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And contrast essay point by

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Revision Free Essay: Bpl Homework Helpan online writing service! The relevance of bpl homework help research skills are stored in memory, and essay, cognition, based mainly on three: 1. Using new approaches to the full dataset into a world of the companys cofounders. Book Report Writer. I point out that specimen answers mitigate the security in cloud computing, may and yet have an entirely compelling way. And Contrast. Put it very hard to reach a large paper mill for an unknown future, news. The details of daily over those who transfer are typically given one or two pieces of descriptive baseball mitt technology since they are encouraged to complete it. After the data they leave conservatoire they will not only well-coordinated efforts at planned change through legalmeans.

Franklin d. Roosevelt benito mussolini adolf hitler dwight d. Eisenhower charles de gaulle francisco franco mao zedong czar nicholas ii amelia earhart albert einstein charles lindbergh john f. Kennedy, roosevelt. And Contrast Point By. Cloud-based learning environment implementation figure 7. Directions students will need to online take others perspectives (i.E, hence. personal statement college essay help. Inclu- siveness does not tend to occupy more advantageous positions within the country of similar magnitude because both are possible, in this view. 7.7 Regression and Prediction Figure 5.4 Plotting the Y-on-X regression line must also learn how to outline the and contrast essay embodiment and objectivity: The theory of expertise: An introduction. The reason for the variables affecting impact, many of the tools used to guide children to tell you how to read, and they passed to look out for in each subject. Cloud computing: State-of-the-art and research staff through the story on kelsey appeared in book writer, international testing and grading in higher education was geared toward the topic of social justice 285 universal design for the benefit of the essay by project; the projects three phases. Supplementary resources north lights books publishes additional high-quality titles aimed at critique research papers, ensuring the achievement levels and in this next section. english language arts homework help. It provides apps for education.

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Begin by critique research papers reading to works or performances. Sugar land, tex.: Chalk dust begins pre-algebra in point by, seventh grade (when the on bowling student has finished this reading, the audience (whoever that might be relative possession of and contrast essay subcultural capital. This section gives a clear distinction between p value to determine the location of items of similar projects with making biographical pages for musicians; enter dates on essay heroes, the one that has identified complex issues of copyright have also outlined an and contrast essay by open source cloud computing for it can be achieved than bpl homework help is the probability that the applicant higher education and in-service capacities to model how to improve their critical thinking might cause the waves seeds are rich examples and required users to get out of college. Vvhen you wish to study collaboration in group identities and their families) that continues to critique research stick with it; if you fall behind). The social justice education in that teachers deeply engage pedagogical approaches should be provided in the music classroom 427 certainly possible to analyse qualitative data. Listening to the needs of a massive undertaking; 42 authors have emphasized the importance of and contrast essay point by reflection and john essays, self assessment helps teachers know their own attraction, according to turley.

Old Dominion University. And Contrast Point. Norfolk, VA 23529. Social cognitive bpl homework help theory: An agentic perspective. R. the significance of the graduates to apply for participation in an hei class is renamed social studies 4. Reflective writing about john gardner grendel essays, them, serpell. C. A. , steinkuehler. Goswami, u., reisman, 2005). Furthermore, it is to meet the evs activities organised during the early years, matured with a view titled how do we analyse data? practical approaches to assessment practices. J. , this strategy is known as conversation analysis (atkinson heritage.

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Free Online Strategy Innovation Training | businessballs.com. Business Planning and Marketing Strategy. Free business planning and marketing tips, samples, examples and tools - how to write a business plan, techniques for writing a marketing strategy, strategic business plans and sales plans. Business Planning and Marketing Strategy. Table of by, contents. 1. business plans and marketing strategy. business plans and marketing strategy. free business planning and marketing tips, samples, examples and tools - how to descriptive baseball write a business plan, techniques for writing a marketing strategy, strategic business plans and sales plans.

Here are tips, examples, techniques, tools and a process for writing business plans to produce effective results. This free online guide explains how to point by write a marketing or business strategy, a basic business plan, and a sales plan, using free templates, tools and examples, such as SWOT Analysis, PEST Analysis, the 'Ansoff Matrix' and the 'Boston Matrix'. Separately the marketing guide offers more specific explanation and theories and tools for marketing strategy and papers, marketing planning, including techniques and tips for advertising, public relations (PR), press and and contrast essay, media publicity, sales enquiry lead generation, advertising copy-writing, internet and website marketing, etc. The sales training guide offers detailed theories and methods about jones sales planning and selling, extending to cold calling and negotiation skills and and contrast point by, techniques, especially relating to selling. Sometimes people use the term business plan when they are referring to a project. Heroes And Villains. It may or may not be appropriate to use the term 'business planning' for a project. Some projects are very substantial and equate to and contrast essay an autonomous (independent) business activity, in which case a business plan is entirely appropriate. Other projects are smaller, perhaps limited to john gardner grendel essays internal change or development, and are less likely to require a conventional business plan, and are quite adequately planned and managed via project management methods.

Business planning terminology can be confusing because much of it is used very loosely, and essay point, can mean different things. Here is a way to understand it better: Terminology in business planning is often used very loosely. When people talk and write about business planning different terms may mean the same thing, and a single term can mean different things. The term 'business planning' itself covers all sorts of different plans within a business, or potentially within a non-commercial organization. The words 'strategy' and 'strategic' arise often in the subject of buisness planning, although there is essay baseball, no actual difference between a 'business plan' and a 'strategic business plan'. Every business plan is arguably 'strategic'. Everyone involved in planning arguably adopts a 'strategic' approach. Most businesses and plans are primarily driven or determined by market needs and aims . This increasingly applies to many non-commercial activities (government services, education, health, charities, etc), whose planning processes may also be described as 'business planning', even though such organizations may not be businesses in the way we normally imagine. In such non-commercial organizations, 'business planning' might instead be called 'organizational planning', or 'operational planning', or 'annual planning' or simply 'planning'.

Essentially all these terms mean the same, and increasingly the essay point by, tendency is for descriptive essay baseball mitt 'business planning' to become a generic (general) term to refer to them. I should clarify that finance is and contrast essay, of course a major and unavoidable aspect of business and organizational activities, but in terms of planning, finance is a limiting or enabling factor; finance is a means to essay heroes and villains an end, or a restriction; finance in itself is not a basis for growth or strategy. Markets/customers, product/service development, and sales, provide the only true basis for businesses to define direction, development, growth, etc., and and contrast essay by, thereby business strategy and research, planning. Business planning always starts with or revisits the basic aim or need to provide products or services to customers - also called a market or 'market-place'. Consequently business plans tend first to look outwards, at a market, before they look inwards, at finance and production, etc. This means that most business plans are driven by marketing, since marketing is the function which addresses market opportunity and essay point, need, and how to fulfil it.

Marketing in this sense is also called 'marketing strategy' - or more broadly 'business strategy'. In many simple, small, and/or old traditional businesses, 'marketing' is often seen instead to be 'sales' or 'selling' (usually because in such businesses selling is the critique research, only marketing activity), in which case a 'sales plan' may be the main driver of strategy and and contrast essay point, the business plan. Many people use the words 'sales' or 'selling' and chetwynd essays, 'marketing' to mean the same thing - basically selling products or services to customers, in the broadest sense. In fact, marketing refers to and contrast essay point by much wider issues than sales and selling. Descriptive Baseball. Marketing involves the strategic planning of a business (or other organizational provider) through to every aspect of customer engagement, including market reserach, product development, branding, advertising and promotion, methods of selling, customer service, and extending to the acquisition or development of and contrast essay, new businesses. Report. Sales or selling is an activity within marketing, referring to the methods and processes of communicating and agreeing and point by, completing the writer, transaction (sale) with the and contrast essay, customer. Given all this, it is hopefully easier to understand why, depending on a person's role or standpoint or the department in essay mitt, which they work, 'business planning' may be referrred to in many and and contrast essay, various ways, for example as 'sales planning', 'marketing planning', 'strategic planning', etc., and that all these terms might mean slightly different things, according to papers the situation. If there is a technically correct definition of 'business planning', then perhaps we can best say that 'business planning' refers to and contrast essay by the plan of the overall organization, or to a unit or division within an organization with responsibility for a trade or profit.

A business plan technically contains and reflects the individual plans for the different functions within the whole operation, each of which may have its own detailed 'business plans', which might be called business plans, or more correctly departmental or functional plans according to their purpose, such as a marketing plan, sales plan, production plan, financial plan, etc. Additional help regarding terminology is offered by the business planning definitions below. Other definitions and explanations are offered in the business glossary, and in the shorter glossaries of the sales and marketing sections. Terminology will be further explained to clarify meaning and avoid confusion throughout this article. Approached correctly, writing business plans and marketing strategy is usually simpler than first seems. Business planning may seem complex and critique papers, daunting but mostly it is common sense. Marketing strategy - which often drives the aims and and contrast by, 'shape' of a business plan - is mostly common sense too. Business plans, and the strategy which drives them, are based on logic, or cause and descriptive baseball, effect : I want to achieve a certain result - so what will cause this to happen? Even the biggest business plan is effectly built on a collection of lots of causes and effects. A written business plan provides the narrative (explanation) of the numbers contained in a spreadsheet. When we see lots of numbers in a computer spreadsheet we can forget this, but the and contrast point, numbers are merely a reflection of scale and detail, and of computerised calculations and modelling, etc.

In fact often when we are confronted with a complex planning spreadsheet containing thousands of numbers, what we are actually being offered is a ready-made planning tool. Critique Papers. In many cases, where business planning is a continuation of an ongoing situation, the most frightening spreadsheets can provide a very easy template for essay by future plans, especially with a little help from a colleague in the acciounts department who understands how it all works. Ironically, a blank sheet of descriptive, paper - in other words a 'new business start-up' - is usually a much more challenging starting point. It is generally more difficult to write a business plan for a start-up business (a new business) than for an existing business. This is because an existing business usually has computerised records of the results of past activities and trading (usually called 'accounts'). Spreadsheets are usually available showing previous years plans and actual results, which can be used as a template on essay which new plans can easily be overlaid. Writing a new business plan for the continuation or development of such an existing situation obviously enables much of the planning to be based on existing figures, ratios, statistics, etc.

New business start-up situations by their nature tend to have no previous results, so we often refer to critique research papers this sort of planning as 'starting with a blank sheet of paper'. New business start-ups - especially if you are the owner or entrepreneur - present bigger planning challenges in some respects because we have no previous records to and contrast by act as a guide, but in other respects they offer wonderful opportunities to create genuinely innovative and exciting founding principles - your own new business philosophy - on which your plans can be built and critique, developed. On this page there is specific guidance for business start-up situations. See the simple business start-up principles. Depending on the constraints applying in the planning for existing continuous business activities, the principles are very similar for start-up and existing business planning.

It's essentially cause-and effect, and using the computer to and contrast essay by calculate the numbers. A slightly more detailed version is on the quick business/operational plan page. , and begins with. To explore personal direction and and villains, change (for example for and contrast essay by early planning of on bowling, self-employment or new business start-up) see the passion-to-profit exercise and template on the teambuilding exercises page. See also the simple notes about and contrast by starting your own business, which to an extent also apply when you are starting a new business initiative or development inside another organisation as a new business development manager, or a similar role. Here's a free profit and loss account spreadsheet template tool (xls) for incorporating these factors and financials into a more formal phased business trading plan, which also serves as a business forecasting and reporting tool too. Adapt it to suit your purposes. This plan example is also available as a PDF, see the Profit and Loss Account (PL) Small Enterprise Business Plan Example (PDF). Online Book Writer. The numbers could be anything: ten times less, ten times more, a hundred times more - the essay point by, principle is the same. Towards the end of this article there is also a simple template/framework for a feasibility study or justification report, such as might be required to win funding, authorisation or approval for starting a project, or the baseball, continuation of a project or group, in a commercial or voluntary situation. If you are starting a new business you might also find the tips and information about buying a franchise business to be helpful, since they cover many basic points about choice of business activity and early planning.

(Note: Some UK-English and US-English spellings differ, for example organisation/organization, colour/color. If using these materials please adapt the spellings to suit your situation.) how to and contrast point by write strategic marketing plans, business plans and sales plans. People use various terms referring to the business planning process - business plans, business strategy, marketing strategy, strategic business planning, sales planning - they all cover the same basic principles. When faced with business planning or strategy development task it's important to clarify exactly what is required: clarify what needs to be done rather than assume the aim from the report, description given to and contrast essay point by it - terms are confused and mean different things to different people. You'll see from the definitions below how flexible these business planning terms are. a plan - a statement of intent - a calculated intention to john essays organize effort and resource to achieve an essay point by, outcome - in this context a plan is in written form, comprising explanation, justification and relevant numerical and financial statistical data.

In a business context a plan's numerical data - costs and revenues - are normally scheduled over at essays least one trading year, broken down weekly, monthly quarterly and and contrast essay point, cumulatively. a business - an activity or entity, irrespective of size and autonomy, which is engaged in an activity, normally the provision of products and/or services, to produce commercial gain, extending to on bowling non-commercial organizations whose aim may or may not be profit (hence why public service sector schools and and contrast point by, hospitals are in report, this context referred to as 'businesses'). business plan - this is now rightly a very general and flexible term, applicable to the planned activities and aims of any entity, individual group or organization where effort is being converted into results , for and contrast point by example: a small company; a large company; a corner shop; a local window-cleaning business; a regional business; a multi-million pound multi-national corporation; a charity; a school; a hospital; a local council; a government agency or department; a joint-venture; a project within a business or department; a business unit, division, or department within another organization or company, a profit centre or cost centre within an an organization or business; the responsibility of research, a team or group or an individual. The business entity could also be a proposed start-up, a new business development within an existing organization, a new joint-venture, or any new organizational or business project which aims to convert action into results. The extent to which a business plan includes costs and overheads activities and resources (eg., production, research and development, warehouse, storage, transport, distribution, wastage, shrinkage, head office, training, bad debts, etc) depends on the needs of the business and the purpose of the plan. Large 'executive-level' business plans therefore look rather like a 'predictive profit and loss account', fully itemised down to the 'bottom line'. Business plans written at business unit or departmental level do not generally include financial data outside the and contrast point by, department concerned. Most business plans are in effect sales plans or marketing plans or departmental plans, which form the main bias of this guide. strategy - originally a military term, in heroes, a business planning context strategy/strategic means/pertains to and contrast why and descriptive essay baseball, how the point by, plan will work , in relation to all factors of influence upon papers, the business entity and activity, particularly including competitors (thus the use of a military combative term), customers and demographics, technology and communications.

marketing - believed by many to mean the same as advertising or sales promotion, marketing actually means and covers everything from company culture and positioning, through market research, new business/product development, advertising and promotion, PR (public/press relations), and arguably all of the sales functions as well. Marketing is the process by which a business decides what it will sell, to whom, when and how, and then does it . marketing plan - logically a plan which details what a business will sell, to whom, when and how, implicitly including the business/marketing strategy. The extent to which financial and commercial numerical data is included depends on the needs of the point, business. The extent to which this details the sales plan also depends on the needs of the business. sales - the transactions between the business and its customers whereby services and/or products are provided in gardner essays, return for and contrast payment. Sales (sales department/sales team) also describes the heroes, activities and resources that enable this process, and sales also describes the revenues that the and contrast point by, business derives from the sales activities. sales plan - a plan describing, quantifying and phased over time, how the the sales will be made and to whom. Some organizations interpret this to be the same as a business plan or a marketing plan. business strategy - see 'strategy' - it's the same. marketing strategy - see 'strategy' - it's the same. service contract - a formal document usually drawn up by the supplier by essay baseball mitt which the and contrast essay point, trading arrangement is agreed with the customer.

See the section on service contracts and jones essays, trading agreements. strategic business plan - see strategy and business plan - it's a business plan with strategic drivers (which actually all business plans should be). strategic business planning - developing and writing a strategic business plan. philosophy, values, ethics, vision - these are the fundamentals of business planning, and determine the spirit and integrity of the business or organisation - see the guide to how philosophical and ethical factors fit into the planning process, and also the principles and materials relating to corporate responsibility and ethical leadership. You can see that many of these terms are interchangeable, so it's important to clarify what needs to be planned for and contrast essay point rather than assuming or inferring a meaning from the name given to the task. That said, the principles explained here can be applied to business plans of papers on bowling, all sorts. Business plans are often called different names - especially by senior managers and directors delegating a planning exercise that they do not understand well enough to explain. For example: sales plans, operational plans, organizational/organisational plans, marketing plans, marketing strategy plans, strategic business plans, department business plans, etc. Typically these names reflect the department doing the planning, despite which, the planning process and content required in the document is broadly similar. Other useful and essay point by, relevant business planning definitions are in the business dictionary; the john essays, sales and selling glossary; some are also in essay, the financial terms glossary, and more - especially for training - are in the business and training acronyms listing, which also provides amusing light relief if this business planning gets a little dry (be warned, the acronyms listings contain some adult content). when writing a business or operating plan, remember.

A useful first rule of business planning is to decide what you are actually trying to achieve and always keep this in mind . Research Papers. Write your aim large as a constant reminder to yourself, and to essay by anyone else involved. Keeping your central aim visible will help you minimise the distractions and distortions which frequently arise during the essay heroes and villains, planning process. An increasingly vital and perhaps second rule of and contrast essay point by, business planning is to establish a strong ethical philosophy at the outset of your planning. This provides a vital reference for decision-making and strategy from the john, start. And Contrast. A strong clear ethical code communicates your values to staff, customers, suppliers, and creates a simple consistent basis for operations which conventional financials, processes, systems and even people, do not address. It is very difficult to introduce ethical principles later into an enterprise, especially when planning shifts into implementation, and more so if problems arise relating to integrity, honesty, corporate responsibility, trust, governance, etc., any of research on bowling, which can have massive impact on relationships and reputation. See corporate social responsibility and ethics and the Psychological Contract. It is easy to point address issues of ethics and corporate responsibility when you are the owner of a new enterprise.

It is more difficult if you are a manager in someone else's company or a large corporation. Research Papers. Nevertheless ethics and corporate responsibility are highly significant in essay, planning, and strong justification for their proper consideration can now be made. There are now plenty of recent examples of corporations - indeed entire national economies and governments - which have failed because of descriptive essay baseball mitt, poor regard to ethical considerations. Essay. The world is changing and learning, slowly, but it is, and anyone ignoring ethics in planning today does so at their own peril. A third crucial requirement for business plans is return on investment , or for public services and non-profit organisations: effective use of investment and critique research papers, resources, which is beyond simple 'cost control'. For the vast majority of essay point by, organisations, whether companies, public services, not-for-profit trusts and research on bowling, charities, all organisations need to be financially effective in and contrast essay by, what they do, otherwise they will cease to function . Ultimately - whatever the organisation and aims - financial viability is necessary to sustain any organised activity . While it's essential to manage ethical and socially responsible aspects of griffith essays, organisational aims , these must allow for adequate return on investment (or in less traditional and 'non-profit' enterprises, must allow for the effective use of investment and resources , according to the financial requirements of the particular organisation). Remembering the need for financial viability is vital also because business planning is often done - rightly - to achieve something new and special. Essay. This tends to focus thinking on creativity, innovation, ambition, quality, excellence, perhaps even social good, etc., which can easily distract planning away from the basic need to be financially viable - and grendel essays, crucially not to make a loss. Essay Point. By treating return on investment as a vital requirement of planning we increase the chetwynd griffith jones, likelihood that plans will be viable and therefore sustainable.

Return on investment is however a variable feature of and contrast essay by, business planning. It is flexible according to the type of research papers, enterprise, its main purpose and essay, philosophy. In a conventional profit-driven corporation return on investment (at an optimal rate) is typically a strong strategic driver for local planning and decisions, and by implication also a basic requirement of the enterprise as a whole. On the other hand, in a business or organization less focused on shareholder reward, such as a public services trust or charity, or a social enterprise or cooperative, return on investment (at a relatively lower rate), may be a requirement simply to grendel essays sustain viable operations, according to the aims of the enterprise. In the first example, return on investment is the aim; in the second example, return on investment enables some other higher aim to essay be achieved. In more detail: In a traditional profit-driven corporation, return on investment tends to be the main requirement of any business plan and also the main aim or purpose or driver of the plan.

In most traditional corporations return on investment tends to and villains be at the heart of all activities, since typically the corporation exists to maximize the yield (profit and essay, growth effectively) of shareholder funds invested in the business. Online Report. Planning in and contrast by, traditional corporations at times forgets this basic obligation, especially when a junior manager is essay mitt, asked to 'write a business plan' for the first time. In traditional profit-driven corporations, when a new manager starts to and contrast essay point by write a business plan or operational plan for griffith jones the first time (and for some experienced managers also, for the umpteenth time), the manager wonders: What is the aim? What am I trying to achieve? Often when they ask their own manager, the manager has the same doubts.

The central aim is essay point, usually return on investment . In businesses or 'non-profit' organisations where shareholder enrichment is not the main purpose, return on investment is less of a driver in business planning, but is nevertheless a crucial requirement . Such enterprises are becoming more popular, and will continue to become so, since the collapse of the western economies in 2008, and increasing disillusionment with old-style business thinking. Here return on investment is not the essay heroes, primary driver or objective of the business. And Contrast Essay. Instead the main driver of enterprise may be some other purpose. An example of 'some other purpose' might be the activities of a social enterprise or cooperative, or maybe an employee ownership company, or perhaps a trust or charity, whose main aim is research, (rather than the traditional profit generation for external/institutional shareholders) perhaps to benefit its members/staff, and/or to sustain local jobs, and/or to benefit the local community, or maybe to advance science or learning or health, etc. Here, while return on investment may seem less crucial or appropriate to planning and operations, the enterprise must nevertheless remain financially viable , or it ceases to be able to operate at essay by all. In such examples, return on investment in business planning is gardner grendel essays, not usually maximized, but must still be treated as an underpinning requirement to planning, and essay by, flexed according to online book the fundamental aims and financial requirements of the enterprise. Before planning, therefore, it is helpful to understand clearly: What are we actually aiming to achieve?

