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Best Sample Essays, Free Research Papers, Dissertation Samples. Why Couldn’t Saddam Hussein Defeat Iran in a Blitzkrieg Campaign in 1980. The Iran-Iraq War was one of the most serious conflicts in Facebook the Gulf region in on conflict the second half of the Facebook, 20th century. The conflict was basically determined by essay, the leadership ambitions of both Iran and Iraq. In fact, these two countries were the Facebook, major competitors for essay the leadership in the region. Facebook! This is why it seems to be quite natural that the military conflict between the two states was just a question of time. It should be pointed out that the tension between Iraq and Iran steadily grew and Iraq could not fail to benefit from an furniture, excellent opportunity to defeat its major competitor in the region and become the regional leader.
We can write a Custom Research Paper on Facebook, Saddam Hussein for you! Along with numerous political reasons, economic factors also contributed to essays the growing tension between countries since the victory in the war was strategically important to both countries, especially to Facebook Iraq, which, in the case of success, could establish the dominant position in a view the region in all domains: political, economic, and Facebook, even ideological. In this respect, it is necessary to cheap paper underline that Iraq was the initiator of the military conflict and its war on Facebook, Iran was an paper pads, obvious aggression against Facebook, the state weakened by the profound internal crisis. In such a situation, Iraqi leader naturally expected to realize the plan of a blitzkrieg campaign and defeat the with, opponent within a few months. Such plans seemed to be quite realistic since Iraq was in an unarguably advantageous position compared to Iran. Having support of the USSR and military superiority over its opponent, Iraq could count for Facebook the easy and triumphant military campaign in 1980.
In fact, the plans of Iraqi leader, Saddam Hussein , were partially fulfilled within less then three months. As the campaign was launched on September 22, 1980, by utd application essay, December 7, 1980 Iraqi leader could estimate that the blitzkrieg campaign was over since the major objectives of the war had been achieved. Facebook! To put it more precisely, Iraq targeted the acquisition of the Arvand Rud waterway and the annexing of Khuzestan and formally these objectives had been achieved by a view essays, December 1980. However, in actuality, it was not the end of the war but, in Facebook contrast, it was just the beginning of the destructive military conflict that had been lasting for descriptive eight years from 1980 till 1980. In such a way, a presumably victorious plan of the blitzkrieg campaign had totally failed since the war had not been over with the first successes of the Iraqi army, but, instead the aggression provoked a strong opposition from the Facebook, part of Iranian people, which continued the war for almost a decade. In such a situation, it is possible to speak about failure of the blitzkrieg campaign of Saddam Hussein, which was apparently unexpected not only for a room a view critical essays the Iraqi leader but for Facebook the world community as well because Iraq’s superiority seemed to be unarguable, while Iran was weakened by utd application essay, the revolution and its position seemed to be absolutely disadvantageous. This is Facebook, why it is extremely important to analyze the essays, factors that determined the failure of Iraqi blitzkrieg campaign because the understanding of the reasons of Iraqi failure can help better understand perspectives of blitzkrieg campaigns in the second half of the 20th century and in the future. Speaking about the failure of the Facebook, blitzkrieg campaign, it is necessary to dwell upon essay on conflict the crucible military factors, which played probably the most important role in Facebook the failure of presumably stronger the Iraqi army over weakened Iranian military forces.
In fact, it is necessary to underline that on the eve of the sweepstakes, war, Iran practically turned to be in a complete isolation from the rest of the world and was deprived of any support from the part of the major players in Facebook international relationships. In this respect, it is very important that neither the USA nor the USSR supported Iran in this military conflict. Moreover, it is even possible to estimate that both superpowers, i.e. the US and the USSR, either had ignored or even actively supported Iraq in the war since its beginning. To put it more precisely, the USSR had actively supported Iraq in its war on Iran. The Iraqi army was equipped with the best essays, Soviet weapon and the USSR provided its Iraqi partners with ample technological as well as political support in the conflict. As a result, the Iraqi army could naturally count for Facebook the technological superiority compared to its opponent, which was deprived of any external support since the US had abandoned the country after the Islamic Revolution in 1979 as well as British that had also stopped any cooperation with Iran.
Nevertheless, the past partnership between Iran and its former Western allies still remained a very important trace in Iranian defense potential. In fact, after the retreat of a room a view essays Americans and British, Iran had got the Facebook, arsenal of advanced Western weapon, which provided the country with an excellent opportunity to respond adequately to Iraqi aggression and, what is more, this arsenal, to a significant extent, determined the an analysis, failure of the blitzkrieg campaign. In this respect, it should be said that air forces played probably the most important role since the defeat of Iranian air forces and Facebook, the dominance of the Iraqi army in the air was one of the major conditions of the successful fulfillment of the plan of the blitzkrieg campaign, the tactic that was successfully practiced by the German army during the World War II. In fact, the failure of Iraqi air forces was absolutely unexpected since Saddam Hussein supposed to easily defeat Iranian air forces which did not have support from the part of the US. But, instead, air attacks of Iraqi air forces on furniture sweepstakes essay, Iranian airfields proved to Facebook be practically ineffective because they were modernized with the help of the utd application essay, former allies of Iran, the US practically before the war. As a result, Iranian airfields could withstand Iraqi bombing after the modernization and, thus, the Facebook, impact of Iraqi air attacks was minimal and not so destructive as it was supposed to be. Expository On Conflict The Crucible! At any rate, the effect of these attacks was absolutely insufficient to destroy Iranian airfields and Facebook, national air forces, which were the best, major conditions of the success of the blitzkrieg campaign. Moreover, equipped with modern American-designed planes, Iranian air forces were the potentially lethal threat to the Iraqi army. As a result, after the first three days of air attacks on Iranian military airfields, radar installations, and supply depots, Iraqi air forces had failed to inflict any significant damage and, what is more, Iranians launched counter-strikes that surprised the Iraqi army with their strengths. Furthermore, another important factor was the navy superiority of Iran over Iran. In fact, Iranian navy dominated in the Gulf region and Facebook, practically totally controlled the area, while Iraq was practically deprived of best essays any opportunity to defeat the opponent in the Gulf.
At any rate, the Facebook, correlation of navy forces between Iraq and Iran made the blitzkrieg campaign in with a view critical the sea practically impossible since weaker Iraqi navy could not defeat rapidly the stronger and better equipped Iranian fleet. Finally, another argument of Iraqi commanders in favor of the success of the blitzkrieg campaign was the purges that took place in Iran on the eve of the war. As a result, the Iranian army had lost a large number of Facebook professional that were loyal to the previous regime and, to a significant extent, the purges were provoked by expository essay the crucible, the fear of the new Iranian government concerning the potential threat from the part of the army, which, as they supposed, might have used their power to restore the ruined regime of the Shah. As a result, Iranian leaders organized purges and, what is more, they opposed to the reinforcement of the Iranian army, which they viewed as a threat to Facebook their rule. Naturally, in such a situation, Saddam Hussein could count for the superiority of the professionalism of his army over the opponent. However, in actuality the professionalism of the Iraqi army was also quite arguable, since purges were organized not only in essay on conflict the crucible Iran but in Iraq as well. In fact, Iraqi officers were mainly assessed on the basis of their loyalty to Saddam Hussein than on their professional level. As a result, the more loyal an Iraqi officer was the more opportunity he had to get a higher rank.
Consequently, the professional level of Facebook both armies was practically equal that also made the perspectives of the best descriptive, blitzkrieg campaign quite vague and doubtful. Ideology was another important factor that contributed considerably to the failure of the Iraqi blitzkrieg campaign. In fact, it is Facebook, even possible to estimate that the Iraqi army had lost ideological war, the struggle for the minds of people and soldiers. In this respect, it should be said that since the beginning of the war, Saddam Hussein expected that Iranian society suffered from profound internal conflict and sweepstakes essay, numerous contradictions caused by the revolution. The political and ideological conflicts within the country could contribute to the easy and rapid victory of Iraq. However, in actuality, the effect of the Iraqi intrusion was quite the opposite to what Saddam Hussein had expected just before the war. In contrast to the expectations of Iraq, instead of the growing tension, Iranian society had consolidated after the start of the war. It is worthy of mention that even military professional that opposed to the new regime readily supported new leaders in the struggle against Facebook, Iraq. In fact, the Iraqi aggression turned to be the major factor that united Iranian society in face of the external threat.
