here, between James’s purported ability to read the college essays about cheerleading, truth and Cymbeline ’s numerous acts of failed readings, fall into counterfeit, a rich tradition of finding commentary in the play on the accession of the Stuart line. See, for instance, King 47-91. 11 For a recent powerful meditation on republicanism and Shakespearean drama, see Kuzner, esp. 10-38. 12 It is worth distinguishing this kind of essays about cheerleading, ending from other Shakespearean romances, which certainly espouse senses of with on unemployment, fragility not found in the earnest and powerful rebuildings that populate tragic work, but do not so vibrantly flaunt their lack of closure as Cymbeline . Even the offstage resolution promised by Leontes in The Winter’s Tale is, at least, promised.
13 The specific passage that comes to mind is the rapturous ending of Urne-Buriall: To live indeed is to again be our selves, which being not only an hope but an evidence in noble beleevers, ‘Tis all one to lye in St Innocents Church-yard, as in the Sands of essays cheerleading, Aegypt: Ready to be any thing, in the extasie of being ever, and as content with six foot as the Moles of Adrianus ” (139). 14 As I finished work on this essay, an improbable film version of Cymbeline, directed by Michael Almereyda, was released in provides written theatres, and a new critical puzzlement with the play was duly reinvigorated. To take just one example, Stephanie Zacharek labels the play “one even avowed lovers of the Bard are least likely to defend.” When Almereyda is praised, it is for directing against the text, for finding a performative alibi for the formal crimes of the work. 15 This kind of performed knowledge is college, distinct from but related to the mode advocated by many performance studies scholars; see Phelan, Roach, and Taylor, who make bracing and powerful claims but all believe in the power of performance in some capacity to american contain and construct knowledge in opposition to textuality, rather than demonstrate the very mechanism by which universalizing claims of knowledge can be made at all. For a persuasive critique of how performance studies practice ends up affirming its own kind of college, formalism after all, see Worthen 35-93. 16 The inscribed and custom term papers, material prophecy left for Posthumus stands in stark contrast to the fragile text of the final scene’s revelations, occurring as they do communally and constructed through the ephemeral act of college about cheerleading, shared oration. Sarah Beckwith observes that in the final scene, “Gudierius’s words, ‘Let me end the story,’ are testimony to the fact that their individual confessions are part of written papers, a shared story, a story which can only be told together. College Essays Cheerleading? No individual confession in itself makes sense, but all in provides written all, and college essays about, all prompting all, they tell a story in which each understands his or her individual role” (125-26). 17 The quality that Granville-Barker and I find enchanting about the essay, final scene, its need for active and still listening, is precisely what George Bernard Shaw loathed about it. Recalling Henry Irving’s production, Shaw observed that Irving, playing Iachimo, “stood dumb on about, the stage for hours (as it seemed) whilst the others toiled through a series of counterfeit products, denouements of crushing tedium, in college essays which the products, characters lost all their vitality and college essays about, individuality and had nothing to do but identify themselves by lincoln debate, moles on their necks, or explain why they were not dead” (qtd. in Thompson 203). 18 According to the OED, it could mean “to announce in a formal or official manner”; the precise medium is left open.
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The Schreber Case (Psychoanalytic Remarks on an Autobiographically Described Case of Paranoia) . Trans. Andrew Webber. New York: Penguin, 2003. Print. Granville-Barker, Harley. Prefaces to Shakespeare. Vol. 1. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1946. Print. Heywood, Thomas. An Apologie for Actors.
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Open Subjects: English Renaissance Republicans, Modern Selfhoods, and the Virtue of Vulnerability . College Essays Cheerleading? Edinburgh: Edinburgh UP, 2011. Print. Lake, Peter. “‘The Monarchical Republic of Elizabeth I’ Revisited (by its Victims) as a Conspiracy,” Conspiracies and Conspiracy Theory in Early Modern Europe: From the essay counterfeit products, Waldensians to essays cheerleading the French Revolution . Ed. Barry Coward and Julian Swann. Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2004. Kirsch, Arthur. “ Cymbeline and Coterie Dramaturgy.” ELH 34.3 (Sept. 1967): 285-306. Print. Leavis, F.R. Death Of A American Dream? The Great Tradition .New York: New York University Press, 1964.
Print. McDonald, Russ. Shakespeare’s Late Style. About Cheerleading? Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2006. Death Of A Salesman Dream? Print. Miller, D.A. About Cheerleading? The Novel and the Police . Essays? Berkeley: University of California Press, 1988. Print. Mitchell, W J. T., ed.
Against Theory: Literary Studies and college cheerleading, the New Pragmatism . Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1985. Essays Kids? Print. Peggy Phelan. Unmarked: The Politics of Performance . New York: Routledge, 1993. Print.
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Vickers, Nancy. Death Of A American Dream Thesis? “Diana Described: Scattered Women and Scattered Rhyme,” Critical Inquiry 8.2 (Winter 1981): 265-79. Print. William Worthen. Drama: Between Poetry and Performance. About? New York: Wiley-Blackwell, 2010. Of A Salesman Dream Thesis? Print. Zacharek, Stephanie. “Cymbeline, 2015: Almereyda Produces a Wild Version of Shakespeare’s Work.” The Village Voice. Voice Media Group. College About? 12 March 2015.
Web. 20 July 2015. Donovan Sherman is an assistant professor of English at Seton Hall University. His research centers on Renaissance literature, Shakespeare, and dramatic literature, and his work has been published in Shakespeare Quarterly, The Journal of Medieval and Early Modern Studies, Literature /Film Quarterly, and Shakespeare Bulletin. His book Second Death: Theatricalities of the Soul in Shakespeare’s Drama , forthcoming in 2016 from outline on unemployment, Edinburgh University Press, examines the essays cheerleading, figure of the provides custom papers, soul in the work of Shakespeare and his contemporaries.