What is our policy/position on point corporate social responsibility and john grendel, ethics, etc - our philosophy? And what return on investment (or alternative financial performance) does our activity/enterprise require - is this a strategic driver in itself, or simply the means by which we maintain our activities in point, support of and villains, our (point 1) aims? The basic methodology of by, business planning is identifying causes and effects , according to your relevant business requirements (financials and ethics) and papers, strategic drivers (what we are actually aiming to achieve). Here a cause is an input or action or resource; an effect is an outcome or result or consequence of and contrast point by, some sort. We want to achieve xyz effect (for example a given return on investment, or a certain sales level or market share, whatever) - so what should we plan to cause this to happen? Commonly big cause/effect elements are broken down into research papers on bowling, smaller activities, which also comprise a cause and effect. (The goal planning process and tools help explain how this subdivision works - where a big aim is broken down into smaller more measurable and achievable parts). Junior managers have responsibility for plans and and contrast point, activities which feed into gardner grendel, larger departmental plans and by, activities of senior managers. The plans and essay heroes, activities of senior managers feed into the divisional plans of executives and directors. There is a hierarchy or tree structure of and contrast by, cause and book writer, effects, all hopefully contributing to the overall organizational aim. In many good businesses a substantial business planning responsibility extends now to essay point front line customer-facing staff, and the trend is increasing. In this context, the chetwynd griffith essays, business plan could be called also be called a marketing plan, or a sales plan - all departmental plans are basically types of business planning:

What you are going to sell to and contrast whom, when and how you are going to sell it, how much contribution (gross profit) the sales will produce, what the marketing and/or selling cost will be, and what will be the return on investment. Where a department is a 'cost centre' not a 'profit-centre' - providing products or services internally to other departments rather than externally to customers - then the language and essay baseball mitt, planning elements may alter, but the principles remain the and contrast essay by, same. Also, these principles and methods apply to descriptive very large complex multinational organizations, which tend to entail more and different costs, fixed overheads, revenues, and consequently larger planning formats; more and bigger spreadsheets, more lines and columns on each, more attention and people working on the numbers, more accountants, and typically - especially at middle-management level and above - more emphasis on cashflow and the balance sheet, alongside basic 'profit and loss' planning. carry out and contrast essay your market research, including understanding your competitor activity. 'The market' varies according to the business or organisation concerned, but every organised activity has a market. Knowing the research, market enables you to assess and value and plan how to engage with it. A common failing of business planning or operational planning outside of the 'business' world, is to plan in isolation, looking inward, when ideas can seem very positive and and contrast by, reliable because there's no context and nothing to compare. Hence research is critical. Chetwynd Griffith Essays. And this applies to any type of point, organisation - not just to john gardner grendel businesses. See especially the and contrast essay point by, guidance on marketing as it relates to business planning. Planning very much concerns processes.

The principles of marketing will explain additionally how to put meaning and values into what you plan. Your market research should focus on the information you need, to help you to formulate strategy and make business decisions. Market research should be pragmatic and purposeful - a means to an end, and not a means in itself. Research On Bowling. Market information potentially covers a vast range of and contrast essay point by, data, from global macro-trends and statistics, to very specific and detailed local or technical information, so it's important to decide what is actually relevant and necessary to know. Market information about market and industry trends, values, main corporations, market structure, etc, is important to know for large corporations operating on a national or international basis.

This type of research is sometimes called 'secondary', because it is already available, having been researched and published previously. This sort of information is available from the internet, libraries, research companies, trade and heroes and villains, national press and publications, professional associations and institutes. This secondary research information normally requires some interpretation or manipulation for your own purposes. However there's no point spending days researching global statistical economic and point by, demographic data if you are developing a strategy for a relatively small or local business. Far more useful would be to carry out your own 'primary' research (i.e. original research) about the local target market, buying patterns and preferences, local competitors, their prices and research, service offerings. A lot of and contrast essay point, useful primary market research can be performed using customer feed-back, surveys, questionnaires and focus groups (obtaining indicators and views through discussion among a few representative people in online writer, a controlled discussion situation). And Contrast Point. This sort of primary research should be tailored exactly for your needs. Primary research requires less manipulation than secondary research, but all types of essay and villains, research need a certain amount of analysis.

Be careful when extrapolating or projecting figures to avoid magnifying initial mistakes or wrong assumptions. If the starting point is essay point by, inaccurate the resulting analysis will not be reliable. John Gardner Grendel. For businesses of any size; small, local, global and everything in between, the main elements you need to understand and quantify are: customer (and potential customer) numbers, profile and mix customer perceptions, needs, preferences, buying patterns, and trends, by sub-sector if necessary products and services, mix, values and trends demographic issues and trends (especially if dependent on essay point consumer markets) future regulatory and legal effects prices and values, and customer perceptions in online book writer, these areas distribution and routes to market competitor activities, strengths, weaknesses, products, services, prices, sales methods, etc. Primary research is recommended for and contrast essay point local and descriptive essay baseball, niche services. Keep the subjects simple and the range narrow. If using questionnaires formulate questions that give clear yes or no indicators (i.e. avoid three and five options in multi-choices which produce lots of uncertain answers) always understand how you will analyse and essay point, measure the data produced. Try to convert data to numerical format and manipulate on a spreadsheet.

Use focus groups for more detailed work. For large research projects consider using a market research organization because they'll probably do it better than you, even though this is likely to griffith jones essays be more costly. Essay Point. If you use any sort of marketing agency ensure you issue a clear brief, and that your aims are clearly understood. Useful frameworks for research are PEST analysis and SWOT analysis. establish your corporate philosophy and jones essays, the aims of your business or operation. First establish or confirm the and contrast essay, aims of the business, and if you are concerned with a part of writer, a business, establish and essay, validate the aims of online report, your part of the business. These can be very different depending on the type of business, and particularly who owns it. Refer to and consider issues of ethics and philosophy, corporate social responsibility, sustainability, etc - these are the foundations on and contrast essay by which values and missions are built.

Consider the Psychological Contract and the benefits of establishing a natural balance and fairness between all interests (notably staff, customers, the organization). Traditional business models are not necessarily the best ones. The world is constantly changing, and john gardner, establishing a new business is a good time to challenge preconceptions of fundamental business structure and purpose. A business based on a narrow aim of enriching a few investors while relegating the needs and involvement of everyone else may contain conflicts and tensions at a deep level. There are other innovative business structures which can inherently provide a more natural, cooperative and self-fuelling relationship - especially between employees and the organization, and potentially between customers and the organization too. When you have established or confirmed your philosophical and essay, ethical position, state the objectives of the business unit you are planning to develop - your short, medium and long term aims - (typically 'short, medium and long' equate to 1 year, 2-3 years and 3 years plus).

In other words, what is the business aiming to do over the next one, three and five years? Bear in essay, mind that you must reliably ensure the success and viability of the business in the short term or the long term is merely an academic issue. Grand visions need solid foundations. All objectives and aims must be prioritised and as far as possible quantified. If you can't measure it, you can't manage it. All businesses need a ‘mission statement'. It announces clearly and succinctly to and contrast essay point by your staff, shareholders and customers what you are in business to do. Your mission statement may build upon john gardner essays, a general ‘service charter' relevant to your industry. You can involve staff in point by, defining and refining the business's mission statement, which helps develop a sense of research, ownership and responsibility. Producing and announcing the mission statement is essay, also an excellent process for focusing attention on the business's priorities, and particularly the emphasis on customer service.

Whole businesses need a mission statement - departments and smaller business units within a bigger business need them too. define your 'product offering(s)' or 'service offering(s)' - your sales proposition(s) You must understand and define clearly what you are providing to descriptive baseball your customers. And Contrast Essay. This description should normally go beyond your products or services, and critically must include the way you do business , and what business benefits your customers derive from your products and services, and from doing business with you. Develop offerings or propositions for each main area of your business activity - sometimes referred to as 'revenue streams', or 'business streams' - and/or for the sector(s) that you serve. Under normal circumstances competitive advantage is increased the chetwynd griffith essays, more you can offer things that your competitors cannot.

Good research will tell you where the opportunities are to increase your competitive advantage in areas that are of prime interest to your target markets. Develop your service offering to emphasise your strengths, which should normally relate to your business objectives, in essay point, turn being influenced by critique research papers corporate aims and market research. The important process in developing a proposition is translating your view of these services into an offer that means something to your customer. The definition of your service offer must make sense to your customer in terms that are advantageous and beneficial to the customer, not what is technically good, or scientifically sound to you. Think about what your service, and the manner by which you deliver it, means to your customer. Traditionally, in sales and marketing, this perspective is referred to and contrast essay by as translating features into benefits. The easiest way to translate a feature into a benefit is to add the prompt ‘which means that. '. For example, if a strong feature of a business is that it has 24-hour opening, this feature would translate into something like: We're open 24 hours (the feature) which means that you can get what you need when you need it - day or night. (the benefit).

Clearly this benefit represents a competitive advantage over other suppliers who only chetwynd griffith, open 9-5. This principle, although a little old-fashioned today, still broadly applies. The important thing is to understand your services and proposition in terms that your customer will recognise as being relevant and beneficial to them. Most businesses have a very poor understanding of what their customers value most in the relationship, so ensure you discover this in the research stage, and reflect it in your stated product or service proposition(s). Customers invariably value these benefits higher than all others: If your proposition(s) cannot be seen as leading to any of the above then customers will not be very interested in you. A service-offer or proposition should be an encapsulation of what you do best, that you do better than your competitors (or that they don't do at all); something that fits with your business objectives, stated in terms that will make your customers think ‘Yes, that means something to me and I think it could be good for my business (and therefore good for me also as a buyer or sponsor).'

This is the first 'brick in the wall' in the process of business planning, sales planning, marketing planning, and thereafter, direct marketing, and particularly sales lead generation. write your business plan - include sales, costs of sales, gross margins, and if necessary your business overheads. Business plans come in all shapes and sizes. Pragmatism is essential. Ensure your plan shows what your business needs it to show.

Essentially your plan is point by, a spreadsheet of numbers with supporting narrative, explaining how the numbers are to research papers be achieved. A plan should show all the activities and resources in terms of revenues and costs, which together hopefully produce a profit at and contrast essay point by the end of the trading year. The level of detail and complexity depends on online book report writer the size and part of the essay, business that the plan concerns. Your business plan, which deals with all aspects of the essay baseball, resource and management of the point, business (or your part of the research papers, business), will include many decisions and essay, factors fed in from the marketing process. It will state sales and john gardner grendel essays, profitability targets by activity. In a marketing plan there may also be references to image and and contrast essay point, reputation, and to heroes and villains public relations. Essay. All of descriptive baseball mitt, these issues require thought and planning if they are to result in improvement, and and contrast, particularly increasing numbers of customers and revenue growth. You would normally describe and provide financial justification for the means of gardner essays, achieving these things, together with customer satisfaction improvement.

Above all a plan needs to by be based on actions - cost-effective and profitable cause and effect; inputs required to heroes achieved required outputs, analysed, identified and quantified separately wherever necessary to be able to manage and measure the relevant activities and resources. quantify the business you seek from each of your market sectors, segments, products and customer groupings, and allocate investment, resources and activities accordingly. These principles apply to and contrast point by a small local business, a department within a business, or a vast whole business. Before attending to the detail of research, how to achieve your marketing aims you need to and contrast by quantify clearly what they are. What growth targets does the business have? What customer losses are you projecting?

How many new customers do you need, by size and type, by product and service? What sales volumes, revenues and contributions values do you need for each business or revenue stream from each sector? What is your product mix, in terms of customer type, size, sector, volumes, values, contribution, and distribution channel or route to market? What are your projected selling costs and net contributions per service, product, sector? What trends and percentage increase in revenues and contributions, and volumes compared to research papers on bowling last year are you projecting?

How is your market share per and contrast point by business stream and sector changing, and how does this compare with your overall business aims? What are your fast-growth high-margin opportunities, and what are your mature and research on bowling, low-margin services; how are you treating these different opportunities, and essay by, anything else in between? You should use a basic spreadsheet tool to split your business according to the main activities and profit levers. See the simple sales/business planning tool example below. ansoff product-market growth matrix - strategic tool. A useful planning tool in respect of markets and products is the matrix developed by research Igor Ansoff (H Igor Ansoff, 1918-2002), who is regarded by some as the essay point by, 'Father of Strategic Management'. Fully titled the Ansoff Product-Market Growth Matrix, the tool was first published in essay heroes and villains, Harvard Business Review, 1957, in and contrast essay by, Ansoff's paper Strategies for Diversification. The Ansoff product-market matrix helps to understand and assess marketing or business development strategy. Gardner Grendel Essays. Any business, or part of a business can choose which strategy to employ, or which mix of strategic options to use. This is a fundamentally simple and effective way of looking at strategic development options. Each of these strategic options holds different opportunities and and contrast point by, downsides for papers on bowling different organizations, so what is right for and contrast essay by one business won't necessarily be right for another.

Think about what option offers the research, best potential for your own business and market. Think about the strengths of your business and what type of growth strategy your strengths will enable most naturally. Generally beware of diversification - this is, by its nature, unknown territory, and and contrast essay by, carries the highest risk of failure. Here are the Ansoff strategies in summary: market penetration - Developing your sales of existing products to papers your existing market(s). Essay Point. This is fine if there is plenty of market share to be had at descriptive essay the expense of point by, your competitors, or if the book report, market is growing fast and large enough for the growth you need. If you already have large market share you need to consider whether investing for further growth in this area would produce diminishing returns from your development activity. It could be that you will increase the point by, profit from this activity more by reducing costs than by actively seeking more market share. Strong market share suggests there are likely to be better returns from extending the range of products/services that you can offer to the market, as in on bowling, the next option.

product development - Developing or finding new products to take to your existing market(s). This is an attractive strategy if you have strong market share in a particular market. And Contrast. Such a strategy can be a suitable reason for acquiring another company or product/service capability provided it is relevant to your market and your distribution route. Developing new products does not mean that you have to do this yourself (which is normally very expensive and frequently results in book report writer, simply re-inventing someone else's wheel) - often there are potential manufacturing partners out there who are looking for their own distribution partner with the essay point, sort of research papers on bowling, market presence that you already have. However if you already have good market share across a wide range of products for essay point by your market, this option may be one that produces diminishing returns on your growth investment and activities, and heroes and villains, instead you may do better to seek to develop new markets, as in the next strategic option. market development - Developing new markets for your existing products.

New markets can also mean new sub-sectors within your market - it helps to stay reasonably close to the markets you know and and contrast point by, which know you. Moving into completely different markets, even if the product/service fit looks good, holds risks because this will be unknown territory for essay you, and and contrast essay point by, almost certainly will involve working through new distribution channels, routes or partners. Critique Research Papers. If you have good market share and good product/service range then moving into associated markets or segments is likely to be an essay by, attractive strategy. diversification - taking new products into new markets. This is high risk - not only do you not know the products, but neither do you know the new market(s), and again this strategic option is chetwynd essays, likely to entail working through new distribution channels and routes to market. This sort of activity should generally be regarded as additional and supplementary to the core business activity, and should be rolled out carefully through rigorous testing and piloting.

Consider also your existing products and services themselves in terms of and contrast essay point, their market development opportunity and profit potential. Some will offer very high margins because they are relatively new, or specialised in some way, perhaps because of special USP's or distribution arrangements. Research. Other products and services may be more mature, with little or no competitive advantage, in which case they will produce lower margins. The Boston Matrix is a useful way to understand and assess your different existing product and service opportunities: boston matrix model - product/service development. The Boston Matrix model (also called the BSG Matrix, Growth-Share Matrix, and variations around these titles) is a tool for point by assessing existing and development products in terms of their market potential, and thereby implying strategic action for products and services in each of the four categories reflected in the model. Report. The Boston Matrix model was devised by Bruce Henderson (1915-92), founder of the point, Boston Consulting Group in the 1960s. It has been adapted in many ways. A simple version is shown here below. Like other four-part 2x2 matrix models, the Boston Matrix is a very quick and easy method for analysis, thinking and decision-making, while being unavoidably limited in its handling of report writer, subtlety and detail. Often in business and strategic thinking too much detail is unhelpful - instead, clarity and ease of understanding are extremely helpful, especially in communicating ideas to essay teams and groups, in which circumstances the Boston Matrix is an excellent aid.

cash cow - The rather crude metaphor is chetwynd griffith jones, based on essay by the idea of 'milking' the essay mitt, returns from previous investments which established good distribution and market share for the product. Products in this quadrant need maintenance and protection activity, together with good cost management, not growth effort, because there is little or no additional growth available. dog - This is any product or service of yours which has low market presence in a mature or stagnant market. There is and contrast essay point, no point in developing products or services in this quadrant. Many organizations discontinue products/services that they consider fall into this category, in which case consider potential impact on overhead cost recovery. Businesses that have been starved or denied development find themselves with a high or entire proportion of descriptive mitt, their products or services in and contrast essay point by, this quadrant, which is obviously not very funny at all, except to the competitors. problem child (also called question marks or wildcats ) - These are products which have a big and growing market potential, but existing low market share, normally because they are new products, or the application has not been spotted and acted upon yet. New business development and project management principles are required here to online report ensure that these products' potential can be realised and disasters avoided.

This is likely to and contrast essay by be an area of business that is baseball, quite competitive, where the pioneers take the risks in the hope of securing good early distribution arrangements, image, reputation and essay point by, market share. Gross profit margins are likely to be high, but overheads, in john essays, the form of essay point, costs of research, development, advertising, market education, and low economies of scale, are normally high, and can cause initial business development in this area to be loss-making until the product moves into essay baseball, the rising star category, which is by no means assured - many problem children products remain as such. rising star - Or 'star' products, are those which have good market share in a strong and growing market. Essay Point. As a product moves into this category it is commonly known as a 'rising star'. When a market is chetwynd jones, strong and still growing, competition is not yet fully established.

Demand is strong; saturation or over-supply do not exists, and so pricing is relatively unhindered. This all means that these products produce very good returns and profitability. The market is receptive and essay by, educated, which optimizes selling efficiencies and margins. Production and manufacturing overheads are established and costs minimised due to high volumes and online report, good economies of scale. These are great products and worthy of and contrast essay point by, continuing investment provided good growth potential continues to exist. When it does not these products are likely to move down to cash cow status, and the company needs to have the next rising stars developing from its problem children. After considering your business in terms of the Ansoff matrix and Boston matrix (which are thinking aids as much as anything else, not a magic solution in critique papers, themselves), on essay by a more detailed level, and for many businesses just as significant as the Ansoff-type-options, what is the significance of your major accounts - do they offer better opportunity for growth and development than your ordinary business? Do you have a high quality, specialised offering that delivers better business benefit on a large scale as opposed to descriptive mitt small scale? Are your selling costs and investment similar for and contrast point large and small contracts? If so you might do better concentrating on developing large major accounts business, rather than taking a sophisticated product or service solution to smaller companies which do not appreciate or require it, and cost you just as much to sell to as a large organization. This customer matrix model is book, used by many companies to understand and determine strategies according to customer types.

Assessing product type is helped by reference to and contrast point the Boston matrix model. There is critique research, a lot of flexibility as to what constitutes 'good' and 'not so good customers' - use your own criteria. A good way to do this is to devise your own grading system using criteria that mean something to your own situation. Typical criteria are: size, location, relationship, credit-rating and payment terms, is the customer growing (or not), the security of the supply contract, the by, service and support overhead required, etc. This kind of customer profiling tool and exercise is often overlooked, but it is a critical aspect of book writer, marketing and sales development, and of optimizing sales effectiveness and business development performance and profitability.

Each quadrant requires a different sales approach. The type of customer also implies the type of and contrast, sales person who should be responsible for managing the relationship. Research Papers. A firm view needs to be taken before committing expensive field-based sales resources to 'not so good' customers. And Contrast Point. Focus prospect development (identifying and contacting new prospective customers) on the profile which appears in the top left quadrant. Identify prospective new customers who fit this profile, and allocate your business development resources (people and advertising) to this audience. Consider also What are your competitor weaknesses in terms of sectors, geographical territory and products or services, and how might these factors affect your options? Use the papers, SWOT analysis also for assessing each competitor as well as your own organization or department. Many organizations issue a marketing budget from the top down (a budget issued by the Centre/HQ/Finance Director), so to speak, in which case, what is your marketing budget and how can you use it to produce the best return on investment, and to essay point help the company best to meet its overall business aims? Use the models described here to assess your best likely returns on marketing investment. The best way to begin to model and plan your marketing is to have a record of your historical (say last year's) sales results (including selling and advertising costs if appropriate and available) on research papers a spreadsheet.

The level of detail is and contrast point, up to you; modern spreadsheets can organize massive amounts of data and make very complex analysis quick easy. Data is chetwynd griffith essays, vital and will enable you to do most of the analysis you need for essay by marketing planning. In simple terms you can use last year's results as a basis for planning and modelling the next year's sales, and the marketing expenditure and activities required to achieve them. simple business plan or sales plan tools examples. These templates examples help the essays, planning process. Split and analyse your business or sales according to essay your main products/services (or revenue streams) according to the profit drivers or 'levers' (variables that you can change which affect profit), e.g., quantity or volume, average sales value or price, % gross margin or profit. Chetwynd Griffith Jones Essays. Add different columns which reflect your own business profit drivers or levers, and to provide the most relevant measures. Do the same for each important aspect of your business, for example, split by market sector (or segment): And, for example, split by distributor (or route to market):

These simple split analysis tools are an extremely effective way to plan your sales and business. Point. Construct a working spreadsheet so that the bottom-right cell shows the total sales or gross margin, or profit, whatever you need to book writer measure, and by and contrast point by changing the figures within the split (altering the mix, average prices, quantities, etc) you can carry out 'what if?' analysis to develop the best plans. If you are a competent working with spreadsheets it is normally possible to assemble all of this data onto a single spreadsheet and then show different analyses by papers sorting and graphing according to different fields. When you are happy with the overall totals for the year, convert this into a phased monthly plan, with as many lines and columns as you need and are appropriate for the business. Develop this spreadsheet by showing inputs as well as sales outputs - the quantifiable activity (for example, the numbers of essay, enquiries necessary to produce the papers, planned sales levels) required to produce the planned performance.

Large businesses need extensive and and contrast essay point by, multiple page spreadsheets. A business plan needs costs as well as sales, and griffith jones essays, will show profit as well as revenue and gross margin, but the principle is the same: plan the detailed numbers and values of what the business performance will be, and what inputs are required to achieve it. Here's a free MSExcel profit and loss account template tool for incorporating these factors and financials into a more formal phased business trading plan, which also serves as a business forecasting and reporting tool too. Adapt it to suit your purposes. Essay By. This plan example is also available as a PDF, see the Profit and Loss Account (PL) Small Enterprise Business Plan Example (PDF). The numbers could be anything: ten times less, ten times more, a hundred times more - the grendel, principle is the same. Consider also indirect activities that affect sales and business levels, such as customer service. Identify key performance indicators here too, such as customer complaints response and resolution levels and timescales. And Contrast Point. Internal lead referral schemes, strategic partnership activity; the performance of papers on bowling, other direct sales activities such as sales agencies, distributorships, export activities, licensing, etc.

These performance factors won't normally appear on a business plan spreadsheet, but a separate plan should be made for them, otherwise they won't happen. write your marketing plan or business plan. Your marketing plan is actually a statement, supported by relevant financial data, of how you are going to develop your business. And Contrast Point By. Plans should be based on actions, not masses of historical data. The historical and market information should be sufficient just to explain and justify the opportunities, direction, strategy, and critique papers, most importantly, the marketing actions, methods and measures - not to tell the story of the past 20 years of your particular industry. What you are going to by sell to whom, when and how you are going to sell it, how much contribution (gross profit) the sales produce, what the marketing cost will be, and what will be the return on investment. As stated above it is easiest and best to assemble all of this data onto online report, a spreadsheet, which then allows data to be manipulated through the and contrast point, planning process, and then changed and re-projected when the trading year is under way. The spreadsheet then becomes the basis of your sales and marketing forecasting and results reporting tool. As well as sales and marketing data, in most types of businesses it is also useful to include measurable aims concerning customer service and satisfaction. The marketing plan will have costs that relate to a marketing budget in the overall business plan.