Iranian people forgot all the contradictions they had in face of the threat to essay the sovereignty of their country and its power and leadership in the region, even though Iraq declared that it was interested only I the Facebook, part of the territory of Iran and practically led the a room with, limited war. Facebook! As a result, the Iraqi army could not find any support within Iran but a total opposition and, in stark contrast to Iraq, it was a total war for Iran. Moreover, Saddam Hussein faced a serious problem within his own army since the majority of Iraqi soldiers were Shiites, while the government itself was Sunni. In such a situation, there could be a progressing internal conflict within the Iraqi army because of the difference in religious views of soldiers and the government. The situation was deteriorated by the fact that the predominantly Shiite Iraqi army governed by the Sunni elite had to fight against utd application essay, Iran, where Shiites dominated after the Facebook, revolution. Strategic and tactical factors. Along with the strong military opposition from the part of Iran and the lack of significant superiority of the cheap scrapbook paper pads, Iraqi army and Facebook, its ideological problems, Iraqi military forces also suffered from strategic and tactical errors of its commandment. To put it more precisely, Saddam Hussein took an active part in the development of the strategic plan of the blitzkrieg campaign and even took important decisions during the essay, military actions and some battles, even though he was not experienced in military operations.
As a result, he made numerous errors and, to a significant extent, it was Saddam Hussein with his ambitions who was responsible for the failure of the blitzkrieg campaign since, if the entire campaign and all military operations were planned and Facebook, realized by professionals solely without interferences of the essays, Iraqi leader, the blitzkrieg campaign could be quite successful. However, probably the most important strategic error made by Iraq was the obvious underestimation of the Facebook, opponent. In fact, Saddam Hussein and his advisors underestimated the military potential of Iran, the sweepstakes essay, weakness of its air forces, the depth of the conflict within Iranian society, and Facebook, the ability of Iran to oppose to the aggression without any external support. On the other hand, Saddam Hussein overestimated the professionalism of his own army and the role of the external support, especially from the part of the USSR, as well as he practically failed to foresee the essay, weakness of the ideological doctrine of Iraqi aggression compared to the ideological unity of Shiite Iran and the majority of the Iraqi army. Thus, it is possible to conclude that Saddam Hussein could not defeat Iran in the blitzkrieg campaign because of the number of factors. Firstly, the military superiority of Iraq turned to Facebook be fake since the an analysis essay, Iranian army proved that it is equal or even superior (Navy) to Iraqis. Facebook! Secondly, the with essays, ideological basis for the war was quite weak since the Facebook, aggression targeting the acquisition of new territory proved to be not very effective in the conditions when Shiite Iraqi soldiers were forced to fight against Shiite Iran that created conditions for essays their religious unity, which engendered the opposition to Facebook the war within the Iraqi army. Best Descriptive! Finally, Saddam Hussein despotism and ambitions led to the numerous strategic and tactical errors.
All these factors, eventually led to the failure of the blitzkrieg campaign in 1980, which, being officially over, marked the beginning of the long-lasting war. Remember , free research papers, sample research papers and research paper examples on Saddam Hussein topics are traced by plagiarism detection systems. All samples online are plagiarized. Don#8217;t download them and submit them as your own research project for high school, college or university. Why not to get a 100% original research paper at PapersMart.net? Need a free quote? If you need a custom research paper on Saddam Hussein feel free to contact our online research paper writing company. Facebook! Our professional academic writers who hold PhD and essay, Master#8217;s degree will write a 100% non-plagiarized research paper, term paper, essay, research proposal or dissertation for you. Facebook! Our custom research paper service produces high-quality custom papers on any topics and disciplines. On-time delivery and confidentiality guarantee! http://papersmart.net - will write a custom essay, research paper, term paper, thesis or dissertation on any topic and discipline. 100% non-plagiarized papers from professional writers.
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KurzweilAI | Accelerating Intelligence. Life Extension and Overpopulation. The prospect of life extension raises fears of Facebook, overpopulation. Scrapbook Paper Pads. Extropian Max More argues we should focus on reducing births, not on raising or maintaining death, since population growth and pollution are slowing down (from growing wealth) and in the future we can create new habitats in Facebook, space. Original version published 1996 and revised 2001 can be found at maxmore.com. Revised version published on KurzweilAI.net April 9, 2001. The prospect of living longer appeals to many people.
Extending lifespan more drastically beyond the current genetic limit of a room a view essays, 120 years appeals especially to persons of Facebook, independent mind. These are people used to going their own way, questioning traditional beliefs, and furniture sweepstakes, asserting their values independently of those around them. Yet even we independent thinkers are social beings. Many of our goals require the Facebook, support of others, and achieving extended life is one of these. We can exercise, diet, and develop healthy psychologies mostly alone or with a few fellows, but scientific breakthroughs in longevity will not happen without broad support and funding. New treatments may be delayed or prohibited if the cultural and a room with essays, legal mindset moves against “interfering” with the Facebook, human lifespan. Recognizing these social factors, many of us frequently find ourselves persuading others that extending life is cheap scrapbook paper pads a desirable goal.
In making the case for active support of Facebook, life extension or cryonics, several arguments come up over on conflict, and over again. Facebook. We are told that our limited lifespan is natural, or that it is God’s will, or that extreme longevity would drain life of meaning. More common than these objections, we hear fears about overpopulation. Since the 1960s, with the advent of bestsellers like Paul Ehrlich’s The Population Bomb , writers have been getting rich by proclaiming humankind’s impending doom due to overpopulation. In this essay, I hope to provide a compact response to this concern. For more detail, I urge the reader to consult the references at the end. 1. Let us assume for expository on conflict the crucible a moment that population growth is or will become a serious problem. Would this give us a strong reason for Facebook turning against the extension of human lifespan? No. Opposing extended life because it might add to existing problems would be an unethical response.
Suppose you are a doctor given a child to treat who is suffering from pneumonia. Would you refuse to cure the child because then she would be well enough to run around, fall down, and skin her knees? Our first responsibility is to live long and vitally and to help others do the same. Once we are at work on this primary goal, we can focus more energy on solving other challenges. Life extension and optimal living for the individual certainly benefits from a healthy physical and social environment. The life extensionist may want to be part of the solution to any population issues, but dying is not a responsible or healthy way to solve anything. Start An Analysis. Besides, if we take seriously the Facebook, idea of limiting lifespan to control population, why not be more active about it? Why not encourage suicide? Why not execute anyone reaching the start, age of 75? 2. Limiting population growth by opposing life extension not only fails the ethical test, it also fails the pragmatic test. Keeping the death rate up simply is not an effective way of slowing population growth.
Population growth depends far more on how many children families have than on Facebook how long people live. In mathematical terms, longer life has no effect on the exponential growth rate. It only affects the constant of the equation. This means that it matters little how long we live after we have reproduced. Compare two societies: In country A, people live on average only to 40 years of age, each family producing 5 children.
In country B, the lifespan is 90 years but couples have 4 children. Despite the much longer livespan in country B, their population growth rate will be much lower than that of an analysis essay, country A. It makes little difference over the long term how many years people live after they have had children. The population growth rate is determined by how many children we have, not how long we live. Even the apparent short term upward effect on population due to a lower death rate may be cancelled by Facebook, a delay in child-bearing. Many women in developed countries (those who will be first to have extended life) choose to bear children by their early ’30s because their chances go down as they age. Extending the fertile period of women’s lives would allow them to put off having children until later, while they concentrate on their careers. Not only couples have children later, they will be better able to with critical essays, care for them, financially and Facebook, psychologically. Even if there is a population problem, extending the human life span will worsen the problem no more than will improving automobile safety or worker safety, or reducing violent crime. Who would want to keep these deadly threats high in order to combat population growth? If we want to slow population growth, we should focus on reducing births, not on raising or maintaining deaths.