The marketing plan will also have revenue and gross margin/profitability targets that relate to the turnover and profitability in report writer, the overall business plan. This data is by, essentially numerical, and so needs also some supporting narrative as to how the numbers will be achieved - the actions - but keep the baseball mitt, narrative concise; if it extends to more than a half-dozen sheets make sure you put a succinct executive summary on the front. The marketing plan narrative could if appropriate also refer to essay indirect activities such as product development, customer service, quality assurance, training etc., if significantly relevant to achieving the marketing plan aims. Be pragmatic - marketing plans vary enormously depending on the type, size and maturity of business. Above all create a plan that logically shows how the business can best consolidate and descriptive, grow its successful profitable areas. The marketing plan should be a working and truly useful tool - if it is, then it's probably a good one. sample business plan, marketing plan or sales plan sample structure and example format/template. Keep the written part of the business plan as concise and brief as possible - most situations and high-ranking executives do not need to see plans that are an inch thick.

If you can make your case on and contrast essay a half dozen pages then do so. Particularly if your plan is jones, more than 5-6 pages long, produce an executive summary (easiest to do when you have completed the plan) and insert it at the beginning of the document. If you need to include lots of reference material, examples, charts, evidence, etc, show these as appendices at the back of the document and make sure they are numbered and referenced during the main body of the plan. Each new section should start at the top of a new page. Number the pages. Important plans should be suitably bound. All business plans should be professionally and neatly presented, with no grammar and spelling errors, clearly laid out in an easy to read format (avoid lots of upper-case or fancy fonts or italics as these are all difficult to read). Your business plan contents and structure should be as follows: business plans structure - a business planning template. Title page: Title or heading of the essay by, plan and brief description if required, author, date, company/organization if applicable, details of online book report, circulation and confidentiality.

Contents page: A list of contents (basically the sections listed here, starting with the Introduction page) showing page numbers, plus a list of appendices or addendums (added reference material at the back of the document) allowing the reader to find what they need and navigate the document easily, and to and contrast refer others to particular items and page numbers when reviewing or querying. Introduction page : Introduction and papers, purpose of the plan, terms of and contrast essay point by, reference if applicable (usually for papers formal and large plans or projects). Executive summary page: Optional and usually beneficial, this should normally be no more than a page long (or it's not an executive summary) - the key points of the whole plan including conclusions, recommendations, actions, financial returns on and contrast essay point by investment, etc., clearly readable in a few minutes. Main body of plan: sections and headings as required, see template below. Acknowledgments and bibliography/reference sources: if relevant (only required normally for very large formal plans) Appendices: appendices or addendums - additional detailed reference material, examples, statistics, spreadsheets, etc., for research on bowling reference and essay by, not central to the main presentation of critique research papers, your plan. business plans - main body sections examples template. This sample template is typical for a sales/marketing/new business development business plan. And Contrast Essay Point By. (A business plan for a more complex project such as an international joint-venture, or the formation of a new company including manufacturing plant or other overhead activities would need to include relevant information and financials about the essay mitt, overheads and resources concerned, and the financials would need to show costs and and contrast essay point, profits more like a fully developed profit and loss account, with cashflow projections, balance sheet, etc.) Where appropriate refer to your position regarding corporate ethics and social responsibility and the Psychological Contract.

While these aspects are not mechanisms within the jones essays, plan, they are crucial reference points. Define your market - sector(s) and segment(s) definitions Quantify your market (overview only) - size, segmentation, relevant statistics, values, numbers (locations, people/users, etc) - make this relevant to you business Explain your market(s) - sector trends, eg., growth, legislation, seasonality, PEST factors where relevant, refer to Ansoff matrix, show the strategic business drivers within sector and segments, purchasing mechanisms, processes, restrictions - what are the essay point, factors that determine customers' priorities and needs - this is a logical place to refer to ethics and CSR (corporate social responsibility Explain your existing business - your current business according to essay sector, products/services, quantities, values, distributor, etc. Analyse your existing customer spread by customer type, values and products/services including major accounts (the 'Pareto Principle' or the '80:20 rule' often applies here, eg., 80% of your business comes from 20% of your customers) Explain your products and services - refer to and contrast essay point by Boston matrix and especially your strategic propositions (what these propositions will do for papers your customers) including your USP's and by, UPB's (see sales training section and acronyms) Explain you routes to market, gatekeepers, influencers and strategic partners - the other organizations/individuals you will work with to develop your market, including 'what's in it for essay them', commissions, endorsements, accreditations, approvals, licenses, etc. And Contrast By. Case studies and track record - the credibility, evidence and proof that your propositions and strategic partnerships work Competitor analysis, eg., SWOT analysis of your own business compared to SWOT analysis of each competitor Sales/marketing/business plan (1 year min) showing sales and margins by product/service stream, mix, values, segment, 'distributor', etc, whatever is relevant, phased monthly, in research, as much detail as you need. This should be on a spreadsheet , with as many different sheets as necessary to and contrast point quantify relevant inputs and outputs.

List your strategic actions (marketing campaigns, sales activities, advertising, etc) that will deliver the above, with costs and returns. This should be supported with a spreadsheet, showing cost and griffith jones essays, return on investment for essay point each activity. Tip: If the business plan concerns an existing activity, use the previous year's sales/business analysis as the basis for the next year's sales/business plan. Adapt as necessary according to your new strategic plans. other business planning and chetwynd, marketing issues. staffing and training implications. Your people are unlikely to have all the skills they need to help you implement a marketing plan. You may not have all the people that you need so you have to consider justifying and obtaining extra.

Customer service is acutely sensitive to staffing and training. And Contrast Essay By. Are all of chetwynd griffith essays, your people aware of the aims of the business, its mission statement and your sales propositions? Do they know what their responsibilities are? How will you measure their performance? Many of these issues feed back into the business plan under human resources and training, where budgets need to be available to support the and contrast essay point by, investment in these areas.

You should formulate a customer service charter, extending both your mission statement and your service offer, so as to research papers inform staff and customers what your standards are. These standards can cover quite detailed aspects of essay point, your service, such as how many times the telephone will be permitted to ring until the caller is essay baseball, gets an answer. And Contrast Essay Point. Other issues might include: How many days between receipt and research papers, response for written correspondence. Complaints procedure and timescales for each stage.

This charter sets customer expectations, so be sure you can meet them. Customers get disappointed particularly when their expectations are not met, and when so many standards can be set at and contrast essay point arbitrary levels, think of each one as a promise that you should keep. Business-to-business customers would expect to agree these standards with their suppliers and have them recorded as part of descriptive essay baseball mitt, their contracts, or as SLA's (service level agreements). Increasingly, large customers demand SLA's to and contrast point be tailored to their own specific needs, and the process of developing these understandings and agreements is absolutely crucial to the maintenance and critique, development of essay point by, large contracts. Remember an chetwynd, important rule about customer service: It's not so much the by, failure to online book report meet standards that causes major dissatisfaction among customers - everyone can make a mistake - the biggest cause of upset is the failure of suppliers to inform customers and keep them updated when problems arise.

Not being told in advance, not receiving any apology, not getting any explanation why, and not hearing what's going to be done to put things right, are key areas of essay point by, customer dissatisfaction, and therefore easy areas for chetwynd suppliers to essay focus their efforts to achieve and communicate improvements. A special point of papers, note for essay by businesses that require a strong technical profile among their service staff: these people are often reactive by nature and so not good at taking initiative to identify and anticipate problem areas in customer service. It's therefore helpful to establish suitable mechanisms and responsibility to pick up problems and deal with them - a kind of trouble-shooting capability - which can be separately managed and essay, monitored at by a strategic level. Do not assume that technically-oriented staff will be capable of proactively developing customer service solutions and revisions to SLA's - they generally need help in doing so from staff with high creativity, empathy, communications and initiative capabilities. establish systems to measure customer service and staff performance. These standards and the SLA's established for john gardner grendel essays large customers need to be visible, agreed with customers, absolutely measurable. You must keep measuring your performance against them, and and contrast essay, preferably publishing the results, internally and externally. Customer complaints handling is a key element: Measuring customer complaints is crucial because individual complaints are crucial areas to essay and villains resolve, and also as a whole, complaints serve as a barometer for and contrast the quality and performance of the online book writer, business.

You need to have a scheme which encourages, not discourages, customers to complain, to open the channels as wide as possible. Essay Point. Most businesses are too defensive where complaints are concerned, preferring to minimise their importance, or to seek to justify and excuse them. Wrong. Critique Research Papers. Complaints are the opportunities to turn ordinary service into unbeatable service. Moreover, time and again surveys suggest that anything up to nine out of ten people do not complain to the provider when they feel dissatisfied - they just keep their dissatisfaction to themselves and the provider never finds out there's a problem, even when the customer chooses to go elsewhere.

But every complaining customer will tell at least a couple of their friends or relations. Every dissatisfied staff member in the customer organization will tell several of their colleagues. Unreported complaints spawn bad feelings and essay by, the breakdown of essays, relationships. It is imperative that you capture all complaints in and contrast essay point, order to: Put at ease and give explanation or reassurance to critique research papers the person complaining. Reduce the and contrast essay, chances of them complaining to someone else. Descriptive Essay Mitt. Monitor exactly how many dissatisfied customers you have and what the essay point, causes are, and that's even more important if you're failing to deliver your mission statement or service offer!

Take appropriate corrective action to prevent a re-occurrence. If appropriate (ie for large customers) review SLA's and take the critique research, opportunity to agree new SLA's with the customer. implications for essay by IT, premises, and reporting systems. Also relating to your business plan are the issues of: Information Technology - are your computers and online book, communications systems capable of giving you the information and analysis you need? How do you use email - is and contrast point by, it helping or hindering your business and the quality of service you give to your customers?

What internet presence and processes do you need? How should your voice and data systems work together? What systems need to john essays be available to mobile staff? What customer relationship management (CRM) systems should you have? How should you consider all these issues to essay point see the needs and opportunities?

IT and communications systems increasingly offer marketing and competitive advantage to online writer businesses in all sectors - make sure you know hat IT can do for by you and for your customers. Premises - Review your premises and sites in light of your customer service, distribution, and research, customer relationship requirements. Pay particular attention anywhere in and contrast, your organization that your customers visit - the impression and service you give here is critical. Reporting systems - If you can't measure it you can't manage it, and research, where finance and business performance is concerned this is certainly true. First you must identify and agree internally your key performance indicators (KPI's). Identify every aspect of your service or performance that is important - then you need to be able to measure it and report on it, and where people are involved in performing to certain standards then the standards and the reporting needs to point by be transparent to them also. How do you report on sales, marketing and business performance and interpret the results? Who needs to chetwynd essays know?

Who needs to and contrast essay point by capture the data? communications and ongoing customer feedback are essential. Having an open dialogue with your customers is vital. There's a double benefit to your business in ensuring this happens: You nip problems in the bud and stay aware of how you're performing. Your customers feel better about the service you provide as a result of the communications, or from the fact that the channel is essays, open even if they don't use it - it's human nature. Try to devise a standard feedback form. And Contrast Essay Point By. It can double as a promotional tool as well if it's made available on a wider scale. Jones Essays. The form can carry details of your mission statement, service offer and essay point, your customer service charter. Consider carrying out heroes and villains a customer satisfaction and perceptions survey. There are many ways to do this on by a small or large scale, and valuable feedback is always obtained from customer survey exercises.

tips for starting a small business or self-employment - for non-financial people. Some of us are not naturally inclined towards the essay heroes and villains, sort of point, detailed financial thinking that is required for traditional detailed business planning. If this is you, you'll possess other valuable capabilities that will be useful in your own enterprise, and you'll maybe find it helpful to use this alternative approach to planning a new enterprise or self-employment. It can be stressful and online report, counter-productive to try to use methods that are not natural or comfortable. If you are helping or advising others about by starting their own enterprise or self-employment, the same principles apply. Not everyone is naturally good at business planning, but everyone who dreams of heroes, being self-employed or who wants to start and run their own independent enterprise is capable of doing so, provided they work to their strengths, capabilities and essay point by, passions. People running successful enterprises come in all shapes and sizes, from all backgrounds, all ages, with skills, passions, and capabilities in any field you can imagine. Anyone can run their own business or be successful in research, self-employment given the simple determination to do so. Business and enterprise is not just for stereotypical 'business-types'; the and contrast point by, benefits and advantages of being your own boss are available to us all. Here are some pointers for people considering starting their own new enterprise, or for helping others to do the descriptive baseball, same. First, and especially if you are not clear of essay by, your own real strengths, or what direction to research pursue, focus on using tools to understanding your own personality style and strengths.

Then use this knowledge to point by imagine and realise how your natural capabilities can be used to best effect in defining and mitt, providing your own services or running your own enterprise. The VAK and point by, Multiple Intelligences tools on this site are helpful for griffith jones essays this purpose. They assess people's strengths completely differently to and contrast essay by traditional IQ or academic evaluations, which are extremely narrow and chetwynd jones essays, generally not relevant at all for people who want to be their own boss. Understanding personality is also useful since personality-type greatly influences the and contrast essay by, way that a person approaches self-employment or running an book report writer, enterprise, and what sort of service or business to offer. The Personality Styles page provides a lot of essay point by, explanation about this. Many people are conditioned by schools and over-cautious parents to under-estimate their own potential and capabilities, which is john gardner, a big reason to take a fresh look at what you are good at, and to and contrast point re-think and book, understand better the essay, ways that your personality type tends to be successful in life and business. There are many ways to be successful and independent in life aside from building and running a conventional business and adhering to conventional financial planning methods. The basic economics of becoming successfully independent in chetwynd griffith jones essays, any sort of venture are actually extremely simple, and focusing on by the following simple fundamentals (a process really) can help many folk turn your dream or an idea into a successful enterprise or self-employment reality. It's usually easiest to think first of these factors in terms of daily, weekly or monthly numbers and values, and then to extend the chetwynd, figures to give totals for a whole year: 1. What's your product or service? (What's good/special/different about your products or service that enough people will buy it? And importantly is and contrast essay by, this something that you have a real passion for?

All successful enterprises are built on doing something the owner enjoys.) 2. What does it cost to make/buy in/provide the product or service? (If you are buying and selling products or using materials consider the cost prices. Research Papers On Bowling. If the main resource is your own time then attach a cost to your labour that reflects your available time for the work and and contrast point, the wage you need to draw. Divide your required annual wage by research papers the number of work hours available to you, and this is your notional hourly labour cost.) 3. By. What price will the griffith jones essays, product/service sell for? (Ideally small businesses need a healthy profit margin or mark-up - doubling the cost is good if the market will accept it. A mark-up of less than 50% is cause for concern unless you are selling products in relatively high volumes or values. Price your products/services according to and contrast essay what the market will pay, not according to online book writer your costs.

Take into account your competitors and what they charge and their relative quality. Service businesses that use only the essay by, person's time are often very attractive and profitable because there is book, no added complication of buying and holding stock - hence why window-cleaning, sign-writing, repairs, gardening, decorating, tutoring, writing, therapy, training, coaching and consultancy, etc., are such good businesses for point by people who prefer a simple approach to papers self-employment and enterprise. Consider the effect of and contrast point, VAT especially for papers on bowling 'consumer' businesses - ie., selling to and contrast essay the general public - assuming your business is research, or must be VAT registered. Private consumers of course are more sensitive to VAT than business customers who can generally reclaim VAT should you have to add it to point your prices.) 4. Jones Essays. Who will buy the product/service? (Identify your customers and and contrast point, market. Do you know this for essay heroes sure? Test your assumptions: this is a critical part of the proposition and and contrast, generally benefits from more thought and descriptive baseball mitt, research to confirm that a big enough market exists for your idea. Consider your competition - what are people buying currently and why will they buy from you instead?) 5. Essay Point. How much/many do you need to sell in report, a year?

And how many customers do you need? (This is a vital part of the proposition to by confirm that the gross profit (the difference between costs of online book report, bought in products/labour and sales revenues) covers your/their financial needs (including a living wage and other fixed costs of running the enterprise. Again remember the affect of and contrast essay point by, VAT on your selling prices if applicable.) 6. How will people know about the chetwynd jones essays, service/product? (You need to understand what advertising/marketing/enquiry-generation is necessary - activity and cost. There is usually a cost for and contrast point generating new customers, especially in the early stages of a new enterprise. Once the business is established, say after six months to a year, 'word-of-mouth' referrals are for some businesses all that is required to essay mitt produce new customers - especially those based in a local community, but virtually any new enterprise requires marketing at its launch. And Contrast Point. See the articles on marketing and selling.) 7. Does all this add up, and papers, better still provide a cash surplus at the end of a year? - if so then it's probably a good business model. These basic questions represent the typical 'table napkin' business proposition that is the start of essay point, most businesses, including very large complex ones. People who dislike and are not fluent in detailed business calculations might find the above process a useful starting point when thinking about research on bowling how to begin a new enterprise or a venture in self-employment.

If this is and contrast essay by, you, you are not alone: many visionary entrepreneurs can run a huge profitable business but have great difficulty putting together a proper business plan. Hence many highly successful business leaders rely heavily on their financial directors to john gardner essays take care of the financial details, leaving them free to get on with the business activity that makes best use of point by, their natural skill, be it creativity, selling, service-provision, people-skills, technical skills, or whatever. Incidentally the above factors are the essential components which make up a basic Profit and descriptive mitt, Loss Account, which is the primary management tool for a business of any scale and complexity. Here's a free MSExcel profit and loss account template tool for extending these factors and financials into a more formal phased plan, which also serves as a business forecasting and reporting tool too. If in doubt about essay by this seek some help from an experienced business person or your accountant. Adapt it to suit your purposes. The example PL trading plan is also available as a pdf. The numbers could be anything - ten times less, ten times more, a hundred times more - the principle is the same. company types and financial set up - quick guide. When you have confirmed and refined the basic viability of your business idea you can then begin getting to grips with the more detailed aspects of forming the business itself. This necessarily includes deciding your type of chetwynd griffith jones, business constitution - the legal format of your company - or 'company type' as it is often described.

The Psychological Contract is increasingly significant within and relating to business constitution. Small (UK) businesses are most commonly one of the following: sole-trader - essentially a self-employed owner - no limited personal liability - relatively easy set up and administration. partnership - essentially a group of self-employed partners/owners - no limited personal liability - easy-ish set up and administration, although ultimately dependent on the complexity of the company and essay point, partnership. limited liability partnership (LLP) - as above, except that liability is limited to personal investments and guarantees. limited company (abbreviated to Ltd after the company name) - liability is online report writer, limited to the assets of the company - registered with Companies House and legally obliged to publish accounts. There are less common variations of limited companies, and essay, other business structures and papers, constitutions, for example: social enterprise - various structures including , trusts, associations and especially cooperatives - these are not common typical or traditional business structures, but social enterprises are growing in popularity, and essay by, will be explained in more detail on this website in due course. Meanwhile here is useful information about cooperatives. Online Book Writer. public limited company (plc) - not appropriate for small companies. Sole-trader and partnership companies are very easy to set up and administer, but the owner/partners are personally liable for all business debts and potential claims, so good insurance cover (including professional indemnity and public liability) is and contrast essay point by, essential especially if business liabilities are potentially serious. A limited liability partnership offers protection to partners in book report, terms of personal liabilities, in and contrast essay point by, that liabilities are limited to the extent of john grendel, personal investment and any other guarantees. This is considered to be too much personal exposure by many business people, in which case a limited company is the essay by, obvious alternative. A limited company exists in its own right - a tricky concept to understand for many people - basically meaning that financial liabilities belong to the company (its shareholders, to research papers the value of their shares in other words) rather than the directors and executives of the business, as would apply in a partnership.

Limited companies ultimately offer more flexibility for and contrast essay by large complex businesses but can be over-complicated and administratively heavy if all you want to do is run a local shop or landscape gardening business or modest training or coaching business. Whatever, consider carefully what type of company framework will suit you best. Critique Papers. Once established it can be quite difficult to unravel and change if you get it wrong - not impossible, but a nuisance if you could have got it right first time with a bit of extra thought at the planning stage. A good accountant will help you decide what is and contrast essay point by, best for your situation from a legal and book report writer, financial standpoint, although before this you should think for yourself what sort of by, business structure best fits your wider business situation, and especially your business aims and philosophy. Broad guidelines about business types are available from the UK Government business information Businesslink website. You'll need a business bank account.

In fact it is a legal requirement of john gardner essays, all limited companies to have a business bank account. Essay Point. Shop around. There are wide variations in services and costs offered by descriptive essay mitt the different banks. You must also understand and organize the tax implications for your type of business. Before starting any business ensure also that you have the information and controls to account for and pay all taxes due. Helpfully to learn more about this in essay by, the UK, most tax affairs are within the responsibilities of HM Revenue and Customs - until they too change their name to something very silly. That said, the relevance today of HM (Her Majesty's) is a bit puzzling when you stop to chetwynd jones essays think about it and surely due for updating to the modern age. HMRC is another weird example of quirky UK Government departmental names and point by, branding. God help us all, our country is run by alien wannabe noblemen from the middle ages. VAT (Value Added Tax or your national equivalent) is an issue warranting serious thought if your business is small enough to have a choice in the matter. Beyond a certain turnover (?68,000 as at 2010) any UK business must register for VAT.

Check the HMRC website for the current position. Being VAT registered means you must charge VAT on all VAT-rated supplies, which means also that the VAT you receive on payments from your customers must be paid to HM Revenue and Customs. (No you cannot keep it, even though some accidentally try to, and others think they are entitled to.) Being VAT registered also enables you to reclaim VAT that you pay on business costs, although there are some notable exceptions, like company cars. Retail and consumer businesses are especially affected by VAT. Private consumers cannot claim back VAT, so the book, effect of VAT on pricing and margins needs careful thought in and contrast essay point by, planning any consumer business. Up to a certain level of turnover (in the UK) becoming registered for VAT is optional. If your business turnover is essay and villains, likely to be below the threshold for mandatory VAT registration, you must decide for yourself if the advantages outweigh the disadvantages. Point. The main advantages of VAT registration are: your business will be perceived by certain people - especially other businesses - to be larger and more credible (not being registered for VAT indicates immediately that your turnover is below the VAT threshold) you will be able to reclaim VAT that you are charged on legitimate allowable business costs.

The main disadvantages of being VAT registered are: the administrative burden in keeping VAT records and critique papers, submitting VAT returns (although this has been enormously simplified in recent years so that for small simple businesses it is really not a problem at all) risks of getting onto cashflow difficulties if you fail to point set funds aside to pay your VAT bills (see the critique research papers, tax tips below) Information about VAT (and all other tax issues) is at the UK Government HM Revenue and Customs website: http://www.hmrc.gov.uk. VAT is not the only tax. Taxes are also due on company profits (sole-traders or partnerships profits are taxed via personal earnings of the sole-trader or partners) and on staff salaries (national insurance). A sole-trader or partnership can employ staff, in which case national insurance tax is due on salaries paid to essay by employees, which is different to writer the tax that employees pay themselves. Failing to retain funds in a company to essay pay taxes is a serious problem that's easily avoided with good early planning. Contact your tax office. Inform them of your plans and seek their help.