If we want to reduce births, we might voluntarily fund programs to provide contraceptives and family planning to couples in poorer countries. Essay On Conflict. This will aid the natural developmental process of choosing to have fewer children. Couples will be able to have children by choice, not by accident. Women would also be encouraged to join the modern world by gaining the ability to pursue vocations other than child-raising. 3. We have seen that we have no reason to Facebook, hesitate in descriptive essays, prolonging life even if overpopulation really is a concern. But how much should we worry about the growing population? Is population growth accelerating out of control?
Is expanding population causing major and Facebook, unavoidable problems? The fad for popular books foretelling doom started in a view essays, the 1960s, at the tail-end of the most rapid increase in population in Facebook, human history. Scrapbook Paper. Growth has been slowing down, and Facebook, we have sound reasons to expect this trend to continue. In the Western world, population has stabilized. An Analysis. In some countries, such as Germany, the size of the population is actually falling, as more people die than are born.
The population of the USA would be static were it not for Facebook an influx of new mind and cheap scrapbook paper, muscle through immigration. Facebook. The poorer countries, well below us in the development cycle, have also been experiencing a drastic reduction of with essays, population growth, despite extra decades of life bestowed by medical intervention and nutrition. The peak average annual population growth rate was reached in 1970 at 2.07%. The rate for 1997 is expected to be 1.36%. Developmental trends suggest that this growth rate will drop below 1% in 2016, and Facebook, fall to around 0.46% by 2049. Every year at present, the world population grows by around 80 million people. By 2050, we will be adding perhaps 40 million per year, a number that we can expect to continue dropping. Best. This slowing of population growth results from a falling birth rate. The birth rate in Asia and Facebook, the Pacific, between 1950 and expository essay the crucible, 1980 fell 28.8%, and in the Americas by 24.7%. Africa, further behind on the development curve, reduced its birth rate by 2.2% in the same period, all of Facebook, it being in expository, the second half of the period. Overall, for the less developed countries, birth rates fell 24.9% from 1950 to Facebook, 1980.
Here are the figures in table form: Source: Mark Perlman, “The Role of an analysis essay, Population Projections for the Year 2000? in The Resourceful Earth, eds. Julian L. Simon Herman Kahn. Why, though, should we expect people in less developed countries, even given contraceptives, to choose to have smaller families? This expectation is not merely speculation based on recent trends. Facebook. Sound economic reasoning explains the continuing trend, and best, makes sense of why Africa is only just beginning to make the transition to fewer births. Decelerating population growth appears to Facebook, be an inevitable result of expository essay on conflict, growing wealth. Facebook. Early on in a country’s developmental curve, children can be regarded “producer goods” (as economists would say).
Parents put their children to an analysis, work on the farm to generate food and revenue. Very little effort is Facebook put into caring for the child: no expensive health plans, special classes, trips to Disneyland, X-Men action figures, or mounting phone bills! As we become wealthier, children become “consumer goods”. Cheap Scrapbook. That is, we look on them more and more as little people to be enjoyed and pampered and educated, not beasts of burden to help keep the Facebook, family alive. Start An Analysis. We spend thousands of dollars on children to keep them healthy, entertain them, and educate them. We come to prefer fewer children to Facebook, a vast mob of little ones. Sweepstakes. This preference seems to Facebook, be reinforced changing tastes resulting from improved education. The revenue vs. Descriptive Essays. expense equation for extra children further shifts toward having fewer offspring as populations become urbanized. Facebook. Children cost more to raise in cities and essay, can produce less income than in the country. Fertility declines for another reason: As poorer countries become wealthier, child mortality falls as a result of Facebook, improved nutrition, sanitation, and health care. (Reduced child mortality in modern times can come about even without a rise in income.) People in expository, poorer countries are not stupid: they adjust their childbearing plans to reflect changing conditions.
When child death rates are high, research has shown that families have more children to ensure achieving a given family size. They have more children to make up for deaths, and often have additional children in anticipation of later deaths. Families reduce fertility as they realize that fewer births are needed to reach a desired family size. Given the Facebook, incentives to have fewer children as wealth grows and urbanization proceeds, reduced mortality leads to families choosing to reduce family size. Economic policy helps shape childbearing incentives.
Many of the same people who have decried population growth have supported policies guaranteed to boost childbirths. More than that, they boost childbearing among those least able to raise and best descriptive essays, educate children well. If we want to Facebook, encourage people to best descriptive essays, have more children, we will make it cheaper for Facebook them to do so. If we want to discourage fertility, or at least refrain from pushing it up, we will stop subsidizing it. Subsidies include free education (free to the parents, not to the tax-payers), free child health care, and additional welfare payments to expository essay, women for each child they bear. If parents must personally bear the costs of having children, rather than everyone else paying, people will tend to have just the number of Facebook, children for whom they can assume financial responsibility. 4. We can expect population growth to continue slowing until it reaches a stable size. That may be 12 billion, perhaps 15 billion. Can the essay, Earth support such a number? We can take little comfort in stable numbers if those numbers are unsustainable. A detailed answer to Facebook, this question demands far more space than I have here.
References to excellent writings on the subject can be found in the Further Reading appendix. A few brief points will have to do here. A reading of economic and social history quickly makes one thing plain: Throughout history people have thought they saw overpopulation. Even the great nineteenth century social scientist W. Stanley Jevons in 1865 claimed that England’s industrial expansion would soon cease due to the exhaustion of the country’s coal supply. However, as shortages developed, prices rose. Expository. The profit motive stimulated entrepreneurs to find new sources, to develop better technology for finding and extracting coal, and to transport it to where it was needed. Facebook. The crisis never happened. Today, the USA has proven reserves sufficient to last hundreds or thousands of years. If one resource does begin to run low, rising prices will encourage a switch to alternatives. Certainly, even a vastly bloated population cannot hope to exhaust energy supplies. (Solar energy and power from a room critical, nuclear fission and soon fusion are practically endless.) So long as we have plentiful energy we can produce substitute resources and even generate more of existing resources, including food. Even if population continues to grow well beyond 15 billion, we can expect human intelligence and technology to comfortably handle the numbers.
5. Facebook. Neither should we expect pollution to a room with, worsen as population grows. Contrary to popular belief, overall pollution in the more developed countries has been decreasing for decades. Facebook. In the USA, levels of lead have dropped dramatically. Since the 1960s levels of furniture sweepstakes, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, ozone, and organic compounds have fallen despite a growing population. Facebook. Air quality is major urban areas continues to descriptive, improve, and the Great Lakes are returning toward earlier levels of purity. This is no accident. As we become wealthier, we have more money to spare for a cleaner environment. When you are hungry for Facebook food and shelter and expository essay on conflict the crucible, other basics, you will not spare much thought for the environment. So long as mechanisms exist for converting desires for cleaner air and water and space for recreation into the things themselves, we can expect it to happen.
Most effective at Facebook spurring the positive changes are markets–price signals creating incentives for moves in cheap pads, the right direction. If polluters must pay for what they produce because their activity intrudes on the property rights of others, they will search for ways to make things with less pollution. Pollution problems do exist. Most of them can be traced to a failure to enforce private property rights, so that resources are treated as free goods that need not be well-managed. Fishing in Facebook, unowned bodies of essay, water is an example of this. The desertification of collectively or government owned land in Facebook, Africa is another. We can be reasonably confident that the trend toward less pollution with greater population will continue. Complacency is out of place however. We should press for expository on conflict the crucible responsible management of resources by privatizing collectively owned resources to Facebook, create incentives for sound management and descriptive, renewal. 6. Human intelligence, new technology, and a market economy will allow this planet to support many times the current population of 6 billion–it can support many more humans than we are likely to see, given trends toward lower birth rates.
Many countries, including the USA, have a rather low population density. If the USA’s population were as dense as Japan–hardly a crowded place overall–our population would be 3.5 billion rather than 265 million. Facebook. If the USA had a population density equal to paper pads, that of Singapore, we’d find almost 35 billion people here, or almost seven times the current world population. Facebook. New technologies, from simple improvements in irrigation and management to current breakthroughs in genetic engineering should continue to improve world food output. Fewer people are starving despite higher populations. With Essays. This does not mean feeling satisfied. Facebook. Millions still go hungry or are vulnerable to disruptions in supply. We need to push to remove trade barriers, abolish price controls on agriculture (which discourage production and investment), and cheap pads, pressure governments engaging in warfare and collectivization to change their ways. So long as we continue to Facebook, allow freedom to generate more wealth and better technology, we can expect pollution to continue abating.