Tax offices are generally extremely helpful, so ask. You can even talk to a real person on the phone without having to breach a six-level automated menu system. Ideally find a decent accountant too. Preferably one who comes recommended to you. Essay Heroes And Villains. With all the greatest respect to and contrast essay point by accountants everywhere, accountants are quite commonly very intense people, like solicitors and scientists, very much focused on process, accuracy, rules, etc., which in terms of personality fit can be a little at odds with the critique research papers, style of many entrepreneurs. So again shop around and find an accountant with whom you can share a joke and and contrast, a beer or something from the human world. The relationship between a business person and his/her accountant is crucial if the business is to grow and develop significantly. Accountants might seem at times to be from another planet, but I can assure you the good ones are bloody magicians when it comes to business development, especially when the figures get really interesting. The statement that one stroke of an accountant's pen is mightier than the world's most successful sales team, is critique, actually true. For many entrepreneurs, the and contrast essay point, ideal scenario is to grow your business large enough to support the cost of a really excellent finance director, who can take care of all the detailed legal and and villains, financial matters for essay point by you, and leave you completely free to concentrate on heroes and villains growing the business - concentrating your efforts and ideas and strategy externally towards markets and customers, and internally towards optimizing innovation and your staff.

See the quick tax tips below, especially for small businesses which might not easily be able to achieve immediate and accurate control of their tax liabilities, which is one of the major early risks for essay a new successful small business. tax tips - understanding and accounting for taxes from the start. A significant potential problem area for john gardner grendel newly self-employed people, and for new business start-ups, is by, failing to research papers budget and save for inevitable taxes which arise from essay by, your business activities. N.B. Critique. These tips are not meant to be a detailed comprehensive guide to business taxation. This section merely addresses a particular vulnerability of and contrast point by, new start-up businesses in failing to set aside sufficient reserves to meet tax liabilities, especially small businesses, and john essays, even more especially sole-traders and partnerships and and contrast essay, small limited companies, which lack expertise in john gardner, accounting and consequently might benefit from these simple warnings and tips related to and contrast essay tax liabilities. In general these issues would normally be managed via a cashflow forecast, together with suitable financial processes to allocate and make payments for all costs and critique research papers, liabilities arising in the course of trading. Essay Point. I recognise however that many small business start-ups do not begin with such attention to descriptive essay mitt financial processes, and it's primarily for point by those situations that these particular notes are provided. These notes in no way suggest that this is the normal fully controlled approach to planning and organizing tax liabilities and other cashflow issues within any business of chetwynd, significant scale.

This is simply a pragmatic and practical method aimed at essay point averting a common big problem affecting small business start-ups. While your type of company and business determines precisely which taxes apply to you, broadly taxes are due on john gardner grendel sales (for VAT registered businesses in the UK, or your VAT equivalent if outside the and contrast, UK), and on the profits of your business and your earnings. John Grendel. If you employ staff you will also have to pay national insurance tax on employees' earnings too. Point By. Generally sole-traders and partnerships have simpler tax arrangements - for papers example, profits are typically taxed as personal earnings - as compared with the and contrast essay point by, more complex taxes applicable to limited companies, which also pay taxes on company profits and staff salaries. Whatever, you must understand the tax liabilities applicable to your situation, and budget for them accordingly.

You must try to seek appropriate financial advice for your situation before you commence trading. Indeed understanding tax basics also helps you decide what type of chetwynd griffith jones, company will best suit your situation, again, before you begin trading. The potential for nasty financial surprises - notably tax bills that you have insufficient funds to pay - ironically tends to increase along with your success. This is because bigger sales and profits and earnings inevitably produce bigger tax bills (percentage of tax increases too in the early growth of a business), all of which becomes a very big problem if you've no funds to pay taxes when due. The risks of getting into difficulties can be greater for the self-employed and small partnerships which perhaps do not have great financial knowledge and experience, than for larger Limited Company start-ups which tend to point by have more systems and online report writer, support in financial areas. Start-ups are especially prone to tax surprises because the first set of tax bills can commonly be delayed, and if you fail to account properly for essay by all taxes due then obviously you increase the chances of spending more than you should do, resulting in not having adequate funds to cover the payments when they are due. Risks are increased further if you are new to self-employment, previously having been employed and accustomed to receiving a regular salary on which all taxes have already been deducted, in other words 'net' of tax. It can take a while to appreciate that business revenues or profits have no tax deducted when these earnings are put into essay mitt, your bank account; these amounts are called 'gross', because they include the and contrast essay point by, tax element. Essay Heroes. Therefore not all of your business earnings belong to you - some of the money belongs to the taxman. It's your responsibility to essay point deduct the john grendel, taxes due, to set this money aside, and to pay the tax bills when demanded.

Additionally, if you are a person who is in the habit of spending everything that you earn, you must be even more careful, since this tendency will increase the risks of and contrast point by, your being unable to online book report writer pay your taxes. Failing to get on essay point by top of the reality of taxes from the very beginning can lead to serious debt and cashflow problems, which is a miserable way to run a business. So you must anticipate and essay heroes, set aside funds necessary to meet your tax liabilities from the very start of and contrast essay point by, your business, even if you do not initially have a very accurate idea of research on bowling, what taxes will be due, or you lack effective systems to calculate them - many small start-ups are in this position. Nevertheless it is too late to and contrast essay point by start thinking about tax when the first demands fall due. If when starting your business you do not have information and systems to critique research papers identify and account accurately for your tax liabilities, here are two simple quick tax tips to avoid problems with the taxman: You must estimate your tax liabilities and ensure that you set aside funds to cover these liabilities while you are banking your payments received into the business. The easiest way to do this is to identify the taxes applicable to your business, for example VAT and your own personal income tax and national insurance. Identify the percentages that apply to your own situation and earnings levels. And Contrast Point By. You can do this approximately. Descriptive Essay. It does not need to be very precise.

Add these percentages together, and then set aside this percentage of all your earnings that you receive into your business. Put these monies into a separate savings account where you can't confuse them with your main business account, i.e., your 'working capital' typically held in a current account. Always over-estimate your tax liabilities so as to set aside more than you need. Having a surplus is not a problem. Having not enough money to and contrast essay by pay taxes because you've under-estimated tax due is a problem; sometimes enough to kill an otherwise promising business. Here's an example to show how quickly and easily you can plan and papers, set aside a contingency to pay your tax bills, even if you've no experience or systems to calculate them precisely. Essay By. This example is based on a self-employed consultancy-type business, like a training or coaching business, in essay baseball mitt, which there are no significant costs of sales (products or services bought in) or overheads, i.e., revenues are effectively the profits too, since there are minimal costs to offset against profits: example of estimating and setting aside money to pay taxes. 1. And Contrast. In the UK VAT on critique papers most products and services is 17.5%. This equates (roughly) to by 15% when calculating the VAT element within a VAT-inclusive amount. Griffith Essays. This means that you can set aside 15% of your revenues and reliably be sure of covering your VAT liabilities.

2. In the UK personal income tax and national insurance combined is point, roughly 30% of earnings up to about ?30,000 (a little over in fact), rising to 49% - call it 50% - of earnings above ?30k - roughly. N.B. Income tax and national insurance are calculated on taxable earnings, which exclude money spent on legitimate business costs, and papers, VAT received. These figures in the above example are approximate I emphasise again, which is all you need for this purpose, moreover the approximations are on the high side of what the precise liabilities actually are. Accountants call this sort of thinking 'prudent'. It's a pessimistic approach to forecasting liabilities rather than optimistic, which is and contrast essay point, fundamental to good financial planning and management: if the pessimism is wrong then you end up with a surplus (which is john gardner grendel essays, good), but if you are wrong in making optimistic forecasts and estimates (over-ambitious sales, and lower-than-actual costs and liabilities), then you run out of by, money (which is bad). Back to critique papers the percentages.. Knowing the essay by, income tax percentages enables you to set aside a suitable percentage of your earnings when you receive them into the business.

Roughly speaking, for earnings up to ?30k you need to essays set aside 30% to cover income tax and national insurance. Essay. For earnings over ?30k you need to set aside 50% to cover your income tax and national insurance. (Earnings below ?30k remain taxable at 30%). Critique Research Papers. Remember you can arrive at these figures based on the VAT exclusive revenues, but to keep matters simpler it is easier to use an adjusted total percentage figure to apply to essay by the total gross earnings. If it's kept very simple and quick you'll be more likely to do it - and/or to communicate the method effectively to your partner if they are responsible for handling the financials, as often happens. Given this example, if in your first year your gross revenues (banked payments received) are say ?50,000, assuming you are VAT registered, then your tax liabilities will be (roughly): From this example you can see that setting aside 45.5% of earnings (yes it's a lot isn't it - which is why you need to anticipate it and chetwynd griffith, set the essay point by, money aside) would comfortably cover VAT and income tax liabilities.

To be extra safe and simpler in this example you could round it up to 50%. John Gardner Grendel Essays. The tax liability will obviously increase with increasing revenues - and in percentage terms too regarding personal income tax, since more earnings would be at the higher rate. You must therefore also monitor your earnings levels through the year and adjust your percentage tax contingency accordingly. As stated already above, the risk of under-estimating tax liabilities increases the and contrast by, more successful you are, because tax bills get bigger. In truth you will have some costs to offset against the earnings figures above, but again for research papers on bowling the purposes of establishing a very quick principle of saving a fixed percentage as a tax reserve until you know and can control these liabilities more accurately, the above is a very useful simple easy method of initially staying solvent and on top of your tax affairs, which are for many people the most serious source of nasty financial surprises in and contrast point by, successful start-up businesses. The above example is very simple, and grendel, is provided mainly for small start-up businesses which might otherwise neglect to provide for and contrast point tax liabilities. The figures and percentages are not appropriate (but the broad principle of forecasting and providing funds for tax liabilities is) to apply to essay baseball retail businesses for and contrast essay by example, or businesses in which staff are employed, since these businesses carry significant costs of sales and overheads, which should be deducted from revenues before calculating profits and taxes liabilities. Neither does the example take account of the papers, various ways to reduce tax liabilities by reinvesting profits in the business, writing off stock, putting money into point, pensions, charitable donations, etc.

A third tip is - in fact it's effectively a legal requirement - to inform your relevant tax authorities as soon as possible about your new business. Preferably do this a few weeks before you actually begin trading. Critique Papers. That way you can be fully informed of the tax situation - and your best methods of dealing with tax, because there are usually different ways, and sometimes the differences can be worth quite a lot of money. I do not go into more detail about tax here because it's a very complex subject with wide variations depending on your own situation, for essay by which you should seek relevant information and advice from a qualified accountant and/or the relevant tax authorities. template and structure for papers on bowling a feasibility study or project justification report. First, and importantly, you need to and contrast point clarify/confirm the criteria that need to be fulfilled in order to justify starting or continuing the project or group, in other words, what do the decision-makers need to see in order to approve the online report writer, project or its continuation ? Then map these crucial approval criteria into the following structure. And Contrast Essay Point. In other words, work through the following template structure according to, and orientated as closely as you can to, the approval criteria . (These points could effectively be your feasibility study or report justification structure, and headings.) past, present and baseball, particularly future ('customer') need (for the outputs/results produced by and contrast point group or project) benefits and john gardner essays, outcomes achieved to date for what cost/investment benefits and outcomes to be produced in the future resources, costs, investment , etc., required to essay point produce future required outcomes and benefits (identify capital vs revenue costs, i.e., acquisition of major assets and ongoing overheads) alternative methods or ways of satisfying needs, with relative cost/return (return on investment) comparisons (ie., what other ways might there be for satisfying the need if the group or project doesn't happen or ceases?) outline strategy and financial plan , including people, aims, philosophy , etc (ideally tuned to descriptive essay meet the authorising power's fulfilment criteria) for proposed start or continuation of project (assuming you have a case, and assuming there is no better alternative) Keep it simple.

Keep to the facts and and contrast point, figures. Book Report Writer. Provide evidence. Be clear and concise. And Contrast. Refer to the tips about effective writing. If possible present your case in person to the decision-makers, with passion, calm confidence and style.

Look at the tips on presentations, and assertiveness. tips on finding and working with business planning advisors and consultants. If you need help putting together a business plan, and if you want to get the best from the engagement, it's important to find the right person to work with, and to establish and descriptive essay, maintain a good working relationship with them. If you are great big organisation you'll probably not need to work with outsiders, and if you do then you'll probably opt for a great big supplier, however there are significant benefits from working with much smaller suppliers - even single operators - and if you are a small business yourself, then this is probably the best choice anyway: to essay by seek a good single operator, or small partnership of experts. Here are some ideas of what to look for. You'll be best finding someone who meets as much of this criteria as possible: lives close-by you so you can work face-to-face with them and get to know each other properly, and heroes and villains, so that their time is efficiently used, instead of being in traffic on their way to and from your place is high integrity and very discreet is grown-up and got no baggage or emotional triggers - wise and mature - and it needn't be an age thing can help you see and decide where and how you want to and contrast essay point take the report, business, rather than tell you where he/she thinks you need to go - a mentor not an instructor understands or can immediately relate to your industry sector and type of point by, work is experienced working with small family companies, but is also a big picture strategist and research on bowling, visionary (advisors who've only ever worked with big corporations can sometimes be a bit free and easy with relatively small amounts of money - you need someone with a very very practical approach to managing cash-flow, and real business realities, who've worked in situations without the protection of vast corporate bureaucracy and the lack of transparency that this often brings) is triple-brained or whole-brained - mostly front-brained - (see the and contrast by, stuff on Benziger) - intuitive-creative, thinking, but also able to be personable and grounded, subject to the point below complements your own strengths and fills the gaps and weaknesses in your collective abilities (again see the stuff on Benziger and Jung etc) - ie., if collectively you need hard facts and figures and logic then seek people with these strengths - conversely if you are strong on all this, then seek the john grendel, creative humanist ethical strengths - he/she must work with you in a balanced team - so that the team has no blind spots, and no subjective biases in style or emphasis has two or three referees you can talk to and see evidence of point by, past work (although if you check most of the above it will be a formality) doesn't smoke or drink too much isn't desperate for the work. As regards finding someone like this, without doubt the most reliable and quickest method is by networking introductions through trusted people.

The person you seek might be three or more links away, but if it's a friend or associate of someone trusted, by essays someone who's trusted, by someone you trust, then probably they'll be right for you. And Contrast Essay By. Start by john grendel essays talking to people you know and asking if they know anyone, or if they know anyone who might know anyone - and take it from there. The chances of finding the right person in and contrast by, the local business listings or directory, out of the blue and from cold, are pretty remote. Replying to gardner adverts and and contrast by, marketing material from consultants is critique papers, a lottery too. You'll find someone eventually but you'll need to kiss a lot of frogs first, which takes ages and is not the cleverest way to and contrast point by spend your valuable time. For something so important as business planning advice or consultancy use referrals every time. Referrals work not only because you get to find someone trusted, but the person you find has a reasonable assurance that you can be trusted too, you see: good suppliers are just as choosy as good clients. It works both ways.

Be prepared to essay mitt reward the person in essay point, whatever way is appropriate and fair (I'm thinking percentage share of incremental success beyond expectations - perhaps even equity share if the person is really good and you'd value their on-going contribution and help). Often the best people won't ask for much money up front at essays all, but from your point of view you will attract a lot more commitment and work beyond the and contrast, call of normal duty from them if you reward higher than they ask or need. Good suppliers are immensely motivated by good clients and lots of online, appreciation, even if they don't want the financial reward. Good suppliers have usually seen too many ungrateful greedy people taking them for granted and and contrast, penny pinching, and will tend to grendel sack clients like these without even telling them why, and move on to more deserving enjoyable work with people who are fair and appreciative, which is how you'll be I'm sure. Finally, when you've found the right person, always continually agree expectations and essay, invite feedback about how the relationship is online writer, working, not just how the work is going. starting your own business - or starting any new business. These are the simple rules for planning and starting your own business. And Contrast Point By. The principles also apply to planning and starting a new business within an organisation for someone else. In amongst the distractions and details of new business planning, it is critique research, important to keep sight of the basic rules of new business success: Your successful new business must offer something unique that people want.

Uniqueness is vital because otherwise there is no reason for customers to buy from and contrast point, you. Anyone can be or create a unique business proposition by thinking about it clearly. Uniqueness comes in chetwynd essays, all shapes and sizes - it's chiefly being especially good and different in a particular area, or field or sector. Uniqueness can be in a product or service, or in a trading method, or in you yourself, or any other aspect of your business which makes what you are offering special and appealing to people. You will develop your own unique offering first by point identifying what people want and which nobody is providing properly. Second you must ensure that your chosen unique offering is also an extension of your own passion or particular expertise or strength - something you will love and research, enjoy being the best at - whatever it is. Every successful business is built on someone's passion. new business start-ups by and contrast by older people. If you already have a career behind you, and you wonder if you've got it in critique research papers, you to compete and and contrast point, succeed in grendel, the modern world, consider this. First - you have definitely got it in you to succeed.

Experience and wisdom are fundamental building blocks of success, and will be for you from the and contrast by, moment you start looking at yourself in this way. The reassuring wisdom that older people generally possess is extremely helpful in descriptive, forming trusting relationships - with customers, suppliers, partners, colleagues, etc - which are essential for essay by good business. Added to this, as we get older we have a greater understanding of our true passions and capabilities; we know our strengths and styles and tolerances. This gives older people a very special potency in business. Older people know what they are good at. They play to their strengths. They know which battles they can win, and which to avoid. Older people are also typically better at handling change and adapting to new things than younger people. This is because older people have had more experience doing just this.

Adapting to critique research papers change and working around things are significant capabilities in achieving new business success. If you are an older person considering starting a new business, think about the things you can do better than most other people - think about your strengths and use them. business start-ups for younger people. Younger people can be very successful starting new businesses just as much as older people can be. The essential principle of playing to your strengths applies, although the essay point by, implications are different for younger people compared to critique older people. Younger people are likely to have lots of fresh ideas. This is an advantage, so avoid people pour cold water on them. Test your ideas on potential customers, rather than to take advice from those people who are ready with their buckets of and contrast point, water. Next, get the report, help you need. It's difficult for young people to know all the and contrast essay, answers. You'll have the book report, ideas and the energy to make things happen, but consider the gaps in your experience, and the things you don't enjoy doing, and seek good quality reliable help for these things.

Getting good help at what you can't do or don't want to do will enable you to put all your energy into what you are good at and what you want to spend your time doing. Young people sometimes try to force themselves to fit into roles or responsibilities that are not comfortable or natural. This is de-stabilising and stressful. And Contrast Essay. Learn what you love and excel at, and chetwynd griffith jones essays, focus on building success from this. Which brings us back to playing to and contrast your strengths. All successful businesses (and people who become successful working for others) are based on the person using personal strengths and pursuing personal passions. Success in business is always based on doing something you love and enjoy, which is fundamentally related to your natural strengths and unique personal potential, whatever that is. The sooner you identify these things in yourself, the sooner will build sustainable business success. planning business success - in summary. Spreadsheets, mission statements, planning templates and other process elements of essay and villains, new business creation and development are tools. They enable the business to be properly structured, started and run.

They are essential of point by, course, but in chetwynd griffith essays, themselves they don't determine success. Business success is determined by deeper factors. Increasingly business success depends on having a solid philosophical foundation - where relevant interests, inside and essay by, outside of the organization, are balanced rather than conflicting. The bigger the business, the more widely it must consider how it relates to external interests and responsibilities - to descriptive society and the world at large. A business with this sort of harmony and balance built into its shape and principles at the outset has a huge advantage over a business which contains tensions and competing pressures. Within these considerations, relationships - as explained by and contrast point by the Psychological Contract - are crucially important in heroes, every business. Businesses ultimately depend on and contrast by people, and people depend on chetwynd griffith jones relationships.

Aside from this - and without diminishing the significance of essay point by, other vital business components such as reliability, value, quality, etc., which are necessary merely to survive at a basic level - uniqueness and passion are the critique research, remaining special ingredients for success: Uniqueness (just one word, with so many implications) - so that people will want what you offer, and and contrast, Passion, so that you will enjoy being and offering your best - and so that this belief and commitment conveys to others.

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Accounts Receivable Clerk Resume Example. As an accounts receivable clerk, you#8217;ll be handling incoming payments and tracking the account status of by, various clients, so to grab the essay heroes, attention of potential employers, you#8217;ll need a resume that shines a spotlight on your experience, detail-oriented nature, and organizational skills. You#8217;ll also need to highlight your special certifications and by software proficiencies. Divide your document into subheadings and create a separate section for education, core competencies, and chetwynd jones professional accomplishments. Then create a summary section at the top of the page that outlines the most important and relevant information from each of the and contrast essay, categories below. Use this accounts receivable clerk resume example as a model. Becoming an accounts receivable clerk requires skills in essay heroes, organization, accounting, financial software and more.

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Here are some ways to simplify your job search. 1. Use your network. When you are in the market for a new job, friends, family members, and associates can offer assistance. Don#8217;t hesitate to ask the people closest to you about potential job openings. 2. Update your resume. And Contrast Point By. Having a well-written and organized resume is descriptive mitt your first step to getting hired. There are many career advisory services and and contrast websites that can help you craft the perfect resume. 3. Take responsibility.

Losing a job can make you feel helpless and hopeless, but it is important to remember that you are in baseball mitt, full control. Be proactive in your approach to and contrast point looking for a job, and keep a positive attitude. 4. Follow up. Employers respect perseverance and directness, and critique research following up on applications and job leads is an excellent way to show that you have both of these highly desirable traits. Don#8217;t stop until you speak to essay point a hiring manager or land an interview. 5. Settle in for a long job search. These days, it can take several months to find new jobs as a accounts receivable clerk. Be patient and prepare yourself financially and mentally for this aspect of the search. Think about how you can employ your unique set of skills in the new job market. Accounts Receivable Clerk Job Seeking Tips. No matter where you are in the country, having a professional-looking and online interesting resume can help you get hired faster.

Regardless of the industry you may be seeking employment in, here are some resume do#8217;s and point by don#8217;ts that can take your search for jobs as a accounts receivable clerk to the next level. 1. Do include contact information. Essay Heroes. Always remember to include a single primary phone number and professional-sounding e-mail address. If employers have no way to contact you, they will simply choose another applicant, even if you are more qualified for the job. 2. Do consider using bullets. By using bullets, you can make your resume more reader-friendly and essay organized. Research On Bowling. This is especially important in the work experience and skills section of your resume.

3. Don#8217;t lie or exaggerate. While it may seem tempting to embellish certain facts in order to point seem more qualified, it is essay and villains a very bad idea. No one wants to hire a dishonest employee, and the truth will simply be exposed after the background check. 4. Do remain focused. Stick to the point, and keep your resume as focused as possible. The majority of employers will make a decision regarding your resume in a few seconds, so it is necessary to and contrast essay by be clear and concise. 5. Do not write more than two pages.

The point of a resume is to give potential employers a comprehensive overview of your skills and professional background, not to bombard them with unnecessary information. Online. Avoid verbiage and and contrast include only the most relevant information. John Gardner. Attract attention with professional resume designs. Finalize and download your resume in multiple formats. Attract attention with professional resume designs. Essay By. Improve your resume with our pre-written text. Finalize and chetwynd jones essays download your resume in multiple formats. And Contrast Point. Improve your resume with our pre-written text. Research Papers. Attract attention with professional resume designs. Finalize and download your resume in multiple formats.

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Improve your resume with our pre-written text. Finalize and download your resume in multiple formats. Improve your resume with our pre-written text. Accounts Payable Clerk/Accounts Receivable Clerk Resume Example. Company: Express Employment Professionals. Date Range: Feb 2016 to Current. Invoices Open, date-stamp, and sort invoices, upwards of 200 per day. Research Use resources available to research papers obtain missing purchase order numbers or additional information as needed. And Contrast Essay Point By. Documentation Maintain scrupulous record of invoices as they move through the weekly processes. Quality Assurance Final review and posting of invoices.

Filing Meticulous organization of over 1,000 invoices weekly. Accounts Receivable Cash posting of all payments received via wire, ACH, Lockbox, and Credit Card. Organization of filing system and emailing of monthly customer statements. Other projects as directed. Accounts Receivable Clerk Resume Example. Online Report. Company: Anchor Paint, Co i? Little Rock, AR. Date Range: Mar 2015 to Current.

Classify, record, and point summarize numerical and financial data to compile and keep financial records, using journals and ledgers or computers. Calculate, prepare, and issue bills, invoices, account statements, and other financial statements according to established procedures. Comply with federal, state, and company policies, procedures, and regulations. Analyzing Data or Information. Evaluating Information to Determine Compliance with Standards. Resolving Conflicts and essay heroes and villains Negotiating with Others. Accounts Receivable Clerk Resume Example. Company: Vanquish Worldwide Inc. Date Range: December 2014 to December 2015. -Processed AR debts for 150+ portfolios totaling $600K. -Lowered total AR from 40+% over 90 days to fewer than 13% in a year. -Process government invoices through DFAS Accomplishments. -Worked with multiple credit card merchants for payment processing to lower costs to the customer and and contrast point company. -Processed bank reconciliations and financial reports to verify practice of proper due diligence. -Increased efficiency and book alleviated work loads by and contrast essay creating a new Excel financial recording system. -Executed quarterly financial reporting on multiple portfolios. -Researched and john essays resolved collections and point billing disputes with tact and efficiency. Accounts Receivable Clerk Resume Example.

Company: SMS Transportation Service, Inc. Date Range: 03/2012 to 09/2013. Researched and resolved billing and essays invoice problems. Entered completed trips on a billing website for and contrast by, Logisticare daily. Recorded Invoices on a variety of transportation clientele using QuickBooks. Received, recorded, and john essays banked checks using QuickBooks.

Researched and resolved billing and invoice problems. Processed an average of 5 invoices per month for different transportation providers. Maintained weekly Excel Reports based on daily trips completed/sales. Accounts Receivable Clerk Resume Example. Company: Mistras Group, INC aˆ“ Benicia, CA.

Date Range: 06/2013 to Current. Process invoices through various online billing websites. Monitor customer account details for non-payment or delayed payments. Compose effective accounting reports summarizing accounts receivable data. Point By. Posted receipts to appropriate general ledger accounts. Monitored payments due from clients and promptly contacted clients with past due payments. Researched and resolved accounts payable discrepancies. Balanced monthly general ledger accounts to accurately record cost and report month end accruals. Reconciled vendor statements and handled payment complaints or discrepancies.

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essay on gothic WITH VARIOUS PLANS AND DRAWINGS. DESIGNED CHIEFLY FOR THE USE OF. BY JOHN HENRY HOPKINS, D.D. Bishop of the Protestant Episcopal Church in the Diocese of and contrast Vermont. PRINTED BY SMITH HARRINGTON. IN presenting the following work to those who are interested in essay and villains, Church Architecture, the and contrast by, author is sensible that he is liable, amongst professional architects especially, to the charge of presumption, for meddling with a science which he cannot be supposed to chetwynd griffith understand. And Contrast? Perhaps the heroes, best mode of defending himself against this accusation, and of making a true apology for the book itself, will be to state the simple facts which gave rise to the undertaking.

About the latter part of the year 1828, the author entered upon his first ministerial charge, in the city of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; and the blessing granted to point by his humble labors soon excited his congregation to attempt the erection of a new church, which was designed to book report writer be in every respect superior to the building then occupied as their house of worship. The first point which presented itself, was, of course, the adoption of a plan; and amongst a variety of drawings produced for the occasion, the essay by, author saw none which satisfied him. His early youth had been passed in more than ordinary familiarity with the griffith jones essays, Fine Arts, but, except as a topic of taste and general science, he had no knowledge of essay point Architecture. Admiring, however, the Gothic style above all others, and seeing nothing in the drawings presented which accorded with it, he took up the pencil himself, and tried to embody his own vague conceptions in a regular form. The attempt thus made, was preferred by heroes, the gentlemen of the by, vestry; and research, the plan was adopted with all its imperfections on its head. But the author was conscious of and contrast essay his deficiencies in this new department; and felt himself bound, as far as possible, to gardner grendel essays supply them. With this view, he collected many of the best engravings of the fine English Cathedrals, studied them, and copied carefully what was most applicable to point by his purpose. And in this stage of his labors he was aided [iii/iv] beyond his hopes by the acquaintance of a European architect who just then settled in his neighborhood, and kindly loaned to him the valuable works of Britton, in which he found a real treasury of taste and information. [John Behau, Esq. a gentleman of gardner great skill in and contrast essay point, his profession, of whose services the author would gladly have availed himself, if the funds of the church had justified him.] The result was the completion of essay heroes and villains Trinity Church, Pittsburgh, in a manner which at least exceeded the expectations of all concerned; and and contrast essay, drew upon the author, from that time forward, more applications for church plans, than he found it either convenient or practicable to furnish. In the progress of his subsequent observation, he discovered that even several of our large cities were chiefly indebted to the voluntary labours of amateurs for their Gothic architecture; that with some rare exceptions, professional architects had paid but little attention to the Gothic style, or to the peculiar structure of churches; and that the book writer, works most easy of by access on architecture in general, gave few if any instructions on the subject.

While, throughout the chetwynd griffith, country at large, he saw every where the most uncouth combinations of the Gothic arch and battlement, with columns, entablatures, and pediments, of the Grecian order; clearly proving the general deficiency in essay by, this department of ecclesiastical taste, and essay heroes and villains, calling for some attempt, however humble, to establish a better standard. Under these circumstances, and and contrast by, stimulated by the repeated calls made upon him for plans of churches by his clerical brethren, the author commenced the following essay several years ago; and committed the greater part of the drawings to the lithographic press, during his residence near Boston. Availing himself of the papers, excellent aids which he found in the Athenaeum of and contrast point that city, and devoting to the work the essay heroes and villains, chief portion of and contrast point by his leisure hours, he found it grow almost insensibly upon his hands, to jones essays a size which seemed, at length, to warrant publication. He puts it forth, however; not presuming that it can teach the professional architect, nor claiming for it the rank of and contrast by a regular and systematic treatise; but as the essay of a mere amateur, only intended to be of service, where better guides are not at hand. Gardner Grendel Essays? And above all, his desire and hope, are that it may induce our rising [iv/v] clergy to essay by give attention to a subject which peculiarly concerns themselves; and on bowling, which must, in and contrast, the nature of things, be principally committed to their management in research, a country like ours; where the assistance of professional architects cannot often be obtained, and where, in a majority of cases, the funds provided for the building of our churches so seldom warrant the employing them. It would have much increased the value and acceptableness of the following pages, had they contained drawings of the Gothic churches in our principal cities which reflect so much credit on the gentlemen who designed them. But the author omitted them on purpose, for two reasons first, because he considers the plans of these edifices as being the and contrast essay point, property of others; and secondly, because one of the benefits which he should rejoice to derive from the essay heroes, publication of the essay point, present work, is the provoking some of his qualified brethren to essay heroes put forth a better one. The author cannot dismiss these prefatory remarks without adverting to the possibility, that some of and contrast point by his Christian brethren may regret the appearance of his book on another ground; as thinking that his whole time is little enough for the due performance of the higher and more strictly spiritual duties of his responsible office, and that the care of the outward edifice might be better left to other hands. To this he will only say, that every thing connected with the service of the Most High, is worthy the attention of report his ministry, and indeed; devolves upon essay them, as forming a part of their peculiar office, which, if they will not take pains to understand, they cannot expect that other men will. And many are the names honorably recorded in English Ecclesiastical history, for their skill in the science to which this humble volume is devoted. Grendel Essays? The famous William of and contrast by Wykeham, bishop of Winchester, in the reign of Edward III, Archbishop Chichele, Alcock, bishop of papers Ely, Richard Beauchamp, bishop of Salisbury, who was appointed Master and Surveyor of the works, by Edward IV, in the rebuilding St.

George's Chapel at Windsor, bishop Waynflete, in and contrast essay by, 1447, and the abbot of Westminster, Islip, in 1500, were all celebrated for their architectural knowledge, when the finest monuments of gardner grendel England's ecclesiastical glory were erected. But far beyond these--Moses, the leader of Israel, took charge of all the details of the earthly sanctuary--Bezaleel the son of Uri, was called specially and point by, filled with the Spirit of God (Exod. xxxi. 1, 2,) [v/vi] to make the work belonging to the tabernacle. Yea, the Lord himself condescended to furnish, in the mount, the pattern of every thing intended for critique, his earthly worship. On a similar principle, David and Solomon, the most distinguished kings of Israel, employed themselves, the one in preparing for, and the other in erecting, the Temple at Jerusalem: and the volume of heavenly wisdom--the blessed word of God--is occupied to a considerable extent, in the description of and contrast essay point by each minute appendage of his sanctuary. Most unscriptural, therefore, would be the censure--most misplaced the grendel essays, affectation of regret, which should seek to dissuade the clergy from applying themselves to the art of erecting the by, earthly houses of God in a fitting and appropriate manner. The author would be among the first to maintain the superior claims of instruction, and on bowling, devotion, and pastoral government, over every other branch of ministerial accomplishment. But he is essay fully persuaded, that a moderate degree of industry and application will find time for them all.

He cannot understand, why the essay and villains, clergy Should not possess a competent familiarity with the whole range of subjects connected with their sacred calling; nor has he ever been able to see how a reasonable knowledge and and contrast essay, zeal in the construction of the outward tabernacle, should lessen their energy and success in essays, the preaching of the Gospel. BURLINGTON, VT. MARCH, 1836. ON THE ORIGIN OF THE GOTHIC STYLE OF ARCHITECTURE. THE Gothic style of architecture has long possessed a high rank in the estimate of ecclesiastical taste, and has drawn forth no small share of, erudition in and contrast essay point, the various attempts made by European writers, to trace its derivation. Hitherto, however, these attempts have not led to any clear or positive result; and the field is still open to the claims of any reasonable theory. We design, therefore, to devote this chapter to the question: What was the essay, probable origin of this admired style of building? The distinguishing features of the Gothic style seem to consist in two particulars--the effect of the perpendicular line, and the terminating the and contrast essay point, various parts in a point. It must be understood, however, that we are not speaking of the. Gothic style in baseball, its application to point by castles or colleges, where its true principles are obliged to give way to the superior claims of strength and critique research papers, convenience.

Our remarks are to be applied to that pure and elevated species of it which belongs to ecclesiastical purposes, and to them alone. In this--when exhibited in and contrast point, its best specimens--we find that all the upper horizontal lines are broken into battlements, while the multiplied perpendicular lines of the buttresses, crowned with pinnacles diminishing to a point, the mullioned windows, and the slender clustered pillars, lead the eye of the beholder upwards; causing, by a kind of physical association, an impression of sublimity more exalted than any other sort of architecture can produce. [2] Now it is john gardner grendel here that we find the superiority of the Gothic over the Grecian style, for ecclesiastical purposes. The Gothic, breaking the horizontal line, and leading the and contrast essay by, eye upwards till its pinnacles vanish in the sky, seems adapted, by an easy correspondence, to the offices of that blessed religion, which takes the heart from the contemplation of earth, and directs it to chetwynd essays its heavenly inheritance. While the Grecian, with its lengthened colonnades and essay by, its horizontal extension, running in lines parallel with the ground, seems suited, by its characteristic expression, to secular objects and pursuits. Descriptive Essay? Hence we should recommend the Grecian and Roman architecture for all buildings designed for legislative, judicial, commercial, civic, or merely scientific purposes; but wherever the spiritual interests of our race are to be the primary concern, the elevated solemnity of the Gothic style is far more appropriate. The origin of this interesting species of architecture has been much disputed. Some have contended that it is of English growth; others, that it is French or German; others, that it is Saracenic, and was introduced into by, Europe by john grendel essays, the Crusades. [The opinion of Sir Christopher Wren was that the Gothic style is and contrast by of Arabian extraction, and he has been followed by the majority of other writers. Bishop Warburton's theory has an griffith interesting mixture of truth with error. 'The architecture of the Holy Land,' says he, 'was Grecian, but greatly fallen from its ancient elegance. And from this it was that our Saxon builders took the whole of their ideas.

But when the Goths conquered Spain, through emulation of the Saracens, they struck out a new species of architecture upon original principles, and ideas much nobler than what had given birth even to essay point by classic magnificence. Essays? For this northern people having been accustomed to worship the Deity in groves, when their new religion required covered edifices, they ingeniously projected to make them resemble groves,'--'and with what skill and success they executed the project by the assistance of Saracen architects, whose exotic style of building very luckily suited their purpose, appears from hence, that no attentive observer ever viewed a regular avenue of well grown trees intermingling their branches overhead, but it presently put him in mind of the and contrast point, long vista through the Gothic cathedral.' This notion of the learned Bishop, that a new style of building could thus arise in the 10th century, upon an original model, without any record of the design or the name of the designer, is certainly, to say the least, a violent presumption. But his idea of a grove is beautiful and chetwynd griffith essays, just; only that instead of referring it, on a mere conjecture, to an ordinary grove, and to the middle ages for its origin, it seems much more reasonable to trace it to the palm trees, which we know were represented, within and and contrast essay point, without, in the celebrated temple of gardner Solomon. Probably Bishop Warburton was influenced by the term Gothic , which is now generally conceded to be a nickname of reproach, instead of a note of history. The notion of the poet Gray is strangely absurd, that the buildings of Turkey, Persia, and and contrast, the East Indies, are plainly 'corruptions of the Greek architecture, broke into little parts indeed, and critique research papers, covered with small ornaments, but in taste very distinguishable from point by what we call Gothic.' And he asks 'Whoever saw a Gothic cupola? It is a thing plainly of Greek extraction.' Now really this is amusing; for the cupola is found frequently, among the English Gothic Churches; of essay heroes which St. George's Chapel and King's College Chapel are familiar instances.

Indeed, the question might be most justly retorted, Who ever saw a Grecian Cupola among the essay by, models of gardner grendel essays pure antiquity? The Cupola was added td the genuine Grecian style, by mixing it with ideas borrowed from the East. A French writer in and contrast essay point by, the 'Souvenirs du Musİe des Monumens Fran§ais' so late as the year 1820, shews the doubtful state of this question very clearly by these questions; 'Le style' says he, 'qui, dans le onzieme si¨cle, fit oublier l'architecture Carlovingiaque, fut il crİe par des artistes descendans des anciens Goths , et doit il, pour cette raison, Ştre appellİ Gothique ? Dut il son origine aux artistes de notre pays, et doit il recevoir l'İpithete de Fran§ais? N'est il autre chose qu'une imitation mal dirigİe des monumens İlevİs par les Sarrasins en Espagne, et faut il appeler Sarrasin, on Mauresque le style de nos constructions du 11, 12, et 13 si¨cle? The title given by some to research on bowling the Gothic style, viz, that of the English style, 'must appear,' (says the admirable work of Pugin) 'ridiculous to essay by our brethren on the continent. Germany, France and Flanders possess Gothic churches, palaces, and towers, at least as magnificent as those of England, and online book report, of as early date. And we are convinced, whatever may be its true origin, that it is not of English invention.' 'The pointed arch,' says he elsewhere, 'may have been brought from the East.'] Of these opinions the latter has by far the greatest plausibility: as may [2/3] plainly appear from the following considerations. First, because it is and contrast essay point acknowledged that no specimens of pure and critique research papers, tasteful design in Europe, can be traced farther back than the twelfth century, a little after the first crusade. Secondly, because there is abundant evidence to prove that the ecciesiasties were the architects, and often the very workmen, by whom those splendid edifices were erected, which are thefl admiration of the civilized world to this day. Thirdly, because the architecture of Palestine and of the East generally, displays all the distinguishing characteristics of the Gothic style--the pointed arch--the ogee--the pinnacle--the fretted tracery--the lofty minaret--the panel fbrmed by point, segments of circles--the ornamental foliage and fourthly, because multitudes of abbots, friars, priests, and monks, accompanied the chetwynd griffith jones, armies of the cross to the very regions of this peculiar architecture. It is an obvious Inference from these premises, that the clergy of and contrast essay point by that [3/4] day brought home from Palestine all that had impressed them as most attractive and beautiful in the architecture of the East, adapted it to ecclesiastical purposes, and thus became designers of a style of building, previously, indeed, unknown in online book report writer, Europe, but for and contrast point by, which they did not feel particularly anxious to acknowledge themselves indebted to the paynim of the Holy Land.

But if we suppose that such was the mode in which the Gothic style was introduced into Europe, a difficulty occurs in the name by which it has become generally known; for why should it be termed Gothic if its origin was in Palestine? In answer to this, it may be sufficient to state that this name is commonly agreed to griffith jones be the product of the dislike entertained against it by the architects of the sixteenth century, who, being desirous to establish the Italian style, in their devotion to and contrast the works of Vitruvius and Palladio, called the report, eastern style Gothic , in order to express their opinion of its comparative barbarism. ['A pedantic affectation of Italian taste' says Pugin, (1. vol. p. 10) had branded the pointed arch and essay point by, all the jones essays, buildings constructed on and contrast essay, its principles, with the research on bowling, opprobrious term Gothic , an epithet inconsiderately applied, merely as designating something barbarous and devoid of regular design.] All late writers seem to admit that this name is every way objectionable; and essay, many other appellations have been suggested as more appropriate. It may be doubted, however, whether custom, the tyrant of language, has not established this too firmly to allow of its being superseded. Essay Heroes? But if another term could be generally agreed on, perhaps the Eastern style, or the Ecclesiastical style, would be preferable to and contrast point by most of the phrases recommended by writers on the subject. Still the question recurs, what was the origin of this style? Granting that Palestine may have given it to Europe, what produced it in Palestine? In reply, it ought to be observed that the distinguishing features of this style are not confined to papers Palestine, but are diffused generally throughout the East. Thus, in India, the mausoleum of Sultan Chusero, and point, that of Sultan Purviez near Allahabad--the Jummah Musjed at critique papers, Delhi--the Punj Mahalla Gate at Lucknow--the ruins at Cannonge--the gate of the mosque built by Hafiz Ramut at Pillibeat, and the interior of the point, palace, Madura,--all exhibit striking coincidences of forms, proportions, and details, with the style in question. Descriptive Essay Mitt? At Constantinople the mosques of by Sultan [4/5] Ahmed, and of St. Sophia, and the sepulchral chapel of the essay baseball, Sultaness Valide, exhibit the buttress, the pointed arch, the lattice sash, the embattled top, the essay point, dome, the fret-work of the ceiling--all of the same character. [See 'Tableau General de l'Empire Ottoman, par D'Ohisson.'] Nay, in the mosque of research St. Athanasius, at Alexandria, which cannot be later than the fourth century,. we find, in the accurate drawing of Denon, the ogee pointed arch, the quatre foil, and the common pointed arch, together with the battlement, the essay by, buttress, the dome, and a lofty minaret, clearly proving that this style was then familiar.

To these proofs we may add, that the public buildings of the essay baseball, Chinese display in many important particulars, a close correspondence with the same style. ['In both the antique and Chinese architecture' says Chambers, 'the general form of almost every composition has a tendency to the pyramidal figure--fret-work is essay point likewise very frequent among the Chinese,--and (like the Goths ) they always leave the timber work of the roof exposed within side, and often make both it and the columns which support it of precious wood, sometimes enriching them with ornaments.' c. In the plates belonging to Chambers' work on Chinese architecture, although they are neither various nor of the best selection for such a purpose, we may discover the Gothic forms of panel and fret-work, the foliage at the corners and the top of the roof, and the lofty towers, which are peculiar to essay heroes and villains the Eastern style, and are entirely foreign to and contrast essay the Greek and Roman architecture, the corroborations of our theory furnished by online book report writer, Chambers are altogether accidental on his part, for he seems to have had no taste nor knowledge on the subject of the Gothic style.] Now when it is point remembered that a peculiar species of architecture, and one, too, which demands great skill and mitt, labor in its execution, cannot spring up and reach perfection in a period less than many centuries--when we recollect especially, that the point, Eastern nations in essay, general are noted for the wonderful constancy with which they retain their ancient dress, manners, and customs--a constancy incomparably greater than that of and contrast by Europe-- and when we call to research papers on bowling mind the fact, that notwithstanding the disposition to innovate, the art of Architecture, in all other respects, is much the same that it was two thousand years ago, it will I think be sufficiently plain, that a style so prevalent in its principal features through all the vast regions of Asia, which were first settled after the flood, must in point, all probability have been invented long before the Grecian orders, since these were confessedly improved from the Egyptian architecture. [Thus Dr. Shaw remarks (Travels, p. 273,) that there is 'a near relation between the architecture of the Moors and that of Scripture.'] [6] But in my mind, there are traces of something like positive evidence in favor of this conclusion; for I think there are remarkable indications, at least, that the Temple of Solomon claimed affinity in many respects with what we now call the' ecc'esiastieal Gothic style. And it may be well to state, somewhat in essay heroes and villains, detail, the reasons for this opinion. First, then, the proportions of the temple were of this character, viz. Length, (counting twenty two inches to point by the cubit) 110 feet. Breadth, 36 feet. Projection of the front porch, 18 feet. Height of the main building, 55 feet. Height of the gardner, porch or tower, 220 feet. Excluding the space occupied by the Holy of Holies, which was 36 feet square, it was twice as long as it was broad, and twice as high as it was long, approximating closely in its three principal dimensions to the proportions generally adopted in the best cathedrals.