More efficient recycling, less polluting production processes, and better monitoring and detection of a room with essays, polluters, along with economic incentives making each producer responsible for their output, will allow us to continue improving our environment even as population grows. Far-sighted engineers foresee a day, not far off, when we will be able to completely control matter at the molecular level, a technology known as nanotechnology. If we achieve this level of mastery, we will have the keys to production without pollution. Facebook. Another product of molecular manufacturing will be the disappearance of most large-scale, clumsy machinery. Less and scrapbook pads, less land will need to be used for Facebook manufacturing equipment, making more room for people to enjoy. Some manufacturing will be moved into space. The result of these and other changes (some of which are already underway) will be the freeing of the Earth from a view critical, unwanted, but previously necessary, means and by-products of manufacturing. Since we are considering the long term, here’s a final thought: If the future feels too crowded for us, we can always leave and make a fresh start. Just as malcontents left Old Europe to Facebook, come to America’s New World, some of sweepstakes, us will leave this planet to Facebook, found new societies in the unlimited depths of space.
New launch systems, new materials, molecular-scale manufacturing, and robotic construction will, in the coming century, open up the space frontier in a view, an affordable manner. Adventurous folks, and those desiring experimentation and the freedom to make major changes, will blast out of the Earth’s gravity well. They will create new habitats in space–not cramped little capsules, but grand, freewheeling, custom space habitats with the comforts of home but fewer of the limitations. The population issue raises numerous factual, economic, and ethical concerns. I cannot hope to deal with them adequately here.
I urge the interested reader to check into Facebook, the sources listed in cheap paper pads, the References. I have only sketched lines of Facebook, thinking showing that we would be severely misguided not to push for extended life out of fear of overpopulation. Let us move full speed ahead with extending lifespan. Once we have vanquished aging, I would expect other threats to life, such as war and violent crime, will become even less acceptable. We can look forward to a long-lived society better off than previous generations not only in economic well-being but in security of life and health. Paul R. Ehrlich Anne H. Ehrlich, The Population Explosion (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1990). The apocalyptic view.
Jerry Pournelle, A Step Farther Out (London, W.H. Allen, 1980). Jonathan Rauch, “The New Old Economy: Oil, Computers, and with a view essays, the Reinvention of the Facebook, Earth.” The Atlantic Monthly, January 2001. Julian L. Simon, The Ultimate Resource (Princeton, Princeton University Press, 1981). –Population Matters (New Brunswick, N.J.: Transaction, 1990). –”Resources, Population, Environment: An Over-Supply of False Bad News”, Science 208, June 27, 1980, pp.1431-1437. –”Bunkrapt: The Abstractions that lead to scares about resources and population growth,” Extropy #11, Summer/Fall 1993, pp.34-41. Julian L. Simon H. Kahn, eds., The Resourceful Earth (Oxford: Basil Blackwell, Inc. 1984).
J. Best. Peter Vajk, Doomsday Has Been Cancelled (Culver City, CA, Peace Press, 1978). Topics: Biomed/Longevity | Innovation/Entrepreneurship | Social Networking/Web. Please log in to post a comment. The Kurzweil Accelerating Intelligence newsletter features science and technology breakthroughs. It also lists new blog posts, events, videos, and books.
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SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips. Facebook. You've gotten back your SAT scores. On your score report, there's information about how you did on Evidence-Based Reading and Writing and Math, compared to students in the previous year's graduating class who took the SAT. But what about utd application your essay? How does your essay score compare to Facebook, everyone else? There's no percentile information for that in the score report. Find out what an average SAT essay score looks like (and how you stack up) in this article! First, a quick reminder about the crucible how SAT essays are scored: two graders score each SAT essay on a scale of Facebook, 1-4 across three different dimensions: Summed together, this means your score can range between 2 and a room a view critical 8 for each area. Facebook. There is no longer one single total SAT essay score, just Reading, Analysis, and Writing essay scores. Logically, it would seem that the average SAT essay score in start essay, each domain should be a 5 (since that's halfway between 2 and Facebook 8).
The most recent SAT essay score data bears this out except when it comes to the Analysis dimension. The average SAT essay score for students graduating high school in 2017 was 5 out of 8 for Reading, 4 out of 8 for Analysis, and 5 out of essay, 8 for Writing (source: CollegeBoard 2017 Total Group Report) . To get a better idea of how frequently different essay scores were assigned, I created several different SAT essay score distribution charts that show how many students got each essay score for Reading, Analysis, and Writing . The data in this first chart shows the distribution of scores across all three dimensions for students who graduated high school in Facebook, 2017. Distribution of SAT Essay scores for start an analysis essay, the 2017 Graduating Class. (data source for Facebook, all graphs: CollegeBoard) From this chart, we can see that there's the same general trend for the numbers of descriptive essays, students who got various Reading and Writing scores, while there's something quite different going on with Analysis scores. Let's separate these scores out into separate graphs, starting with Reading and Writing essay scores. Distribution of SAT Essay Reading Scores for the 2017 Graduating Class. Facebook. Distribution of SAT Essay Writing Scores for the 2017 Graduating Class. If you compare the start an analysis graphs for the distribution of Reading and Writing scores, you'll see a striking similarity between them when it comes to how many students got each score on Reading and Facebook Writing. There's a huge drop-off from the the crucible middle range of Facebook, scores (4-6) to the upper and lower ends of the scale.
Because so many people score towards the middle on SAT Essay Reading and Writing scores, it's safe to expository the crucible, say that if you score a 3 or below, your essay score is definitely lower than average; if you score a 5-6, your score is pretty average; and Facebook if you score a 7 or above, your score is significantly higher than average. Essay. Things are a little murkier when it comes to the Analysis essay scores. Let's take a look. Distribution of Facebook, SAT Essay Analysis scores for the 2017 Graduating Class. In contrast to the trend for Reading and Writing scores, Analysis scores are heavily skewed toward the bottom of the scale. Even though the average Analysis score for 2017 was a 4 out of 8 (which is towards the middle), the Analysis score the most students received was 2 out of 8. With A View Critical. Why did so many students score lower on Analysis, while still managing to do okay on Reading and Writing? The most likely answer is that the Analysis dimension is the part of the Facebook SAT essay task that is most different from what students have had to do on other standardized test essays. Start. Instead of giving their opinion on the passage in the SAT essay prompt, students are asked to analyze the author's opinion. While this analysis is Facebook, pretty straightforward once you manage to wrap your mind around it, it is very different from cheap pads, what students had to do on Facebook the old SAT essay (and what students are still asked to do on the ACT essay) and other standardized essays like DBQs.
Because of the different trends for Analysis scores on best the SAT essay, an Analysis score of a 6 or above puts you well above average; a score of 3-5 is solidly middle of the pack; and a score of 2 is low. If you did get a 2/8 Analysis score, the good news is that you can most likely boost it to at least a 4 (if not a 6 or higher) by Facebook reviewing these 15 SAT essay tips. When colleges look at your SAT scores, however, they usually won't look at your essay scores all by themselves. Most schools look at your overall SAT score first, your Evidence-Based Reading and Writing and Math scores next, and your essay scores last (if they care about your SAT essay scores at expository essay the crucible, all). This leads into my next point. Facebook. How Much Does My Essay Score Matter? Because your essay score no longer affects your Writing section score on furniture the SAT, the Facebook importance of the SAT Essay has decreased significantly. More and best descriptive essays more schools are dropping the requirement for students to submit SAT with Essay scores entirely, and Facebook schools that do require the SAT Essay often place much less importance on your essay score than on your other SAT scores. Best Essays. Still, there are highly competitive programs and schools that use SAT scores to place students in the appropriate level classes that require students to submit SAT Essay scores.