Secondly, it had chambers on the outside, three stories in height, each story being five cubits, making 27 1/2 feet in the whole. Of course, they occupied half the height of the main building, and presented an accurate correspondence with the cloisters of a Gothic cathedraL. Thirdly, the temple had windows of narrow lights . What kind of windows these were, it would be impossible to essay point by prove; but we know that the Hebrew form of expression is altogether different from the description applied to the windows of the king's own house. We also know that the Gothic window is extremely narrow in proportion to its height; and further, we are certain that these windows of the temple must have been over the chambers of the priests, and thus that they admitted the light from above, which gives us another correspondence with the mode in which the nave of a Gothic cathedral receives its light from the windows over the roof of the cloisters. [The Hebrew phrase here translated 'windows of narrow lights,' is research papers on bowling very obscure, and has given rise to a singular variety of interpretations. The original is (1 Ki. 6. 5,) which Montanus translates 'fenestras prospectivas occlusas,' and Taylor's Concordance agrees with this, while it also justifies the common version.

The Septuagint has quridaV parakuptomenaV kruptaV . The Vulgate has ' fenestras obliquas :' the German has 'Fenster inwendig welt, auswendig enge.' The French agrees with it, calling them ' FenŞtres la maison, large en dedans, et İtroites par dehors .' The Italian gives us ' finestre reticolate ;' the Spanish ' ventanas transversales ;' and Jahn, in his Archaeologia Bib. in Comp. Red. § 338, says on the passage ' Fenestrae erant decussatae et clathris clausae .' From this diversity it is manifest that the meaning of the original is by no means clear. And Contrast By? It is sufficient for my purpose that the windows of the temple were peculiar in their form, and described in critique research, words altogether different from those of the king's palace.] [7] Fourthly, we find that the cedar. wood with which the temple was lined, was carved with 'knops and flowers,' and this gives us a very good description, in essay point, popular terms, of the rosettes, crocketts, and finials, which so profusely adorn the enriched, or florid Gothic style, and which form a regular part of the online book writer, Turkish, Indian, and and contrast by, Chinese architecture. Fifthly, we read that the temple was carved all round, with cherubim and palm trees and open flowers within and without. Now it is remarkable that in this description we have the research papers on bowling, very elements of the Gothic pillar and the groined arch.

For palm trees, with their lofty and slender trunks and branching heads, if placed in rows so that their boughs should interlace, would form the best imaginable prototype of the cathedral fretwork ceiling, springing from the heads of the and contrast essay by, pillars, and arching round in research papers, every direction. And the cherubim placed between, with open flowers, would seem to have suggested the idea of the statues of the essay point by, ancient churches, under their canopies of tracery and foliage. Sixthly, we read of research two pillars ornamented with 'net-work, pomegranates, and lily work upon point the top of the pillars;' which certainly bore no likeness to any thing we know of, unless it be the Gothic pinnacles which sometimes surmount the essay heroes, pillars, with their leafy ornaments; or the richly carved minarets of Asiatic architecture. It appears deserving of much observation, in estimating the testimony of the and contrast essay point, Scriptures on this subject, that soon after the temple was completed, Solomon erected another building, with parts and proportions of the Egyptian, or what was subsequently refined into the Grecian style. I allude to book writer 'the house of the forest [7/8] of Lebanon,' perhaps so called from its multitude of cedar pillars. And Contrast Essay? The dimension of this building were as follows; viz. Length, 183 feet. Breadth, 91 feet. 'It stood upon four rows of cedar pillars, with cedar beams upon the pillars, and it was covered with cedar above upon the beams, that lay on forty-five pillars, fifteen in a row, and there were windows in three rows, and light was against light, in three ranks. And he made a porch of pillars, the length thereof was 50 cubits,' (91 1/2 feet) c. 1 Ki.

7 Ch. 2nd to 6th v. We see here plainly indicated another and book report writer, very different style of and contrast essay by architecture, closely resembling the Grecian; and the contrast between the heroes, two is by very strong. The temple is almost twice as high as it is broad, but the house of the essay baseball mitt, forest of Lebanon, is almost twice as broad as it is high. The first has no pillars. The lofty palm trees fill the and contrast essay point by, place which the slender Gothic pillars would now occupy. But the other displays extensive colonnades with horizontal entablatures. The first receives its light from online book report writer above: the other has light against light in three ranks. And Contrast Point By? The first is adorned with knops and flowers, but the jones, other has no ornaments of this description. Hence we see Solomon executing two kinds of edifice of very different proportions and character the one, sacred; the other, secular; both corresponding with considerable exactness to the two great styles of and contrast essay architecture which we behold at the present day. Gardner Grendel Essays? And if, indeed, this celebrated king was the founder of Balbec and and contrast essay, Palmyra, as some have supposed, we need not be surprized at the Grecian taste of their ruins, when we recognize, in the description of the house of the forest of Lebanon, the very same features; and gardner essays, recollect that what Solomon began, others must have enlarged and improved at a subsequent period.

In researches of this nature, absolute demonstration is, from the nature of the case, impossible. The true origin of Architecture, like that of all other arts, lies buried in remote antiquity, and it is by no means improbable that it had reached a degree of perfection even before the flood, of which we have no idea. Cain, we know, built a city. Tubal Cain was an artificer in brass and iron; and what progress might not have been expected in knowledge as well as vice, when the [8/9] age of man averaged eight hundred years! But of the extent of these primaeval acquisitions, we know nothing. Nor, at and contrast point, a period long subsequent, are we able to ascertain the papers on bowling, details of taste which characterised the magnificence of ancient Nineveh and Babylon. All that we can do, is to form the most rational conjecture from the scattered materials which remain. While, therefore, we have the most distinct evidence for the antiquity of both the Gothic and the Grecian styles, if not in all their minutiae, yet in their leading peculiarities--while we see the Asiatic nations, which are undoubtedly the oldest, universally employing the characteristics of the essay by, Gothic style; and the whole posterity of Shem exhibiting the same general affinity in this, as in their language, their dress, and their social habits--while, above all, we see considerable points of correspondence with this style in the temple of Solomon--we cannot err in assuming it as highly probable , at least, that the style in question is the most ancient, in the world which has been applied to sacred purposes; and that it deserves to be esteemed, not only for its solemn beauty, and its general fitness for essay heroes and villains, the offices of religion, but for its special application to those very objects by essay by, the chosen people of God, ON THE EXPENSE REQUIRED FOR THIS STYLE OF ARCHITECTURE.

IT is the opinion of some very judicious writers, that the Gothic, or Eastern style, is only fit for large buildings, where it can be carried out in research papers on bowling, full perfection. But I doubt the essay by, correctness of this idea. On the contrary, it appears to me, that there is no style of architecture which admits of such variety, which is so beautiful on any scale, and which is so little dependent on size for its effect. The utmost latitude of embellishment, is, indeed, allowed by essay, it; but it is fettered by no precise rules with regard to the degree. And although the kind of ornament and finish is fixed by examples, from which no man of judgment or good taste would venture to depart; yet the and contrast, distinctive characters of the style may be preserved in union with the utmost simplicity. The general proportion, securing a due height in all its dimensions--buttresses, producing strong perpendicular lines of light and shade, and terminating in pinnacles--battlements, breaking the horizontal line, where it is next the sky--pointed arches, enclosing at least two subdivisions in the windows; and both windows and doors retreating from the outside of the walls, so as to furnish strong shadows, and griffith essays, increase the point, solemnity of the jones essays, effect--these seem to present the prominent external features of the style, and may be preserved in connexion with the essay point, highest ornament, or with none at all, just as circumstances may require. The interior admits of the same variety, and demands attention to research papers the same general principles. The ceiling may be groined, ribbed, and filled with tracery in the most costly manner, or it may consist of a simple pointed arch. It may be supported on clusters of slender pillars, or it may spring from the walls [10/11] in the plainest form. But its terminating line should never be horizontal. The upper line of the galleries should be broken by foliage or battlements, and the lower line should take the essay by, form of the pointed arch.

All the panel work should give preponderance to critique the effect of the perpendicular line, and every termination which admits of it, should come to a point. And Contrast By? But still, the baseball mitt, gradations of finish are such, that where economy is the object, the point, style may be preserved in reasonable consistency with it. Heroes? Proportions and forms must be marked, but ornament, in which the expense is chiefly involved, is arbitrary; and may be added afterwards, when the circumstances of those concerned shall allow. But I cannot forbear to say, that it is a reproach to any Christian people to study economy too much in the erection of point Churches. The Church is the house of God.

It is the research, place where his people assemble to transact the concerns of eternity, and it is a disgrace to our profession of zeal in behalf of religion, when the private dwellings of the worshippers, exceed the temples of the Most High, in beauty and costliness of workmanship. The principle runs throughout the essay point, whole Bible, and is in accordance with right reason, that we should dedicate nothing to writer God, which is not the best of its kind in and contrast, our power to procure; and although it is very true that the unhappy state of division which deforms the critique papers, Christian world puts it out of our power to equal the magnificent erections of other days, yet the average standard of our efforts in this respect. might be raised vastly above its present height, if Christians would learn to come up to the scriptural rule of 'honoring the Lord with their substance and with the first fruits of all their increase,' and remember that no rule of liberality is essay so likely to research papers be acceptable in His sight as that which he himself enjoined upon ancient Israel. True, the [11/12] spiritual Church, composed of the living stones of the faithful, is the abiding temple which the Lord has promised to inhabit, and point, 'he dwelleth not in temples made with hands.' But although the wise king of Israel uttered this very sentiment in the dedication of the temple at Jerusalem, yet he made that house 'exceedingly magnifical,' and for research on bowling, an obvious reason; because it was a symbol of the heavenly temple where the redeemed should one day be privileged to and contrast essay worship with celestial joy. Research Papers On Bowling? And why should not the same correspondence still lead us to the same principle? As the Sabbath of God is the most precious day to and contrast essay the Christian--as on that day he clothes his body in his best attire that it may answer to the clothing of the essay heroes, soul--Why should not the house of God be the most precious of all earthly edifices, and why should not every thing about it answer to the sublime and glorious end for which it was erected--the congregating together on earth, those who desire to worship him together in and contrast point by, heaven? [From the learned and ingenious work entitled 'The ornaments of Churches considered,' Oxford Ed. of research 1761, I extract the following just and eloquent argument of the famous Mede on this subject, which the scholar, the man of taste, and the divine, will read with pleasure. [De Templorum magnificentia dicturus, ut caveam quae in hac causa multi in and contrast, hanc vel illam ornatus speciem importuni objiciunt, non simpliciter sed comparatİ definio de modo et mensura ornatus sacri, nempe Dei domum esse debere que, imo magis quam profana magnificam. In urbe Templum aedificas? pulcherrimum id sit omnium in urbe palatiorum. Griffith Essays? In villa? aequet imo vincat reliquas in villa aedes.

Ratio mihi talis, quia Deo non fuerit dignum, quod non sit in quocunque rerum genere optimum et dignissimum.' 'There are two other objections to the decoration of Churches,' observes the author of the work above mentioned, 'one of essay point by which is taken notice of by Mede in the following words: 'At magnam nobis invidiam conflatum eunt de pauperum indigentia, indignum enim esse, ut auro splendescant templa haec externa, dum viva Spiritus Sancti habitacula fame contabescant et inedi , in essays, pauperes ut simus lapides, nimium in lapides profusi.' His answer to and contrast point this is spirited to a great degree. 'Sciant non Templa sola hoc quod intorquent ariete, sod et regum conquassari palatia, sed multas privatorum aedes. Essay? Pauperes egent? Quin igitur tu aedes tuas dirue, quin regum et nobiliorum demolire. Pauperes egent? Quid tibi tantus domi aulaeorum et tapetum apparatus?

Quid tot contignationum et concamerationum deliciae? Quid reliqua supellex otiosa, ornatus super vacuus? Aufer, aufer haec, inquam, sine quibus et tibi satis exit domi et pauperi inde multum eleemosynae.' 'The other objection is drawn from the tendency which ornaments have to introduce. superstition and popery. But the proper question with respect to the magnificence of our temples is, whether we have passed the medium. 'What,' says the great Chillingworth, 'if out of devotion to God, out of a desire that he should be worshipped as in spirit and in truth in the first place, so also in the beauty of and contrast essay point holiness? What if out of fear that too much simplicity and nakedness in the public service of God, may beget in the ordinary sort of men, a dull and stupid irreverence, and out of hope that the essay baseball, outward state and and contrast by, glory of it, being well disposed and wisely moderated, may engender, quicken, increase and nourish, the inward respect and devotion which is due unto God's sovereign majesty and power? I say, what if out of essay heroes and villains these considerations, the point, governors of our Church, more of late than formerly, have set themselves to essay adorn and beautify the places, where God's honor dwells, and to and contrast by make them as heavenlike as they can with earthly ornaments? is this a sign that they are warping towards popery?

Is this devotion in the Church of England, as argument that she is papers coming over to the Church of Rome?' ON THE DEGREE OF LIGHT EXPEDIENT IN CHURCHES. THERE is and contrast point by no fault more common, and none more opposed by every principle of good taste, than the book report writer, having too many windows in Churches. There should be no more light admitted than will suffice for the purpose of reading with comfort. And Contrast Essay By? More than this increases the expense, exposes to cold, and, above all,--so far as the eye is concerned,--destroys solemnity, and is unfriendly to devotion. Thus H. Wotton, in his elements of architecture, p. 35, asserts, that 'Light can misbecome no edifice whatever, temples only excepted, which were anciently dark; as they are likewise t this day in some proportion; devotion more requiring collected than diffused spirits.' And Sir Thomas More, describing the temples of research papers his Utopia, says that they were somewhat obscure; not on essay, account of the unskilfulness of the architects, but by the choice of the priesthood: because immoderate light scatters the thoughts.' ['Templa erant subobscura, nec id aedificandi inscitia factum, sed concilio sacerdotum, quod immodica lux cogitationes dispergit.'] The custom of staining the on bowling, glass of Church windows, was admirably adapted not only to moderate the glare of light, but also to and contrast give it a rich, mellow, and solemn effect. If this country, it is not yet practicable to apply this expedient extensively. Instead of it, however, a very beautiful effect may be produced at a small expense, by transparencies painted on linen or muslin, in the Gothic style, and fixed inside the windows. As a general principle, it would be well if the windows were not brought near the floor. A congregation assembled for worship have nothing to do with looking out, and research, the light has always the and contrast by, best effect when it enters the building as near to the top as possible, consistently with true proportion.

ON MONUMENTS, CENOTAPHS, STATUES AND PICTURES, IN CHURCHES. THE Church being the house of God, dedicated to his service, and designed to assist in the preparing his people for his kingdom in heaven, it is plain that every thing in essay and villains, it should be connected with those purposes, and that whatever savors of human pride and ministers to the gratification of human vanity, is there utterly out of place. Judged by essay, this rule, monuments or cenotaphs seem altogether inadmissible. It is true, indeed, that they are common in many fine Gothic structures in Europe, and that some of our Churches in this country have, as might be expected, fallen into the same custom. But there was nothing of this sort in the temple of Jerusalem, neither was there any thing like it in the Primitive Church. The early Christians did undoubtedly hold their worship in cemeteries, during the times of persecution; and at a somewhat later day they were fond of building Churches over the tombs of eminent saints; but it was long afterwards, and in a very dark and barbarous period when the monuments of kings, and lords, and barons, were privileged with a place within the walls of the essay heroes and villains, sanctuary. What renders this thing, in my mind, the mare unbecoming, is the indisputable fact, that the distinction thus granted is a boon conceded to point rank, or wealth, and not to piety. So tar, indeed, is religion from heroes having any thing to do with it, that there are instances--not a few--where the Churches of the God of Holiness contain a standing commemoration of men whose lives would have scandalized, and whose deaths would have disgraced, a Christian profession. And shall the pride of surviving friends be gratified, by putting the lofty memorials of the sculptor's [14/15] art upon the very walls of the sanctuary, in favor of such men as these?

Surely it is enough if the church yard is left free for the pageantry of this poor ambition, without having the and contrast essay by, very enclosure consecrated to the Most High, profaned by research on bowling, these shrines of vanity and ostentation. It is, doubtless, an essay point by invidious and painful task, to discriminate among those that may be applicants for such a posthumous distinction. The better and the safer rule therefore, would be this: That no man, whatever, should have any such memorial in the house of God, unless he had already a place on the Church's calendar: This principle would prevent all difficulty, since an honor which the essay, clergy disclaimed for and contrast by, themselves, could not and would not be expected by chetwynd essays, their people. Pictures and statuary representing the characters and events recorded in point, the Scriptures, stand, of course, on a very different foundation. It is the design of the Lord that these characters and events should be commemorated in essay heroes, the Churches, and to essay point that end, the reading of the Bible is an established part of our duty in his temple. And therefore it would seem that the same events might lawfully be presented to the eye by pictures and statues, since these would assuredly aid to fix them in the memory. Descriptive Essay? Besides which general argument, it is to be remembered, that statues of cherubim were sculptured all round the temple of Jerusalem, and that the veil was covered with embroidery.

Still it is very certain, that one of the early Councils of the essay, Church expressly forbade pictures in Churches--that statuary, when first introduced, was warmly and violently opposed--that the case of ancient Israel was confined to the depicting of the cherubim, and that in neither temple nor synagogue was there any thing else that could be called picture or statue. Equally certain is research on bowling it, that the custom, when finally established, led the way to a species of idolatry, at least, amongst the ignorant and and contrast essay by, superstitious; and john grendel essays, that it is a kind of ornament, which, in its own nature, is liable to abuse. On the whole, therefore, I should recommend the adorning the essay, walls of Churches only with the appropriate architectural enrichments, and with judicious and edifying selections from the word of God. These last cannot be too abundant, and essay heroes and villains, should be so disposed, that the wandering ye might be arrested, on every side of the sacred edifice, by some counsel or warning of and contrast essay point by Divine truth, calculated to enlighten the conscience and amend the heart. ON THE PEWS OF CHURCHES. PEWS, or, indeed, any special seats appropriated to heroes and villains the individuals of the congregation, have no authority in essay point, Scripture or ancient usage. Online Report? 'Before the age of the Reformation,' says Burns, (Eccl. Law, vol. 1. p. 358,) 'no seats were allowed in the Churches, nor any distinct apartments assigned to individuals, except for and contrast point by, some very great persons.' And Pugin remarks, (p. 42) that 'the fastidious habits of modern times have sadly disfigured the interior of our Churches by gardner grendel essays, the introduction of close pews. Instead of being shut up in square boxes, the congregation, formerly, were seated on long benches, ranged on each side the nave of the essay by, Church, with their faces turned towards the altar.

A separate pew was a distinction appertaining only to the Lord of the Manor, or some other person of rank; and these manorial pews were like small chapels, generally occupying the upper end of a north or south aisle, and made highly ornamental with screens, canopies and tracery.' The objections to the modern custom, however, are much more serious in other respects, than in point of architectural beauty. The right to occupy a place in essay and villains, the house of God, and that, too, the best place, is, in our day, a pure matter of merchandize. It is a right sold at auction, to the highest bidder. Religion has nothing to do with it.

Personal piety has nothing to do with it. The seats next to essay point by the altar, and in the immediate eye of the heroes, ministers of Christ, may be occupied by men who have no real respect for the Gospel or its ordinances, and who exhibit, in the gaze of the whole congregation, a constant example of ungodliness. Still, [16/17] they pay for their seats, and the omnipotence of gold covers the glaring inconsistency. And while every desirable place in a fashionable Church is and contrast point thus appropriated to essay mitt a special owner, the poor man--though pious and sincere, and longing to have his portion of the bread of life--is afraid to come forward in the midst of so much exclusive pride: and either takes his seat afar off, or goes away to some humbler assembly, where he can worship on a level with his fellow creature before that God who is no respecter of persons. Neither is this the whole of the evil. Pews appropriated to individuals operate directly to keep many away from the house of God.

Strangers do not like to intrude on other persons' property, nor to run the risk of being turned out of their seat by the owner. And it scarcely ever happens, that those who pay for their pews, can all attend at once: so that our Churches usually display an by abundance of vacant room, in baseball, seats which have owners, but yet are seldom filled; as if men thought it was sufficient to pay their minister, without being obliged to listen to essay point him. The luxurious accommodations of particular pews produce another variety of the same evil; for even when strangers ace determined to meet the risk of being turned out of their places, it is by descriptive essay baseball, no means pleasant to and contrast essay point use the silken couches, and tread the grendel, rich carpets, and open the splendid prayer books, prepared for and contrast essay, the sons and daughters of opulence and fashion; when the intruder is conscious, that if the online, owners were present, they would probably give him the cold look of unwilling sufferance. But worst of all, is a method of constructing the point, pews, which has become very common, and griffith jones, which looks as if it had been contrived by some enemy to essay the work of devotion, We refer to research papers on bowling the making them so narrow, that kneeling is impossible; and all that the worshippers can do is to adopt a compound posture, half sitting and half kneeling, which usually ends in sitting altogether. And a foul reproach it surely is, that a Church which boasts of her liturgy, and in this very point of kneeling in prayer, claims a superiority over other portions of the Christian family, should have slidden into a practice, within one generation, which is not only in direct contradiction to her own formularies, and to essay the authority of Scripture, but [17/18] which must inevitably tend to prevent the Divine blessing on the worship of her peop1e. On the other hand, there are two arguments in favor of pews, which justice requires we should mention. The first is, that they afford families a better opportunity to worship together; and the second is, that they facilitate the collection of the Church revenue.

We grant both these positions, although we think them by essay heroes, no means of sufficient force to and contrast essay justify the custom. On the descriptive essay mitt, whole, however, we should recommend the following rules on the subject. The old mode of benches, would be best. And Contrast Essay By? They should be substantial, made in Gothic style, to correspond with the building, and should have backs, for the comfort of the aged or infirm. But they should be open to the occupancy of all the congregation, and the only chetwynd griffith essays, right of precedency should be that which would naturally follow the and contrast essay by, claims of years, or the character of experienced and consistent discipleship.

Those who had children to watch over, might take their place a little earlier; but no children should be carried to the house of public worship so young, as to trouble and interrupt the online report, devotions of others. It is obvious that on and contrast essay by, this plan the revenues of the Church could not be charged upon the seats, but they could be collected, as they now are for research, all other purposes, by voluntary subscription. But if pews must be retained, in compliance with the present custom, they should be made at and contrast essay by, least three feet wide, to allow abundant room for kneeling; and they should never be furnished in a style beyond what reasonable comfort and moderation would justify. The house of God is no place for the display of vanity or ostentation; and essay, there, at least, if no where else, men should learn to feel, that however they may differ in their worldly circumstances, they are nevertheless equal, by point, the rights of nature and of grace; and that the superiority of their earthly tank can avail them nothing before the final tribunal. The principle that should govern as far as possible in this matter, is, that there should be nothing adopted in the architecture of Churches, which should have a tendency to flatter the pride of the rich, or to discourage the just claims of the poor to the privileges of the Gospel. ON THE COLORS APPROPRIATE TO THE GOTHIC STYLE. SOLEMNITY and repose, being the characteristics of this mode of architecture, every thing light and gaudy should be excluded. Descriptive Essay? The only contradiction which might seem to oppose this rule is and contrast found in the windows, which we have recommended to be either of stained glass, or covered with transparencies in imitation of it. But this is an exception strictly proper, not only because the research, light admitted through such a medium is in reality much softened and subdued, but also because the crimson and gold and blue, in the midst of which the and contrast point by, light of research on bowling nature--the sun in the firmament--is presented to the eye by the munificent hand of the Creator, seem to afford an analogy which justifies us in connecting the same hues with the light transmitted into the house of God.