For these kinds of Facebook, schools, while your SAT essay score still won't matter as much as almost any other part of your application, you'll still want to aim for a high enough score that you're not immediately disqualified (or so that you don't get bumped down into start, remedial writing). Facebook. So what's the average SAT essay score you should target for more competitive schools? Our advice is to expository on conflict the crucible, aim for at least a 6 out of 8 on Facebook Reading, Analysis, and Writing. Higher essay scores (particularly on start an analysis the Analysis dimension) are even better, but a 6 out of 8 shows that you have above-average writing skills on a standardized essay written at Facebook, the end of a multihour-long test. In cases where admissions offices might wonder if your application's personal statement was a fluke, your SAT essay scores can confirm that you do have a certain level of writing ability. And the SAT essay rubric requirements to get a 6 out of utd application, 8 on each section are a pretty reasonable minimum standard for colleges to Facebook, expect students to meet. What If My SAT Essay Scores Are Below Average?
If you're struggling to get a 4 or above on each SAT essay section, don't despair—you're not alone, and there is start an analysis, hope. Start by reading our collection of SAT essay blog articles. I recommend starting with our introduction to the new SAT essay prompts, our SAT essay tips article, and our explanation of the SAT essay rubric. Next, follow along as I write an SAT essay, step-by-step. With these four articles, you'll learn just what is required to excel in each dimension of the SAT essay and Facebook how to approach reading the a room a view critical essays prompt, analyzing the passage, and writing the essay. For further help, you can take a look at how to create your own SAT essay templates and how to get a perfect 8/8/8 score on the SAT essay. If you're struggling with identifying how the authors of SAT essay prompts build their argument, we also go into the six most common argumentative essay devices. Finally, if you think you'd benefit from Facebook, more personalized feedback on your essay writing, you might want to try out PrepScholar SAT. You'll get to write essays on official SAT essay prompts and receive feedback from scrapbook, graders on what you're doing well and how you can improve and boost your score to Facebook, the next level.
Now that you know what an average SAT essay score is, what should be your target? Learn more with our article on what a good SAT essay score is for a room with, you. Want to improve your SAT score by Facebook 160 points? Check out with a view, our best-in-class online SAT prep program. We guarantee your money back if you don't improve your SAT score by 160 points or more. Our program is entirely online, and it customizes what you study to your strengths and Facebook weaknesses. If you liked this SAT Essay lesson, you'll love our program. Along with more detailed lessons, you'll get your SAT essays hand-graded by a master instructor who will give you customized feedback on how you can improve. We'll also give you a step-by-step program to follow so you'll never be confused about what to study next. Start. Check out our 5-day free trial: Have friends who also need help with test prep?
Share this article! Laura graduated magna cum laude from Facebook, Wellesley College with a BA in Music and Psychology, and earned a Master's degree in essay, Composition from the Longy School of Music of Bard College. She scored 99 percentile scores on the SAT and GRE and loves advising students on how to excel in high school. You should definitely follow us on social media. You'll get updates on our latest articles right on your feed. Follow us on all 3 of our social networks: Have any questions about this article or other topics?
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evaluate coursework This guide is written for teachers and Facebook students in Key Stage 4, who are preparing for GCSE examinations in English Literature . It draws heavily on guidance given to teachers by Peter Thomas, a GCSE examiner and teacher educator at Hull University, to whom I am indebted. At present English and English literature are separate subjects which can be studied at expository essay GCSE. English is a core subject in Facebook the National Curriculum. All students taking GCSE exams in Key Stage 4 must take English as part of their course in years 10 and 11. This will usually be a GCSE examined course, or alternatively a Certificate of Achievement course.
Within all GCSE English courses, the requirements for Reading (En2) include the study of a room a view critical essays, literature . Candidates must read poetry and prose fiction from Facebook, classic and modern authors, and respond to this both in written coursework and cheap timed formal examinations. English literature is one of Facebook, a large number of subjects which can be taken as an option in years 10 and utd application essay 11. It adds to and enriches the reading requirements for English at Facebook Key Stage 4 of the National Curriculum. Exam boards are currently drawing up new course specifications for English and for English literature, to reflect the new National Curriculum, which came into force in September of 2000. The existing GCSE courses will run until the June 2003 exam. Aims of GCSE English literature courses. The aims of scrapbook paper pads, English literature courses are to encourage candidates to develop: the ability to read, understand and respond to a wide range of types of literary texts, to appreciate the Facebook ways in which authors achieve their effects, and to acquire the skills necessary for literary study; an awareness of social, historical and start essay cultural contexts and influences in the study of literature; the ability to Facebook construct and convey meaning in speech and writing, matching style to audience and purpose.
Assessment objectives for GCSE English literature. There are three broad objectives for a room with essays assessing candidates' achievements in English literature. Candidates must demonstrate their ability to: respond to texts critically, sensitively and in detail, using textual evidence as appropriate; explore how language, structure and forms contribute to the meaning of texts, considering different approaches to these texts and different interpretations of them; explore relationships and comparisons within and between texts, selecting and evaluating relevant material. If you are a teacher , developing a scheme of work, you may wish to Facebook make sure it has opportunities for candidates to show they have these abilities and have met the objectives. Cheap Paper Pads. When you assess coursework you could refer to them or indicate in a final summary comment how the work meets the objectives. If you are a student preparing coursework or revising for a written exam, you should try to meet all these objectives. Doing these things will help inter-school moderators (assessors) to support school assessments, or will help examiners to award the best mark the candidate is able to achieve. Each of the assessment objectives is explained in detail below.
Success in literature - features to work on. A very good way to help students focus and work efficiently in exams and in coursework is to give them a checklist of Facebook, different things to do. Scrapbook Paper Pads. It is possible to achieve the Facebook very highest grades without writing excessively. Teachers and students often confuse quality and quantity . For some kinds of furniture essay, coursework, you may need to write at length, to develop themes in detail for Facebook a complex text, but even here you should keep a sense of proportion. Essay. In exams, the Facebook time limits mean that able students may lose the chance to gain high marks by dwelling too long on one kind of response. The list below can be remembered by students as an acronym - AACIR - or in its entirety by, for example, display on a wall and regular chanting or asking students to recall it with eyes shut. The list is: attitude author comparison and contrast implied meaning reader and expository essay on conflict readings. The attitudes in a text are (usally) not those of the author, though we may suspect that some attitudes in it are close to the author's.
In a play we will necessarily have a range of Facebook, characters with differing attitudes. In prose fiction this may also happen, though we may also have a dominant narrative voice or third-person overview from the author. And in essay poetry, the writer may adopt or assume attitudes - this is perhaps where it is hardest to know whether the writer agrees with the attitude in the work. Examples? In Romeo and Juliet Tybalt hates all Montagues, Mercutio dislikes Tybalt but doesn't support the feud, while Romeo regrets the feud and tries to Facebook keep out of fighting. Blake's The Tyger expresses awe at the power of nature (this probably is Blake's own view). And in A Christmas Carol we see different attitudes from the same character, Scrooge, while the ghosts who visit him and scrapbook the sequence of events show which views the reader is Facebook being led to support. Students should be invited to make a judgement on any work, but make it an informed judgement. They should form an attitude to a text and consider other people's attitudes, in a kind of a view critical, dialogue, before attempting to evaluate what they have read. Every writer will be in some way representative of his or her time and place.
One reason why the National Curriculum has a range of required reading is to let pupils experience a diversity of viewpoints. Sometimes, the student needs to look at Facebook the writer's culture and assumptions, which lie behind the text as it immediately appears. Examples? In Macbeth we are not sure whether all the supernatural things are really happening or are just in Macbeth's mind, but Shakespeare knows that his audience will accept witches with magical powers as plausible (believable). In Romeo and Juliet , Shakespeare knows his audience will understand why in many cases arranged marriages are better than love matches. Some modern writers assume that romantic or sentimental love or self-development are more important than duty or keeping of promises. Writers such as Dante or George Herbert have a clear sense of God's presence as an immediate and almost tangible reality in essays their lives. Contemporary authors may be able to assume some things about their readers' attitudes and write in ways which makes use of this. So escapist fiction may have careful product-placement of luxury goods included in Facebook a narrative. On the other hand, young people may be helped by furniture sweepstakes, what they read to question or challenge their own attitudes. To Kill a Mockingbird was written partly to challenge racist attitudes which were perhaps as widespread in the USA at the time of writing (1960) as at Facebook the time when the story is scrapbook pads set, in the 1930s.
In its use as a text for Facebook UK schools in the 21st century it may be challenging nothing much. It may be simply reinforcing the cheap paper reader's disapproval of racism. Some writers go out of their way to find out about their readers, and then write to help them develop their own attitudes or qualities of Facebook, character. Examples? Judy Blume or Jacqueline Wilson. Boys and girls often have very different attitudes which affect the way they read a text. The Crucible. Teachers and examiners may need to take care not to disadvantage either sex in selecting particular texts for study, or rewarding students more for displaying approved attitudes. For example understanding description of character is not in itself worth more marks than understanding narrative sequence. But there are teachers who think it is, or should be. At the Facebook most basic level, students need to see that there IS an author, and write about the author's attitudes (if these appear), purposes and techniques or methods. Sweepstakes Essay. It is worth their learning the standard spelling of “author” (especially when they are studying Arthur Miller).
It is also worth their learning, almost as a mechanical habit, to refer to Facebook the author in their responses to expository on conflict the crucible texts: #147;The author [or name] shows that. #148; #147;In this stanza the poet questions. #148; #147;Later the playwright brings together. #148; The negative version of this advice is to caution students against writing about texts as if recording events in Facebook the real world - this is especially dangerous with narratives: #147;Then Piggy got killed by Roger, and Ralph ran onto the beach. Then a man came in a white uniform and took Ralph home. Cheap Scrapbook. He was sad because Simon and Piggy got killed.#148; What's the difference? ask your students. Facebook. As a method, no difference at all - you put A and B together (or A, B and on conflict the crucible C).
And when they show some similarities we find a comparison and when we see some difference we make a contrast . So we compare Piggy and Simon as outsiders (in Lord of the Flies ) and contrast Piggy, a rational and objective child-adult with Simon, a visionary dreamer. Children need to beware of finding a contrast or comparison which is meaningless. Suppose they are comparing the Gradgrind family in Hard Times with the Conways in Time and the Conways . Facebook. They could look at ideas of reaping and a room with a view sowing, of single-parent families, of the relationship of house and home, of Facebook, work and best descriptive essays play and of the way both texts explore glimpses of the Facebook future. But it would be silly to write: #147; Hard Times is a novel written in 1854 but Time and the Conways is a play written in 1937#148;. And even sillier to write: #147;These texts are similar because both have women in them.#148; It's not enough to critical find similarities or differences - they need to be interesting or tell us something. So what kinds of similarity or difference are worth looking for? Are there things we can expect students to look for in any texts? There are - some of them will be in many and some are almost guaranteed to Facebook be in furniture sweepstakes all texts.
These could include comparisons or contrast in: time (relative or absolute, short term or long term) sex and gender attitude, mood, atmosphere purpose and audience language, form, genre, structure and other technique or method relevance the reader's preference. And this list can be used twice over. First for Facebook comparisons between two (or among several) texts, and second for comparisons within a single text. Examples: we can compare (very usefully) Pip in Great Expectations with Jane in Jane Eyre - both are characters from humble homes in search of cheap scrapbook paper pads, fulfilment through social mobility. But we can also compare each character within each text at different stages in the narrative. In fact both authors do this for us.
And Kay in Time and the Conways does so - at Facebook the end of Act Two she asks what has happened to the family of which she used to be part: #147;Oh, silly girl of Nineteen Nineteen! Oh, lucky girl. Remember what we once were and what we thought we'd be. And now this. And it's all we have. it's us.
Every step we've taken - every tick of the clock - making everything worse#148; Implied meaning is not anything the utd application essay reader imagines to be in a text - it must be implied by something the reader has found. What the Facebook students needs to look for is anything which should maybe not be taken simply in its plain or obvious sense. The Teacher Training Agency's National Curriculum for cheap scrapbook Initial Teacher Training in Facebook secondary English teaching reads: #147;Teachers must develop pupils as critical readers, recognising that: writers manage authorial relationships, e.g. those between ( sic. ) narrator, author and reader texts can be construed and interpreted in an analysis different ways.#148; This is a kind of reference - the Facebook text may contain a phrase or longer structure which echoes another text. Example? In Bob Dylan's The Times They Are A-Changin' the line #147;And the first one now/Will later be last#148; is an allusion to the gospel of St.
Matthew (19:30): #147;But many that are first shall be last.#148; How can you tell when writers understate or overstate things? It's not easy, but sometimes an author will appear to exaggerate or minimize a statement or attitude. Scrapbook Pads. A good example of understatement would be the final line of Mid-Term Break , where Seamus Heaney describes the coffin of his young brother as: #147;A four foot box, a foot for Facebook every year#148;. The understatement is start essay partly in Facebook the slang eupehmism #147;box#148; for #147;coffin#148;, but mostly in the use of the measurements to a room with essays tell us the age of the Facebook child and essay on conflict indirectly show the poet's grief. This takes many forms - what they all have in common is some space between what appears and what really is . Facebook. A very familiar and expository essay the crucible crude form of irony is Facebook sarcasm , as when you greet a foolish action with #147;That's really brilliant#148;. Dramatic irony occurs when the cheap scrapbook pads character on stage does not know what the audience or other characters realize, or when actions or words earlier in the play lead to some later action or consequence - as when Othello says to Desdemona #147;Honey, you will be well desired in Facebook Cyprus#148;, but it is his fear of another's desire that leads to him killing her. More generally, students should look out for the kind of essay, irony where writers in some way distance themselves from the views expressed in their work - does the author really mean what he or she appears to mean? If there were no irony in Facebook the author's stance, Swift's A Modest Proposal would be horrible and furniture inhumane.
At different times, questions of good and bad taste may limit a writer's readiness to be ironic. This guidance will help students make use of the principles outlined above, as they make coherent responses to texts they study. Students should look for Facebook ambiguity (alternative meanings). They should look for these both in essay on conflict the text, and in their response to it - for example where they change their reading after some reflection. Students should look for ambivalence (alternative attitudes). They should look for these both in the text and in their reading of it.
In reading the text , students should try to achieve knowledge of content, familiarity with the Facebook text in cheap scrapbook paper detail and an appropriate (perceptive, sensitive) response. (Assessment objective 1) Reading the Facebook text (AO1): examples He has to shoot him in utd application essay the head because if he didn't do it, something more cruel would happen to Facebook him and he wouldn't understand about it. This book is about prejudice and injustice. Furniture. It's also about growing up and Facebook getting into other people's shoes. It's mainly about racism but there's a lot about growing up and learning about people. There's a lot of description about where they go but I like the bits where they are talking to each other. At the start of the story. but later on. When she talks to [name] she is. but when she talks to [other name] she. In reading the author , students should try to achieve understanding of the writer's purposes (in relation to the audience), of the writer's means of control of the text and of the writer's use of literary devices, methods and techniques. (Assessment objectives 1 and 2)
Reading the author (AO1 and 2); purpose and devices: examples He wants you to think that Jack is organised and confident because the first time you meet him he's leading the choir and giving orders She makes you feel sorry for TJ when his #147;friends#148; let him down, even if you don't like him because of the way he treated other people himself. He thought all humans have evil in them, even if they are posh or so called civilised British. This is because he saw what decent people were like in war when there were no rules. Also he was a teacher and he must have seen nasty parts in lots of people he taught. In reading the reading , students should try to give a coherent account of their dynamic process of start, their developing a reading of the text - this can allow for some statement of initial responses, with reasons for Facebook their reaching a more considered later judgement. (Assessment objectives 1, 2and 3)
Reading the reading (AO1, 2 and 3); comparison, contrast, evaluation: examples When I first read this I thought. but later. (reflecting on utd application, response) I thought this meant that, but now I think. (exploring ambiguity) I don't like this sort of poem but I suppose old people over 25 would think it was beautiful (alternative empathies) When she does this I think she's horrible, but later she does something I think takes real guts (handling ambivalence) Even though both these poems rhyme, one has more realistic language (stylistic) Both these poems are by Facebook, womem but they say different things about men (author and essay attitude) One of Facebook, these is written before 1914 and essay on conflict the crucible has old fashioned language but the Facebook idea they are getting across is the same (context and meaning; similarity and an analysis essay discontinuity) [This] is a twentieth century poem which is a sonnet, like [other poem] but it takes a different point of view about sex and Facebook marriage. (style and cheap scrapbook pads attitude; similarity and Facebook discontinuity) People thought that this was right then, but you wouldn't find women today putting up with this. I'd tell him where to go! (context and essay attitude; text and self) Assessing literature: skills hierarchies. Response - sensitive and Facebook critical (AO1) G #45; simple response to start essay text and/or task F #45; statement of Facebook, preference within/between tasks E #45; supported response to character/situation D #45; explained response to situation/ideas C #45; sustained reponse to situation/ideas or author's purposes B #45; measured/qualified, developed response, exploring writers' ideas and/or methods A #45; sensitive insight/exploration into texts and essay authors' purposes A#42; #45; independent evaluation or analysis of text and Facebook task. G #45; reference to some detail F #45; range of details, some inference E #45; some comment on specific details D #45; range of comment on specific details C #45; effective use of details to descriptive support answer B #45; details linked to authors' intentions and purposes A #45; finds significance/structure in patterns of detail A#42; #45; independent discovery and interpretation of details.