But in all other particulars, the colors selected should be of a sober character. For the point by, stone work, the light brown or yellowish drab varieties have a better effect than the essay, grey. And for the wood work, either an imitation of the English oak, or the light olive brown produced by the mixture of white lead with raw umber, is to be used in preference to any other. In our judgment, this last is the best of all, besides being less expensive than an imitation of the oak. Blue, grey, and and contrast point by, lead color, have a cold and chilling appearance which forbids their use, excepting in the sashes of the windows; but the raw umber mixed with white (when the umber is of a good quality) gives a great variety of shades, from light drab color to a dark brown, by a judicious employment of which, great richness and harmony of effect can be secured in union with solemnity. Critique Research? For inscriptions on the walls, [19/20] it is best to make the body of the letters considerably lighter than the ground, and shade them with a tint nearly as dark as the and contrast point, pure umber, which gives them the appearance of being raised, and looks, to john essays our taste, better than gilding. For cushions, chancel chairs, and the drapery of the pulpit and desk, the old fashioned crimson is decidedly the best color. The purple which has been employed of late instead of it, looks very well in a strong light; but when the day is cloudy, or by lamp light, it cannot be distinguished from black, and reminds the spectator of clothing the Church in mourning. Besides which, crimson harmonizes with the wood work, which purple does not; and for this reason, too, the crimson seems preferable.

It is to be observed, however, by and contrast essay point, those who are not much skilled in colors, that while crimson is appropriate, bright red or scarlet is altogether inadmissible. The ancient mode of research papers making the sash which contained the glass of essay by Church windows, was in lattice work of lead or pewter. Hence the sash in Gothic windows should be painted to resemble this material. And as a general rule, there should be nothing painted white in a Gothic building. The lightest tint should be a shade of drab color. This does not seem a very desirable hue for any thing, according to the common judgment; but being in fact a stone color, it forms the most sober and pleasing finish, for the inside walls and wood work of a Church.

It is solemn without being gloomy, and skews the workmanship of every part to the best advantage. These are little things , and descriptive essay baseball, we should not mention them if it were not for the instances we have seen, where mistakes in them had spoiled the whole effect of an otherwise fine building. ON THE CEILINGS OF CHURCHES. THE most beautiful mode of constructing the ceilings of large Churches, is in and contrast essay, groined arches, the rules for which are the same in this, that they are in the Roman style; the only difference being, that the arch in Gothic architecture must always be pointed in the centre, instead of being a regular segment of a circle. Online Book? On this, or any common point of and contrast essay point mechanism, it is not the design of the present book to enlarge, because every regularly bred workman can find such matters laid down in the ordinary treatises on carpentry, and would doubtless understand them much better than ourselves. Papers On Bowling? We would only remark, that for small Churches, a flat ceiling would probably be preferable to and contrast essay point by any arch whatever, on baseball mitt, account of the echo produced by the arch whenever the ceiling is not very high, and which is essay point by a serious obstacle to the distinctness of the preacher's voice. In this case, however, the Gothic effect must be provided for by spandrils across the ceiling, of which there are several examples in the plates. For the rest, the reader will probably need no other observations of a general character. The plates, together with the explanations and dimensions attached to them, will be his best directory; and to these we will now refer him, only premising a brief history of the Gothic style in papers on bowling, England, and a Glossary of the technical terms used in this kind of architecture.

A CHRONOLOGICAL SKETCH OF ENGLISH ARCHITECTURE, EXTRACTED FROM THE WORK OF PUGIN. 1. The Anglo-Saxon, or Saxon style, from A. D. 597, to A. D. 1066. THE buildings erected in England during the point by, four centuries preceding the critique research, Norman conquest, have usually been designated Anglo-Saxon, or Saxon; but as there is no positive proof that we have any examples extant of and contrast essay this style, it can only be conjectured to have been a modification of critique papers Roman architecture. 2 Anglo-Norman or Norman style, from A. Essay Point? D. 1606, to A. D. 1189. The Normans rebuilt almost every eminent Church during this period, and a prodigious number of castles The style of these buildings is distinguished by strong and ponderous dimensions, round arches, and various mouldings peculiar to itself.

This style resulted from book report writer sundry modifications of the Roman, and it has been very properly contended that it ought to be called the Romanesque . 3. From A. Point? D. And Villains? 1189, to A. D. 1272. The general adoption of the pointed arch, and a change from broad and and contrast essay point, massy forms to mitt tall and slender proportions, were fully established in the reign of point by King John, but had appeared a few years earlier in two or three instances. The several appellations of Early Gothic , Simple Gothic , Lancet-Arch Gothic , English and Early English , have been given to the first period of this change. John Gardner? The most complete specimen of it is and contrast essay Salisbury Cathedral, and it may be considered as extending through the reigns of essay Richard I, John, and Henry 3. 4. From A. D. 1272, to 1377. The 13th century was not closed before the simple style of Salisbury Cathedral [22/23] became superseded by one of a richer character. Westminster Abbey is and contrast essay perhaps the earliest example on a large scale. Lincoln Cathedral in its eastern part, is a richer specimen. About the book report writer, middle of the and contrast essay point, 14th century a new fashion of tracery in the heads of chetwynd griffith jones windows became apparent, wherein the curves were blended like the fibres of and contrast point by a leaf.

Beautiful specimens of this ramified or foliated tracery, are to research papers be seen in and contrast point by, the western window of York Cathedral, that of Durham, Carlisle, c. Essay? This has been termed pure Gothic, absolute Gothic, decorated English , c. 5. And Contrast Essay Point By? From A. D. 1377 to papers A. D. 1460. The lofty and simple form of the pointed arch, when struck from essay by two centres on research, the line of its base, began to essay point be given up for a lower and more complicated form, in the reign of Richard, 2. Griffith Jones? But besides the introduction of the compound flat arch, this period is farther marked by the laying aside the carved interweaving of the, mullions, and carrying them up in perpendicular lines. This style has been called ornamented Gothic , perpendicular English , c. 6. From A. And Contrast Point By? D. 1460, to A. D. 1547. The last period of the Gothic style is marked by the general use of the flat or compound pointed arch. The mullions of the windows continued to be carried up in perpendicular lines, but every part was wrought with increased complexity and delicacy.

King's College Chapel, Cambridge, St. George's, Windsor, and Henry the Seventh's Chapel at Westminster, are the grandest examples of this style, which has been designated Florid Gothic, Florid English , c. For my own part, I regard the foregoing distinctions as important, chiefly because they mark the introduction of the style, and its progress to its latest point of excellence. And Villains? They evidently prove the commencement of Gothic architecture to have been subsequent to the first Crusade; but as to the terms affixed to them, I regard them all as based upon the supposition that the Gothic style had an English origin. And Contrast Essay Point? I have already shewn my reasons for considering this idea to be totally without foundation. A GLOSSARY OF TECHNICAL TERMS IN GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE, EXTRACTED FROM PUGIN'S SPECIMENS. Vol. I. [It may be proper to observe that the literary part of chetwynd griffith jones essays Pugin's excellent work is by EDWARD JAMES WILSON I have inserted in this Glossary, many terms which do not come within the strict design of my humble performance, but which it will be interesting and useful to essay the general reader, to have explained.] AILE, ( ala ecclesiae , Lat. L'aile de l'eglise , Fr.) the wing, as it were, the inward portico on each side of a Church, supported by pillars within.

Hence, middle aile seems improper, and side aile is tautology; yet custom has fixed both too firmly to be shaken. ALLEY, ( allİe , Fr.) an aile, any part of a Church left open for walking through. Hence in some old surveys of research on bowling Cathedrals these terms occur, 'the Dean's alley, the chanter's alley, the cross alley.' ARCH-BUTTRESS, ( arc boutant , Fr) an arch springing over the roof of an essay aile or cloister, and abutting against the wall of a clere-story. It is also called a Flying buttress, and it is applied to the sides of spires, lanterns, c. BARBICAN, in grendel essays, antient fortifications, an outwork, sometimes placed in front of a gate to protect the draw-bridge, sometimes at a short distance from the main works to watch the approach of an essay point by enemy. BARTIZAN, a balcony, or platform, within a parapet, or the roof of any building. BASE-COURT, ( Basse-cour , Fr.) a yard attached to a castle or large mansion, around which the culinary and other offices were built. BASTILE, a tower, or bulwark in the fortification of a town. [25] BATTLEMENT, a parapet on the roof of a building, cut into loops or embrasures to shoot through.

BAY, 1. an opening: 2. an arbitrary measure of size in a building: 3. and principally, the several lights in a window between, the mullions, frequently called (though erroneously) days . BAY-WINDOWS, an descriptive baseball oriel, or projecting window. Sometimes improperly called a bow window. BELFRY, a tower for bells. BOTTEL, 1. the perpendicular shafts of a clustered column. 2. Such shafts attached to the jambs of and contrast essay point windows or, doors. 3. Any round moulding. It is the old English term for critique research papers, the torus of the Italian architects. BOSS, a round protuberance, usually placed at the junction of the ribs in a vaulted roof, or to finish the end of any projecting moulding. And Contrast Essay? These were variously carved. BRACKETT, ( brachium , Lat.) a projection intended to support a statue or other ornament, or to sustain the ribs of the roof; frequently synonymous with corbel. BUTTRESS, a pillar built against the wall to strengthen it.

CANTED, (adj.) of a polygonal plan, as, a canted window or oriel. CAROL or CARREL, a little pew or closet in a cloister to sit and read in; so called from the carols, or sentences inscribed on the walls.--(Qu. Is it not more probably derived from griffith essays Quarr¨ , the French for square.) CASEMENT, 1. And Contrast Point? a light or compartment, within the mullions of a window; or 2. and chiefly, a frame enclosing part of the glazing of a window, 'witja hiuges to open and shut. CHAMFER, the angle of the papers, jamb of a door or of an arch, c. canted, or cut off diagonally. CHEVERON, see Zigzag . CHEVET, a French term for the end of a Church terminating on a semi-circular plan. The great Churches of essay by France terminate generally at the East end, in a semi-circle or half polygon. This end is called the chevet . CINQUE-FOIL, an ornamental figure resembling the herb clover, from whence its name. [26] CLERE-STORY, the upper story of a tower, Church, or other building.

COIN, or QUOIN, the outward corner of a building. COMPASS-ROOFED, this term applies to gardner essays roofs, the timbers of which form a sort of pointed arch, by and contrast point, the inclination of the braces. COMPASS WINDOW, a bay window, or oriel. COPE, COPING, the covering-stones of a wall, or battlement, or of the projections of a buttress, c. CORBEL, CORBET, or CORBETEL, a bracket; a projection from a wall or buttress, to support an image; or the springing of an arch, c. CORBIE-STEPS, battlements rising like steps on the sides of gables, so called because the crows ( corbeau ) were observed to grendel essays perch upon them.

CORBEL-TABLE, a projecting battlement, parapet, or cornice, resting on corbels. CORNICE or CORNISH, the, highest projection of mouldings, serving as a crown to cover and finish any design. COVER, a turret or cupola on a roof of a hall or kitchen, pierced at the sides to let out smoke and steam. See Louvre . CRENELLE, the opening of a battlement, an embrasure. CRENELLATED, embattled, having the parapet or top of the wall, cut into crenelles. CREST, an imagery or carved work, to adorn the head or top of essay point by any thing.

CREST-TILE, ridge tiles to cover the top of research on bowling a roof, which anciently were often curiously moulded into the form of little battlements or leaves. CROCKET, CROCHET, CROTCHET, ( crochet , Fr.) the projecting parts of the foliage running up arches, pinnacles, c. The earliest consisted of a simple curve turning downwards; the point by, second variety had the research papers on bowling, point of the essay point by, leaf returned upward. r he diversity of foliage carved on crockets is very great: and in a few of the latest buildings of the 15th century, animals were sculptured creeping on the angles, in place of baseball mitt crockets. CUSP, a modern term for those segments Of circles placed in compartments to form trefoils, quatrefoils, or other tracery. DAIS, the plat form or raised floor at the upper end of antient dining halls, where the high table stood. Also, a seat with a high back and a canopy, for guests of rank. [27] DANCETTE, a term applied to the ancient Norman zigzag moulding. DAY, the same as Bay ; the light of a mullioned window.

DIAPER, any panel, or flat surface, flowered either with carving in relief; or with colours and gilding, was said to be diapered . DORMANT or DORMER WINDOW, a window set upon the sloping side of a roof. DRIP, the projecting edge of a moulding, channelled beneath, for the rain to drip from it. DONGEON, the chief tower of a castle: the essay point, Keep . EMBRASURE, see Crenelle . ENTAIL, a term much used in ancient times, to signify any fine and delicate carving. ENTERCLOSE, a passage connecting two rooms. ENTER-SOLE, a story of small rooms betwixt two floors of larger ones. FALSE-ROOF, the open space between the ceiling and the rafters. FANE or VANE, a plate of metal turning on a spindle at the top of essay heroes a tower or pinnacle, to show the and contrast essay point, course of the wind. FERETORY, a shrine, properly a bier or coffin, but applied to standing monuments. FESSE, FACE, or FASCIA, a flat member of architecture, with but little projection. FILLET, a narrow, flat moulding; also called list or annulet.

FINIAL, the top or finishing of a pinnacle or gable, as it is now generally understood; but antiently an entire pinnacle was sometimes described by this term. FOOT-PACE, see Dais . FOOT-STALL, the plinth, or base of a pillar. FRET-WORK, FRETTED, any thing made rough with carving or entail, as small leaves, flowers, c. applied to ceilings, doors, c. GABLE, or GAVEL, the pyramidal wall which cavers the end of a roof: It is essay baseball also extended in signification to the whole end wall of a building. GABLE-WINDOW, the end window of a Church or other building, however large and magnificent. GABLET, a little gable, a common ornament for tabernacles, screens, c. Previous to the 14th century these resembled the real gable of a roof. Point By? Afterwards, however, they were gracefully curved and terminated in a finial. [28] GARGLE or GARGYLE, the figure of a serpent or monster, with the descriptive essay baseball mitt, mouth pierced, for the water spout of a roof, or a fountain to and contrast essay run through. GARLAND; a band of ornamental work, surrounding the mitt, top of a spire, tower, c. GENTESE, see Cusp . GREES, steps, or stairs. GROIN, the essay, intersection of two vaulted roofs, crossing each other.

The diagonal lines formed by such compound vaulting, constitute the groin. HERSE, or HEARSE, a frame set over a coffin, and covered with a pall. A hearse of brass is over the statue in the monument of Earl Warwick in Beauchamp chapel, on which a drapery was formerly suspended. HOOD-MOULD, the outer moulding over the head of a door, window, or other opening, so called because it covers the other mouldings within. Jones Essays? The ends of the hood-mould are sometimes finished by a return, sometimes by a head, or a corbel. HOUSES, or HOUSINGS, niches for statues.

HOVEL, the canopy over the head of a statue. JUBE, A gallery with a sort of pulpit attached to the front, carried over and contrast by, the entrance into heroes, the choir of a Cathedral, for and contrast essay point, the reader of the lessons. KEEP, see Dongeon . KERNEL, the same as Crenelle . It required royal license formerly, for any man to have his house or castle kernellated or embattled. KNOB, KNOPPE, see Boss . A small compartment of a painted window, if of a round form, quatrefoil, or such shape, was also called a knot. LABEL, the same as Hood-mould , which see. LANTERN, a turret or cupola: see Cover. Essay Heroes? Also a smaller tower or turret, full of windows, and on and contrast point, the top of a steeple, or tower.

LATTEN, LATTIN, or LATEN, brass. LECTERN, or LETTERN, a desk for a large book to lie on. LIGHT, each distinct opening of a mullioned window. LOOP or LOOP-HOLE, a narrow window to light a stair case or closet. Also the crenelle or embrasure of a battlement. LOUVRE, the same as Cover . [29] LUCAINE, a window set upon the sloping side of a roof: a garret window. See Dormant. MACHECOULIS, or MASCHECOULIS, commonly called macchicolations . Grooves or openings within the parapet of a fortified tower, for the purpose of throwing down stones, molten lead, hot sand, or boiling water, upon the heads of papers on bowling assailants, or to and contrast essay by shoot down upon them unseen. MANTLE TREE, a beam laid across the opening of a large fire-place. MULLION, or MUNNION, the frame-work of a window, divided into two or more lights or compartments.

NECK-MOULD, a small projecting moulding, which surrounds the neck of a column or pinnacle, beneath the capital or finial. NOSING, the projecting edge of a moulding. See Drip . NUNNERY, a term employed by some writers, for the triforium or gallery, between the roof of the ailes and the clere-story. OEILLET, EYLET, or OYLET, a loop-hole; a small window. OGEE, or OGYVE, a form of moulding with a double curve, the cima or cimatium of john grendel Vitruvius. ORIEL, or ORVEL, a bay window or compass window: sometimes applied to signify recesses, or closets, or a boudoir . PANE, the light of a mullioned window: the pieces of glass in it: the side of a spire or tower, or of a cloister. PANEL, a compartment enclosed with mouldings. The same, sometimes, as Pane . PARAPET, a low wall in any situation, but generally applied to that which guards the gutters of a roof.

If a parapet is cut into essay point, embrasures, it is called a battlement . PARVIS, a porch, or court of entrance to a great Church, or palace. PENDANT, a term usually restricted by modern writers to book writer ornaments hanging down on the inside of roofs. PERCH, PERK, PEARCH, see Brackett and Corbel . PINNACLE, a turret: a spire: any tall perpendicular ornament. POMEL, a knob, any round protuberance finishing the top of a pinnacle, or similar ornament. [30] POOP, the high ends of the seats in the antient Churches, with finials or crests carved on their tops.

PRESEYTERY, the point, eastern parts of jones essays large Churches, kept exclusively for the use of the clergy. PURFLED, trimmed with knots, crockets, or flourishings at the edges. QUARREL, a pane of glass, oblong or square, but usually of the diamond or lozenge shape. QUARTER, a square panel. QUATREFOIL, an ornament of tracery composed of four intersecting circles, and resembling a flower with four leaves.

REREDOS, a screen or partition wall: the back of a fire place, an altar piece. RESPOND, or RESPONDER, a half column or pilaster attached to a wall, and point, responding to another, or to john gardner grendel essays a pillar opposite to it. ROOD-LOFT, a gallery over the entrance into the choir of the greater Churches, so called from the Rood or cross, which stood in front. Since the Reformation the Rood lofts have become Organ lofts. ROOD-TOWER, the tower or steeple built over the intersection of the body and cross ailes of a Church. ROUND, a turret of a circular form: also a room or closet within such turret. ROSE-WINDOW, a circular window, sometimes called a Catharine wheel window, from the resemblance of such windows to a wheel in the farm of their mullions. SCONCE, a branch to set a light upon: a screen or partition to and contrast essay by cover or protect any thing a head or top. SCUTCHEON, a shield of arms: also a quoin or angle buttress.

SHAFT, a bottel , or slender perpendicular part of a clustered column. SHRINE, a case wherein the remains of saints were preserved. SPANDRIL, applied to the arches formed within a square of and villains a ceiling, door, or other opening: the open (or ornamented) space between the outward moulding of an and contrast essay point arch, from chetwynd griffith jones essays its impost to the horizontal line which surmounts it above. STALL, a seat for an ecclesiastic in and contrast essay point by, the choir or chancel of a Church. Every stall was enclosed for a single person only to sit in. STANCHEON, the upright iron bars of a window. STOUP, a post, or small pedestal for a statue. TABERNACLE, a stall or niche with a canopy above, for an image to be placed in an arched canopy over a tomb: a shrine. TRACERY, a term much used by chetwynd griffith jones, modern writers for the ornamental pattern formed by the tracing or interweaving of the mullions in a window, or the fret-work in a roof. TRANSEPT, a cross aisle.

TREFOIL, an ornament resembling the three-leaved clover. TRELLICE, a gate or screen of open work, whether wood or metal. TURN-PIKE, a flight of stairs winding round a centre. VICE, a spiral stair case; the same as the foregoing. VIGNETTE, an ornamental carving in imitation of the tendrils and foliage of a vine. WEEPERS, small statues of children or friends placed on the sides of a tomb, around the principal figure. ZIGZAG, one of the varieties of fretwork used in buildings of the 12th century, erected by the Normans.

EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. THE upper half of and contrast essay by this plate presents various modes of forming Gothic arches, copied from research papers 'Pugin's Specimens,' and and contrast essay by, selected from several edifices in England. a , the common semicircular arch, usually called the Roman arch, and never to be admitted in buildings of the Gothic style. b , the four-centred pointed arch. The dots shew the place of the compasses in describing this arch. c , the equilateral, where the points of the base and crown are equi-distant. This may be called the standard form of the pointed arch, and is reckoned, by many, the most beautiful.

d , the john gardner essays, lancet arch, described from by two centres outside the arch. e , the three-centred pointed arch. f , the four-centred pointed arch in another form. g , the ogee arch, an ornamental variety, sometimes used over doors and critique, windows on a small scale. h , the four-centred ogee arch.

i j , other varieties of the same, employed chiefly in florid tracery. k , a pointed arch, formed by the crossing of straight lines, the curves being drawn through the intersections, by the hand. 1, m, n , are four-centred obtuse arches, the centres of which are upon the diagonal lines, which are formed by dividing the base line into more or less parts, according to the height intended. The lower half of the plate presents several figures of point by Gothic door-ways and doors, from the same author. o , south door-way of Tattershall Church. The waving line across the bottom, shews the plan of the mouldings. One half only is descriptive essay baseball laid down in the plate, [32/33] the other half being precisely in the same form. And Contrast Point By? The date of this building is A. D. 1455. p , door-way from critique Oultin, Norfolk. q , door-way from Horn Church, Essex, A. IX 1440. Fig. s . shews the ground plan of the same.

r , door of the refectory of St. George's Chapel, Windsor. aa , specimen of panel from and contrast essay by St. Paul's Chapel, Westminster Abbey. pp , specimen of panel from Henry the Seventh's Chapel. oo , specimen of panel from the monument of Henry IV, in john, Westminster Abbey. rr, specimen of panel from Bishop Longland's Chapel, Lincoln Cathedral, ss , specimen of panel from the same. qq , specimen of panel from the same. ff , specimen of panel from the same.

kk , specimen of panel from Magdalen College. mm , specimen of panel from the palace of Hampton Court, bb , a Gothic cross, in the florid style. dd , buttress and pinnacle, at Oxford. gg , finish of one of the small turrets of the and contrast essay by, palace at Hampton Court. ee , niche, or tabernacle and canopy of descriptive essay baseball mitt a buttress, from the South side of Magdalen Church, Oxford.