Response - awareness of Facebook, language (AO2) G #45; reference to language as a feature F #45; location of area(s) of language interest E #45; selection of quotations for language interest D #45; identification of furniture sweepstakes, specific feature of language interest C #45; explanation of feature(s) of language interest B #45; exploration of feature(s) of language interest A #45; evaluation/analysis of writers' use of language and effects on reader A#42; #45; independent/imaginative insight/analysis. G #45; simple response to Facebook text and/or task F #45; simple comment on method or effect E #45; some awareness of an author at work D #45; identification of effects intended or achieved C #45; explanation of effects achieved/authors' purposes B #45; measured/qualified/exploratory response to writers' ideas/methods A #45; sensitive insight into authors' purposes - insight/empathy into writers A#42; #45; indpendent insight/enthusiasm/interpretation/evaluation. Comparisons within and between texts (AO3) G #45; selection of texts suitable for comparison F #45; simple linkage related to subject matter/preference E #45; comment on similarity or difference D #45; structured comments on similarities and differences C #45; sustained focus on similarities and differences B #45; developed comparison/contrast of a room with a view, style/ideas/characters A #45; insight into comparison/contrast of context/meaning A#42; #45; independent analytical/evaluative comparison/contrast. Example of assessment task: Foundation Tier. Animals play an important part in both The Call of the Wild and Facebook Flight . Write about four episodes (including both stories) where animals are important, showing what people think of them and what effect the expository essay animals have on them. You should write about: different kinds of Facebook, animal. (A01 - detail/textual evidence) the scrapbook paper way different characters feel about animals.
(AO3 - relationships and comparisons within texts) your own feelings about the situation. AO3 - select and evaluate) how the writer makes situations realistic or sad. Example of assessment task: Higher Tier. Both The Call of the Wild and Flight present people's relationships with animals. Compare the two stories, showing how the Facebook writers use animals to bring out people's thoughts and feelings. You should write about: the different kinds of animal in the stories. (A01 - detail/textual evidence) why animals are important to cheap scrapbook paper pads different people.
(AO3 - relationships and comparisons within texts) writers' choice of words to bring out thoughts and feelings. (A01 - critical/sensitive; AO2 - language and meaning) the Facebook importance of animals in each story as a whole. (AO3 - comparisons between texts; AO2 - structure/form and meaning, alternative interpretation and evaluation) Please acknowledge my authorship by giving the best URL of Facebook, any pages you use, and/or include the copyright symbol. Suggestions for improvement are welcome.
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cant write a check Your Options / Tutoring. X Scroll down for a list of Facebook DO s and Don'ts to help with Spelling. It was the construction of the first dictionaries by Dr. Johnson (1755) and later Noah Webster that set correct spellings 'in stone'. Before the 18th century people spelt phonetically 'by ear'. The Crucible? They would often spell the same word in different ways in the same piece of writing and this was considered perfectly correct (you can see such variable spelling in Shakespeare's original scripts for example).
If Johnson had standardized the spelling for Facebook phonemes at the same time that he standardized the spelling for words, and in with critical, doing so created a 'transparent' (one spelling for Facebook each sound in the language) English alphabet code, we would not have the expository essay on conflict, difficulties with English reading and spelling that we do today. It's commonly assumed that learning to spell (and to read) follows biologically determined developmental stages e.g. Gentry, a typical given developmental sequence: precommunicative- semiphonetic- phonetic- transitional, and, finally, correct. However, writing (spelling) is a recent human invention, not part of our biological development, and therefore cannot be properly acquired except through teaching. Whole-language philosophy expects children to discover how to Facebook spell for pads themselves.This is called invented or emergent spelling. Facebook? Mistakes are not corrected as the assumption is a room with critical essays, that children will learn, naturally, to make closer and closer approximations to correct spelling (Hempenstall.thesis) Children are unlikely to learn to spell accurately with this method. Facebook? Instead, they will practise and reproduce their spelling errors again and again, producing poor quality writing with confidence-sapping results. The myth of developmental stages for spelling: ''Saying there are developmental stages in spelling is a bit like saying there are developmental stages in furniture essay, learning to cook, fix a car or program a computer''. See Early Reading Instruction p250-265 for McGuinness' dismantling of the various developmental (stage) spelling theories. Australian educationalist Misty Adoniou affirms, ''Spelling is Facebook, a learned skill, not an innate ability, and therefore, it can and best, should be taught.
English spelling is systematic, contrary to popular perception and therefore, it can be taught'' (Adoniou) Look, Cover, Write Check (LCWC) is a widely used but unproductive whole language strategy for learning lists of words. ''It is a visuo-motor method , involving eye and hand. Facebook? It eschews the cheap paper pads, sounds of words , concentrating on letters, letter names and letter patterns'' (Kerr p135) . ''For teaching spelling I would use as a starting point the breakdown of the Facebook, spoken word into its component phonemes and writing a spelling for each phoneme (saying each 'sound' as it is expository on conflict the crucible, written to reinforce kinaesthetic memory of each 'sound spelling') . Once the word has been written it should be sounded out and blended to check that it 'says' what it is meant to say. Of course there is an element of discrete word learning in this as children have to Facebook learn which spelling of a particular phoneme will be needed in a particular word; this is usually done by a room with critical practising a number of words together which contain the Facebook, same phoneme spelling or by sorting words containing the same sound but different spellings of it. But, there is frequently only one ''tricky' sound spelling in a word (usually the vowel sound) so the fact that only one part of the word has to sweepstakes essay be learned also reduces the load on memory.
Once mastery of individual words is achieved one can move on to adding prefixes and suffixes'' Maggie goes on to say, ''I would never encourage the use of letter names for pupils who find spelling difficult. I think that they need to be kept aware of the intimate connection between the sounds in words and the letters which spell the sounds. Facebook? Using letter names introduces another layer of learning for children who are already finding learning difficult. I also appreciate that as skilled adult spellers we tend to use letter names when telling someone a spelling, but that can come at a much later stage (and really isn't ever particularly necessary, though it's convenient)'' Misty Adoniou points out an analysis essay, that, ''(S)trategies such as 'look cover write check' and activities where words are written repeatedly in different fonts or in different colours reflect a belief that spelling is predominantly a visual skill and Facebook, that English spelling is somewhat chaotic and essay, illogical. and can only be learned through memorisation.
This position allows teachers to abandon a notion of teaching spelling and essentially leave the task of learning to spell up to parents and children through the distribution of Facebook take home spelling lists'' (Adoniou) X Teachers: How to make helpful homework spelling lists of words. The brain ''is particularly adept at storing recurring patterns, and very inefficient at remembering randomness'' (D.McGuinness.WCCR) '(A) printed word is a time-chart of sounds' (Diack p59) Whole language banded books, ''(M)ake no attempt to introduce only simple regular words in the early stages; thus children do not become familiarised with some basic patterns of English orthography before they encounter the irregularities. Expository The Crucible? The result is Facebook, that many children fail to understand that spelling follows patterns and are consequently daunted by what they see as the need to learn every word separately'' (Chew p12) ''To be effective for cheap pads spelling as well as for reading, phonics teaching needs to be thorough and systematic: in reading, children need to Facebook be taught to sound out expository essay on conflict the crucible, every letter or letter-group from beginning to end of a word so that they will be sensitised to both regularities and irregularities in the letter-sound correspondences.'' (Chew p13) ''If children are taught to sound out all letters and Facebook, letter-groups in essay, words, some unconventional pronunciations may result, but these are easily corrected and Facebook, are, in start essay, the meantime, extremely helpful for spelling The child who first sounds out the 'ch' in chemist like the 'ch' in Facebook, chop, or sounds out 'vague' as two syllables, the second rhyming with 'due', is much more likely eventually to spell tricky words correctly than the essay, child who learns to read by memorising words as wholes'' (Chew p13) Spelling skill is influenced by IQ (approx. 25% of Facebook variance), sex (girls are usually superior spellers) and decoding ability. Poor spellers often have the essay, correct spelling in mind but are unable to Facebook recall it accurately from memory.
Diane McGuinness points out that, ''Reading and spelling are reversible processes, and should be taught in tandem so that this reversibility is obvious. but they draw on different memory skills. Decoding, or reading, involves recognition memory, memory with a prompt. The letters remain visible while they are being decoded. Sweepstakes Essay? Encoding, or spelling, involves recall memory , memory without prompts or clues, which is considerably more difficult'' (D.McGuinness ERI p37) What kind of knowledge is Facebook, needed for good spelling? English spellings don’t obey rules. Instead, they are heavily context dependent and probabilistic. That is, it matters what a particular spelling sits next to in a particular word : b ea n, h ea d, g r ea t. Diane McGuinness explains it like this: ''The pronunciation of a word is often dependent on the vowel being affected by the consonants around it, as in the example above. Thus you must process every sound/spelling in the word to read the furniture sweepstakes essay, word correctly. Furthermore, you cannot assume that every vowel/vowel digraph is read (or written) the Facebook, same way in every word. Utd Application? This is the most critical problem with our code.
The letters ea are not always decoded one way, but many ways. It is Facebook, not enough just to know that there are many ways - but also the context (the surrounding sounds/spellings) which determine how that spelling is pronounced. i.e. Cheap Scrapbook Paper Pads? you have to know the Facebook, probability of how a particular spelling in a particular word is likely to be decoded. And ditto for spellings being encoded. The brain will automatically set up these probabilities, if they are made obvious to the learner .'' See Seindenberg's book Language at the speed of sight Ch5 for comprehensive coverage of the statistical and probabilistic nature of English spelling. X Spelling and statistics. Linguistic phonics tutor, Alison Clarke, illustrates how she makes the main spelling patterns of the sound /er/ memorable through 'controlled exposure and varied repetition' using a variety of furniture essay linguistic phonics resources. Focus attention on the target GPCs by getting the Facebook, children to underline them in a variety of real words.
Do teach reading and spelling in tandem, in every lesson, from the essay, very beginning of instruction. Don't teach the alphabet letter names - ay, bee, see, dee..etc. to beginning readers. Facebook? Letter name learning is an analysis, seriously detrimental to the teaching of Facebook early reading and spelling as it forces children to translate from letter name to sound, impeding instant recall of the essay, sound-letter correspondences. Letter names also focus children's attention on the syllable unit of Facebook sound, rather than the phoneme, impeding their understanding of the alphabetic principle. Do introduce letter names once the scrapbook paper pads, links from phoneme to grapheme for all the Facebook, common spellings have become completely automatic. At this stage letter names become a harmless and useful short cut for relaying multi-letter spellings to students. Don't ask students to furniture use letter names when spelling for themselves as this fails to model, or make explicit, what proficient spellers do themselves when spelling longer and more challenging words and adds an extra hurdle to the spelling process -see above (Hepplewhite/D.McGuinness ERI. Facebook? p117) Instead, ask students to say the individual phonemes audibly as they write down the graphemes forming a word- for example, to say / f / i / sh /, not 'eff' 'ie' 'ess' 'aich'. Hearing their own voice acts as a powerful cue. Older students may prefer to essay whisper the Facebook, sounds sub-audibly to essay their pen/pencil. Do get students to write down the words that they need to remember how to spell. The physical act of writing helps to bind words in memory. ''(M)otor activity promotes memory'' (D.McGuinness.
ERI p114) ''Experimental studies have shown that copying words by hand is the best way to Facebook learn them. copying spelling words halves the learning rate compared to using letter tiles or a computer keyboard'' (RRF 49 p21, also see handwriting links ) 'Writing helps in many ways. First the physical act of forming the letters forces the child to utd application look closely at the features that make one letter different from another. Second, writing letters (left to right) trains the ability to read left to right. Third, saying each sound as the letter is written helps anchor the Facebook, sound-to-letter connection in sweepstakes, the memory.'' (D.McGuinness GRB p239) . Do help students to devise, write and illustrate their own 'silly sentence' as each grapheme-phoneme correspondence (GPC) is taught, to aid their memory of common spellings in everyday words- for example: The th ir sty b ir d wore a sw ir ly sk ir t and a d ir ty sh ir t' to Facebook the g ir l's th ir d b ir thday party. Underline the cheap scrapbook paper, focus spelling in all the words. Facebook? Do ensure that children in KS1 routinely write simple dictated sentences that consist of words with the a room with a view, spellings taught so far. This ''gives pupils opportunities to apply and practise their spelling'' (NC 2014 KS1 ) Do say that all words, without exception, have a vowel spelling and that it can consist of 1- 4 letters consecutively, or 2 vowel letters 'split' around a consonant spelling e.g. tr y , p ie , kn igh t, h eigh t, sl i m e Don't confuse sending home lists of words to learn for a spelling test with teaching spelling skills. They are not the Facebook, same thing.
See the link below for John Walker's advice to parents on how to teach the lists of High Frequency Words (HFWs) sent home from school. Don't teach syllable rules. Cheap? When 'chunking' a multi-syllable word for spelling, don't split the letters forming a GPC e.g. pillow splits into pi/ ll ow or pi ll /ow, not pi l / l ow, as the Facebook, ll is one sound, ladder splits into ladd / er or la / dder, not lad / der. Do avoid describing letters as 'silent': ''(S)ince all letters are clearly silent, silence cannot therefore be a distinction. This has already been implied by the treatment of ie,oa etc. as single symbols'' (Albrow p.19) Do teach the utd application, approximately 100 most common (HFWs) words which have unusual spellings directly and systematically (see D.McGuinness.ERI p58 for Facebook a list ) using a phonics all-through-the-word approach, not as sight words to be memorised as whole shapes. Don't include words that are infrequent in print and have rare spellings such as sa pph ire and sol di er on furniture sweepstakes spelling lists. Facebook? Wait until they are encountered in text or are wanted for a piece of writing. At that point teach using a phonics all-through-the-word approach, highlighting the rare spelling in some way to make it memorable. Discuss the word's etymology with older pupils.
''The process of a view putting pen to paper and reading from a book seems to imprint knowledge in the brain in a better way than using a keyboard and computer screen''. X English spelling explained -for kids, but a clear and Facebook, concise guide for puzzled adults too. X The Hydra of Spelling!: John Walker offers advice for a room a view essays helping young children with spelling. The ill-conceived idea of Facebook 'regular' and 'irregular' spelling. X How to teach any HFW including those with a tricky (unusual) spelling. Spelling Latin endings. 'Have a go' spelling - warning about viewing misspelt words. Explaining split vowel spellings.
Are spelling rules useful? Spelfabet's advice on utd application essay spelling plurals. How words cast their spell: Spelling Is an Integral Part of Learning the Language, Not a Matter of Memorization. How spelling supports reading: And Why It Is More Regular and Predictable Than You May Think. Don't use 'spot the deliberate spelling mistakes' activities.
Spelling results from two primary schools which use the Facebook, same advanced linguistic phonics programme. They ignore developmental spelling theories and teach spelling and reading in tandem using phonemes and furniture sweepstakes, graphemes from the very start of instruction.