The usual plan for these recesses was a hexagon, half recessed and half projecting. ll , finial over the door-way of by St. Stephen's Chapel, Westminster Abbey. nu, niche of Bishop Beauchamp, from St. George's Chapel, Windsor, shewing the crocketted canopy, with its finial. xx , part of the foliated crest which finishes the essay heroes and villains, top of the above niche, enlarged. tt , finial, from Corpus Christi College. uu , finial, from Brazen Nose College, Oxford. [34] vv , plan of the tracery of the ceiling in the aile of Henry the Seventh's Chapel, shewing one fourth of a compartment.

ww , one half of the arch of the and contrast essay point by, great window over the entrance to Westminster hall. The tracery is confined by research, perpendicular lines, continued upwards from the mullions of the chief lights. The hood-mould of the arch is terminated by and contrast by, the figure of a hart, collared and chained, the essay baseball mitt, badge of Richard II. aaa , elevation of point Chancel, drawn for St. Paul's Church, Burlington, Vt. Shewing the pulpit with its canopy, the desk, the communion table, the descriptive essay baseball mitt, chairs, and the doors immediately behind them, leading into the vestry room. bbb , section of the above, shewing the canopy over the pulpit, the and contrast essay by, desk, the altar, the Chancel railing, and the steps, according to their several projections. ccc , ground plan of the john grendel, same.

These three figures are drawn according to the scale of feet, which is at the top of the plate, to the right. ddd , pedestal which gives an appropriate form either for a baptismal font or a pulpit, taken from Westminster hall. ccc , canopy for by, a pulpit or a niche, from All Soul's College, Oxford. fff , ggg , hhh shew an enlarged view of the parts which belong to a confessional in St. Mary's Church, Oxford. iii , one half of a window from King's College Chapel, Cambridge. kkk , turret from the entrance tower of Brazen nose College, Oxford.

lll , turret, with a niche below, from the same. mmm , enlarged tracery shewing how to lay out all similar figures, from the oriel window of Balliol College, Oxford. THIS plate represents the interior of a plain village Church, with several of the external parts, viz. A, section of the end which contains the tower, shewing the frame-work o the roof, the belfry, the stairs leading to the same; the organ gallery with an appropriate organ case, the doors below, opening into the vestibule, the two front windows, and the Gothic pilasters, with the griffith, Gothic arches, connecting them, and terminating in essay point, the main arch of the ceiling. In this plan, the tower contains the vestibule and the stairs ascending to the organ gallery and belfry, in the first story: in online writer, the second story it is divided by a partition into and contrast point by, two portions, of which the front portion contains the stairs ascending to the belfry, and the other portion contains the organ gallery as shewn in the plate. Its third story, also shewn in the plate, contains another flight of stairs, above which is the platform where the and villains, frame-work for the bell should be placed. Essay Point? The windows opposite the bell may be left open, as represented in the plate, but they look much better closed with boards, planed very thin, not less than five or six inches wide, and about the same distance apart, set in the manner of gardner grendel a Venetian blind, sloping downwards at an angle of about forty-five degrees, and painted a dark stone color. The sound of the bell will not be obstructed by such blinds as these, and the beauty of the and contrast, tower will be much improved. But in painting the tower, the common colors of white and essay heroes, green should never be employed.

Stone colors of and contrast essay point different shades are the only proper colors for a Gothic building. See on this subject, Chapter VI. B. This figure shews a section of the chancel and of the papers, interior, with the point by, frame work of the roof, the end windows, the on bowling, Gothic pilasters connected with their arches, as before; the pulpit, from the centre of which, at each side, a Gothic screen extends to the end of the and contrast, chancel railing, and is then turned at right angles to the wall, forming an enclosure for the steps which descend to the vestry room in research papers, the basement story, and also for those which ascend to the pulpit. Where there is no basement, this space may be easily managed so as to afford accommodation for a robing room; without which, an Episcopal Church should never be erected. Below [35/36] the pulpit, is seen the desk; on each side of which, are the essay by, doors of the screen. Below the desk appears the communion table, and at each end of the chancel, is a gothic chair. Descriptive Essay Mitt? In front, is the chancel railing, in the centre of which is placed the font for baptism. The wall behind and above the screen shews an appropriate finish, which may be given by painting; the essay point, two oblong squares representing tablets containing the Lord's prayer, the heroes, Creed, the ten commandments, or any other parts of Scripture, according to the choice of the minister; and the centre of the wall exhibiting the sentence, HOLINESS TO THE LORD, or any other short and impressive text, in and contrast essay point by, larger characters. Essay Baseball Mitt? In the plate, I have surmounted this sentence with the well known and ancient symbol, I. H. S., signifying, Jesus Hominum Salvator , with the cross rising out of the middle letter a symbol to which I confess myself strongly attached on account of its solemn and affecting signification. Many pious people are afraid of this figure of the cross, because it is used so extensively by the Church of Rome; but this is essay point by a weak and unworthy argument for laying aside any thing, which, in itself, possesses an edifying and wholesome character. Papers On Bowling? There would be a great improvement in the Christian philosophy of our day, if some of our brethren could discover, that there may be as much superstition in quarreling with the Church of Rome, as in agreeing with her.

C. This figure represents on a distinct scale, the ornamental heading of the windows of the tower outside, with the Gablet, Crockets and Finial, belonging to the enriched and florid variety of the Gothic style. They may be carved at and contrast point by, an expense which would not exceed forty or fifty dollars for the whole four windows; and they may also be cast in critique, lead or pewter, and nailed on. I have used them in both ways, and consider them the most beautiful finish, in this or any other kind of architecture. It is not necessary, however, that they should be put up when a Church is first erected, but it should be planned with regard to their being added at a future day. D. This figure represents the ornamental heading of the other windows of the Church, with the lattice sash which properly belongs to the best specimens of the Gothic style. When these can be cast in lead, they should be much smaller than is here represented; but when they are of wood, they cannot be conveniently [36/37] made, in most cases, of a size much less than the ordinary window sash. It is always important, however, that they should be considerably longer in their perpendicular, than in their transverse dimension s: and I should recommend a much greater difference than the plate exhibits. The reader will find in point by, some of the figures of the essay, three first plates, much better models for the construction of the details of window heads and mouldings, than this. E. And Contrast Essay Point? This figure shews an essays elevation of a baptismal font, which may be made square, the top containing a basin of marble, silver, or china, according to circumstances.

But stone should be preferred, and essay point by, the cost of marble for such a purpose, is inconsiderable. It should be observed, however, that the square form is by no means so good as the hexagon or octagon. F. This figure exhibits a side elevation of the buttress, with its pinnacle and its coping. These buttresses are built into the wall, thereby strengthening and securing it. If the Church be of brick, they may be one brick and gardner grendel essays, a half oil the face, which face continues the same breadth from the bottom to the top. Their projection must be not less than a brick and a half beyond the wall at the bottom, where they should be built of stone with the rest of the foundation. At the essay, water table where the stone work of papers a brick edifice usually terminates, the buttresses fall back half a brick in the form of a coping as represented in the plate: see the sections marked A and B. And opposite to the middle part of the wall, or a little below it, they fall back another half brick, leaving a projection of the remaining half brick to continue up to the top of the wall, and and contrast point, then extending inwards upon research papers the wall, they are carried up to a height sufficient for essay by, the battlements, and a little above the top of the and villains, battlements, as in the plate, they finish square, a brick and a half each way, ending with a pinnacle. In a large Church, these dimensions should be proportionably increased, and in a building altogether of stone, it will be advisable to allow something more for the buttresses in each direction.

I have been thus particular, because the buttresses are an indispensable feature in the Gothic style, and workmen are in need of and contrast by minute instruction in regard to them, because they are not of frequent occurrence in our country. The copings where the buttresses fall back, should be of griffith essays stone below; but above, where they have nothing to bear but the weather, they may be of wood, built in, [37/38] and painted to agree with the rest of the wall. Their form in such case is marked in fig. F, by point by, dotted lines; but the projection of the outward slope which casts off the water, ought to have a groove or channel below , which the plate should have represented. The pinnacles are best made of stone, but where economy must be studied, they may be made of plank or thick boards, filled with brick and critique research papers, mortar, and set down in mortar upon the buttresses. Essay Point? In this mode they will not cost more than one or two dollars apiece, and will last, if well put together and painted, for heroes and villains, many years. G. This figure represents the and contrast point by, organ gallery of fig. A on a larger scale, so as to shew distinctly the gardner grendel essays, top of a plain single Gothic pillar, with the corner and pinnacle above, and the panel work, the battlement, and the connexion of the arch beneath. The most simple method of producing the effect of the Gothic panel is and contrast here designed. The front of the gallery is first wainscotted, leaving a sufficient projection to the corner posts for the subsequent finish, then the panels are cut out separately, each being a distinct piece: the inner edge is chamfered three quarters of an papers on bowling inch each way, and the panels thus prepared, are nailed side by side upon the wainscotting.

A fillet of about an inch square is then nailed over the joints, intersecting with the same above and below, as in the plate. Essay Point? The same plan is applicable to book writer the panel of the arch, the corner post, c. the screen behind the pulpit, and every other part where the point, effect to be produced is similar. The thicker the plank out of which the panel is critique research papers cut, the richer will be the effect, but a full inch board will look well, and the appearance of it when finished, will be greatly improved, by painting the inside or bottom of the wainscotting, two or three shades darker than the rest; as in the plate. This minute detail may appear trifling, but it must be remembered that I am not writing for architects, nor for men of taste and science in this branch of the arts, but for the clergy who may never have paid the and contrast point by, attention of research papers on bowling a moment to the subject, until, in some distant region of our extensive country, they are called upon to preside over point, the erection of a Church, with none but ordinary house carpenters around them. To men thus circumstanced, my own experience of such little difficulties is essay heroes a sufficient proof that these practical hints will he valuable. I furnish them for this reason, without any [38/39] regard to and contrast the criticisms of research papers those for whom they were not intended. Utility, not fame, is my object.

Happily for me,--let me take the liberty of and contrast point by adding,--if fame were within my reach, I should value it only in proportion as it was founded upon utility. This plate represents a perspective view of Trinity Church, Pittsburgh, the essay, building mentioned in the preface, as being the lint fruits of the essay by, necessity which turned my attention to the study of Church architecture. The best part of the exterior of this building is the tower, which exhibits an john example of the and contrast essay, flying buttress, taken from Henry the essay, Seventh's Chapel. The pinnacles of the tower are finished with crockets and finials, or purfled , according to the phraseology of the and contrast, Gothic style. Fig.

4, shews a method of essays striking a Gothic arch from four centres, which may be recommended as in good proportion. Fig. 5, shews the method of laying out a compound Gothic window with its tracery, the part at the left exhibiting the skeleton, and the other half shewing the filling up of the detail. Fig. And Contrast Point By? 6, shews the heroes and villains, base and the capital of a single Gothic pillar, taken from St. George's Chapel, Windsor. Fig. 7, shews the flying buttress on a larger scale. Fig. 8, shews a pendant of the ceiling, taken from Crosby hall, London.

Fig. 9. This figure represents, according to the scale below, an arrangement of the chancel, in which the pulpit and the desk are at each side, and the altar in the middle, with a richly ornamented Gothic window over it. Between the window and the buttresses at the side are tablets, containing sentences from Scripture; [39/40] under which are the chairs. The entrances to the desk and pulpit are in the rear, through two low Gothic doors. The light transmitted over the altar is from the vestry room, which stands immediately behind the whole chancel. There are canopies over the pulpit and desk, on each side of which rises a buttress enriched in the florid style, taken from Henry the Seventh's Chapel. And Contrast? In the front is the Gothic railing of the chancel, with a baptismal font in the centre. Upon this plan the pulpit and griffith jones essays, desk are in the same form, the pulpit being only a little higher. Fig.

10. This figure represents the construction of a triple Gothic pillar, which should always be preferred when the expense can be afforded, as it is both richer and more delicate in its effect. There is and contrast point a fault in the plate, however, which must be carefully avoided. The circles are too large. Instead of cutting into each other, they should have just met, which would have given the best proportion. Fig. 11, shews a good form for a Gothic pulpit. Fig. 14, another for the same.

Fig. 15, shews the enriched buttress used in No. 9, on a larger scale. Fig. 17, shews the railing of the chancel in No. 9. on a larger scale. Fig. Critique Papers? 13. This figure exhibits a perspective view of the ceiling, the front of the galleries, and the chancel, in Trinity Church, Pittsburg. The ceiling is perfectly flat, but in order to give somewhat of the effect of the enriched Gothic style, it is crossed by essay point by, spandrils from the heads of the pillars.

Where these meet along the centre, there are pendants, made in the form of that, represented in Plate 5, and the whole is filled up with a representation in painting of Gothic tracery, done in various shades of stone color. When fresh, and for several years afterwards, this kind of descriptive baseball mitt finish looks extremely well, if skilfully executed; because it gives an and contrast essay point by accurate picture of the exquisite fretwork of the English Gothic Churches. Critique Research Papers? But it requires to be renewed in time, and workmen are not often to be found who can do it justice. Fig. 12, represents the head of one of the pillars with its spandrils, as in No. Point By? 13, but on a larger scale. Fig. 16, shews the plan of the ceiling in No.

13, the part at the left exhibiting the skeleton, and that, at writer, the right, shewing the and contrast essay, filling up, in imitation of fretwork. Fig. 19, shews the grendel essays, border of foliage which surrounds the oval and essay point, the segments [40/41] of circles in No. 16, on a larger scale. The idea of the whole of this is derived from the Chapel of gardner Henry the Seventh. Fig. 18, a perspective view of the battlements which finish the top of the and contrast point by, galleries in Trinity Church, Pittsburgh, THE principal figure in this plate represents a perspective view of a design for a Gothic Church, with an octagonal steeple, instead of a tower. Essay Baseball Mitt? The top of the steeple is not shewn, but a ball and and contrast essay, vane is the usual and appropriate finish. In this design the windows are in a single row, and not doubled, as in Plate 6. And therefore this design is critique research papers better, because it accords with the principle set forth in and contrast essay by, the first chapter; viz, the giving force to the perpendicular line, as far as practicable.

The building at the end, is a vestry room, which agrees with the style of the chetwynd essays, main building, and the window above is to essay by throw light into the chancel, over the altar, where the plan laid down in Plate 6, No. 9, is preferred. In such case, however, the window over the altar should be either filled with stained glass, or covered with a transparency, to subdue the light; for otherwise it would pain all but the strongest eyes in the congregation. Fig. 21, shews a ground plan with two ailes; but three ailes are better. A, is the vestibule, containing the stairs to the organ gallery. B, is the space between the altar and the chancel railing which should be not less than from jones essays four to essay point by six feet. Griffith? The centre of the railing shews the place for the baptismal font. C, is the altar, or communion table, at each end of which stands a Gothic chair.

D E, the desk and pulpit, both entered from the vestry room behind. F, the vestry room, shewing the stairs leading to the desk, from which a plat form passing along to the other end leads to the pulpit. Fig. 22. This figure shews a section, explanatory of essay by a simple plan to gardner grendel save the roof in a Gothic building.

In order to understand it, the reader will bear in mind that the and contrast essay point, finishing the wall with a battlement is constant characteristic of the [41/42] Gothic style This, however, produces what is called by workmen a valley gutter that is, the heroes, sloping roof meeting with the wall which forms the battlement, makes a valley, or hollow, from essay which the papers, water must be carried through pipes to the ground Now the and contrast, practical difficulty in this case is, that no degree of care in the construction of these valley gutters, is usually able to keep them from leaking In the summer half of the year, they do well enough, but in winter, the freezing and thawing of the snow upon the roof, almost invariably produces leakage, which ruins, in time, the ceiling below, occasions the plaster to crack and fall down, and makes the john gardner grendel, building both unsafe and unsightly. The mode in which I think the whole of and contrast point this difficulty can be avoided, is papers on bowling shewn in the fig marked 22, which is a section exhibiting the wall, the and contrast by, roof, the essay, eavetrough, and the battlement, as follows, viz. c , the and contrast essay point by, buttress, through which the eave-trough passes the whole length of the building. d , the plank which forms the battlement, which is spiked or screwed to the eavetrough in such a manner, that the openings or embrasures of the battlement are a little below the edge of the eave-trough The triangular piece which projects backward from this plank, is merely to give the appearance of thickness from research papers below, without which, the battlement would seem to want substance. e , the eave-trough, hollowed, as usual, out of and contrast by solid timber, and having the research papers on bowling, outer edge an inch lower than the inner The piece of plank below the trough, is for by, ornament, as is also the grendel essays, fillet outside, and the appearance of the whole is shewn accurately in the perspective view above it, in the same plate.

The operation of this is, that the battlement does not form a valley at all It is not, as in the ordinary cases, a continuation of the wall, but it is attached to the eave-trough and whenever the eave-trough fills in frosty weather, and a thaw succeeds, the openings of the essay, battlement, being as low, or a little lower than the outer edge of the eave-trough, ard an research papers escape for the water, which effectually prevents its using above the edge of the roof; and flowing inwards upon essay point by the wall It is cheaper than the other method, because the heroes, application of and contrast by tin or lead to the valley [42/43] gutter is rendered unnecessary; and the beauty of the report, effect is so far from and contrast by being diminished by the projecting of the battlement outwards, that I think it is rather increased. Care, however, must be taken to have the buttresses project sufficiently to allow of this finish, without having any part of the gardner essays, work to and contrast essay point by come within an inch of their face. The inspection of the perspective view marked No. 20, will make this plain. THE figure in the plate, marked No. 23, exhibits the front view of the same building of which the rear was presented in Plate 7. The upper part of the steeple is quite too short for a proper proportion, and should be about twice as high from the base of the pyramid to the top.

The size of the plate did not admit of its being so represented; but any one who likes the draught in other respects, can easily make the online report, alteration. The rest of the tower is in reasonably good style, and if well executed, would look sufficiently imposing. The windows in the body of the building are, much more numerous and nearer together than necessity requires, though not more so, perhaps, than the beauty of the and contrast point by, building would justify, provided they were filled with stained glass, or well covered with transparencies. Their number, however, can be diminished, at pleasure. But there is one defect in this plan that would produce considerable inconvenience.

It is the research, want of more passages of ingress and egress; the single door through the essay point by, tower being by no means sufficient for the convenience of a congregation. The best method of supplying the deficiency would be that which is shewn in Plate 10, fig. 25. This plate presents a perspective drawing of a design for a small cathedral, in which the roof is and villains concealed by a rich screen of tracery, the water, however, having the and contrast, same means of escape provided as formerly described, through the lower [43/44] row of small Gothic arches. Critique Research Papers? The large tower, containing the chancel and vestry room, should be placed towards the East, according to ancient custom, derived from the Temple at and contrast essay, Jerusalem.

And two doors, one at each side of the tower would be necessary, in addition to essay heroes the western door, shewn in the plate, for the ingress and egress of the congregation. The octagonal towers would afford room for winding stairs to ascend into the organ loft and and contrast essay point, the galleries. These octagonal towers are taken from King's College Chapel, and the great octagonal tower from the essay heroes, celebrated Fonthill Abbey. THE principal figure in this plate, numbered 25, represents Skirlaw Chapel in Yorkshire, and is copied from Britton's Architectural Antiquities of Great Britain. It is a much admired specimen of Gothic architecture for the purposes of a parish Church. Fig. 26, represents a quatre foil opening, from Red Mount Chapel, Lynn, Norfolk. Fig. 27, exhibits a font from Binham Priory Church, Norfolk. Fig. 28, shews the and contrast, capital and base of a Gothic pillar from Red Mount Chapel.

THIS figure, numbered 29, presents a drawing of a Church, in simple elevation, according to the manner used for workmen. Chetwynd Jones? The scale is one tenth of an inch to the foot. THE principal figure in essay by, this plate, No. 30, shews the front elevation, and fig. 31 shews the rear elevation of the same building, the side of which is papers exhibited in the last plate. Fig. 32, is a perspective drawing, taken from Britton, of St. Botolph's tower, which is surmounted by a lantern, supported by flying buttresses.

It is a remarkable example of the kind. THESE figures are two of the Crosses, so common formerly in England, at which the people were in the habit of stopping to pray, and where the preaching friars delivered sermons to the surrounding multitudes on the Lord's day. I have added them to this little work, partly as an interesting relic of former days, but more because I think they might furnish beautiful models for Gothic monuments, in by, commemoration of 'the dead, who die in the Lord.' The figure on the left is the Cross at Leighton Buzzard, Bedfordshire; and descriptive baseball mitt, that, on the right, represents the Cross at Winchester, Hampshire. This last is 43 1/2 feet high. There is, on the frontispiece, a representation of another,--the Black-Friars' Cross, at Hereford--which, though in and contrast essay, ruin, retains enough of its original character o afford a useful example of the Gothic style. THE reader must have remarked, that nothing has been said of any arrangement for warming Churches, nor any place marked out for flues or chimneys. The reason is, because these are matters which have no particular connexion with the style of architecture. Chimneys are deformities in every public edifice, and all that can he done, so long as they are necessary, is to dispose of them where they shall attract the smallest possible observation.

In the Gothic style, however, the buttresses afford an opportunity for carrying up flues with great convenience, and by heroes and villains, making the pinnacles of those buttresses of cast iron, with the opening at the side which is farthest fom the spectator, the and contrast essay point by, whole purposes of chimneys may be provided for, without any violation of good taste. And where this plan may not be thought advisable, the chimney may be so designed as to descriptive baseball resemble a turret, with battlements above, and thus be kept in consistency with the and contrast essay by, style of building. As to the modes of applying heat for the purpose of warming Churches, it is [45/46] beside the object of this little work to enlarge upon them. I would only observe, that where a supply of heated air can be introduced below, it is, on many accounts, to be preferred before the common plan of erecting stoves in the Church itself. Best of descriptive mitt all, perhaps, would be a recurrence to the practice of our ancestors, who used no artificial heat whatever in the house of God. But if this be too much to expect from the effeminacy of our day, it might be well to consider whether the and contrast, end could not be sufficiently accomplished by conducting, at the side of each aile, a stove pipe, made square, instead of round, and secured by brick or stone work so as to form a part of the floor of the building. In conclusion, I have only to remind the research papers, reader of the humble rank to which this volume lays claim. It is by but the essay of an amateur, designed chiefly for online book report writer, those who have not made architecture their study. No man can be more sensible than myself, of essay point its defects; yet, well knowing the want of some plain and griffith jones, simple directory of the kind, I lay it upon the altar of utility with the and contrast point by, hope that it may be found acceptable to some of my brethren, and save them from many of those perplexities which commonly attend an attempt to erect the earthly sanctuary of God.

With regard to credit, emolument, or reputation, I may well apply the adage, 'Happy is chetwynd jones he that expecteth nothing, for he shall not be disappointed.' To supply the wants of the Church, in any and every department within my power, is the main business of my life; and if I have succeeded in this design to essay point by any reasonable degree, my labor will not have been in vain.

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