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kitsch essay AVANT-GARDE AND KITSCH. This is Greenberg's breakthrough essay from 1939, written for topics, the Partisan Review when he was twenty-nine years of essay age and at the time more involved with literature than with painting. He came, later, to reject much of the essay -- notably the environmental essay definition of kitsch which he later believed to be ill thought out (as, indeed, it is.) Later he came to identify the threat to of capital punishment, high art as coming from middlebrow taste, which in any event aligns much more closely with the academic than kitsch ever did or could. The essay has an essay air and assurance of '30s Marxism, with peculiar assumptions such as that only under socialism could the day essay taste of the masses be raised. But for all that, the environmental management essay essay stakes out new territory.
Although the deaf essay avant-garde was an accepted fact in the '30s. Greenberg was the first to define its social and historical context and cultural import. The essay also carried within it the seeds of his notion of modernism. Despite its faults and sometimes heady prose, it stands as one of the important theoretical documents of 20th century culture. O NE AND THE SAME civilization produces simultaneously two such different things s a poem by T. S. Eliot and a Tin Pan Alley song, or a painting by Braque and a Saturday Evening Post cover. All four are on topics, the order of culture, and behavior essay copy, ostensibly, parts of the environmental management essay same culture and products of the same society. Here, however, their connection seems to end. A poem by Eliot and a poem by Eddie Guest -- what perspective of culture is large enough to enable us to situate them in essay, an enlightening relation to each other?
Does the fact that a disparity such as this within the frame of a single cultural tradition, which is and has been taken for granted -- does this fact indicate that the essay disparity is help, a part of the natural order of things? Or is it something entirely new, and environmental essay, particular to our age? The answer involves more than an coursework investigation in aesthetics. It appears to me that it is necessary to examine more closely and with more originality than hitherto the relationship between aesthetic experience as met by the specific -- not the generalized -- individual, and the social and historical contexts in which that experience takes place. What is brought to management essay, light will answer, in addition to the question posed above, other and perhaps more important questions. A society, as it becomes less and less able, in the course of its development, to pmr, justify the inevitability of its particular forms, breaks up the accepted notions upon which artists and environmental management essay, writers must depend in essay, large part for communication with their audiences. Management Essay Topics? It becomes difficult to assume anything.
All the verities involved by religion, authority, tradition, style, are thrown into question, and the writer or artist is no longer able to estimate the response of his audience to the symbols and references with which he works. In the past such a state of affairs has usually resolved itself into a motionless Alexandrianism, an academicism in which the really important issues are left untouched because they involve controversy, and in which creative activity dwindles to virtuosity in the small details of sixth form, all larger questions being decided by the precedent of the old masters. The same themes are mechanically varied in a hundred different works, and yet nothing new is produced: Statius, mandarin verse, Roman sculpture, Beaux-Arts painting, neo-republican architecture. It is among the hopeful signs in the midst of the management topics decay of our present society that we -- some of us -- have been unwilling to accept this last phase for our own culture. Day Essay? In seeking to go beyond Alexandrianism, a part of Western bourgeois society has produced something unheard of heretofore: -- avant-garde culture. A superior consciousness of history -- more precisely, the appearance of environmental management topics a new kind of criticism of society, an historical criticism -- made this possible.
This criticism has not confronted our present society with timeless utopias, but has soberly examined in the terms of history and of cause and effect the antecedents, justifications and douglas debate, functions of the forms that lie at the heart of every society. Thus our present bourgeois social order was shown to be, not an eternal, natural condition of life, but simply the latest term in a succession of social orders. New perspectives of this kind, becoming a part of the advanced intellectual conscience of the management essay fifth and sixth decades of the nineteenth century, soon were absorbed by artists and day essay pmr, poets, even if unconsciously for the most part. It was no accident, therefore, that the birth of the avant-garde coincided chronologically -- and management essay, geographically, too -- with the first bold development of scientific revolutionary thought in Europe. True, the first settlers of bohemia -- which was then identical with the avant-garde -- turned out soon to be demonstratively uninterested in sixth grade math problems, politics. Nevertheless, without the circulation of revolutionary ideas in the air about topics, them, they would never have been able to isolate their concept of the copy bourgeois in order to define what they were not. Nor, without the moral aid of revolutionary political attitudes would they have had the courage to assert themselves as aggressively as they did against the prevailing standards of society. Courage indeed was needed for this, because the avant-garde's emigration from bourgeois society to bohemia meant also an emigration from the markets of capitalism, upon which artists and writers had been thrown by the falling away of aristocratic patronage. (Ostensibly, at least, it meant this -- meant starving in a garret -- although, as we will be shown later, the avant-garde remained attached to essay topics, bourgeois society precisely because it needed its money.) Yet it is true that once the avant-garde had succeeded in detaching itself from morality of capital, society, it proceeded to environmental management essay topics, turn around and repudiate revolutionary as well as bourgeois politics.
The revolution was left inside society, a part of that welter of ideological struggle which art and poetry find so unpropitious as soon as it begins to involve those precious axiomatic beliefs upon which culture thus far has had to rest. Hence it developed that the true and most important function of the avant-garde was not to experiment, but to find a path along which it would be possible to keep culture moving in the midst of grade ideological confusion and violence. Retiring from environmental management, public altogether, the avant-garde poet or artist sought to maintain the high level of his art by both narrowing and deaf, raising it to the expression of an management topics absolute in which all relativities and contradictions would be either resolved or beside the lincoln douglas debate point. Art for art's sake and pure poetry appear, and subject matter or content becomes something to be avoided like a plague. It has been in search of the management absolute that the avant-garde has arrived at pmr, abstract or nonobjective art -- and poetry, too. The avant-garde poet or artist tries in management essay topics, effect to imitate God by creating something valid solely on its own terms, in the way nature itself is valid, in the way a landscape -- not its picture -- is sport pmr, aesthetically valid; something given, increate, independent of meanings, similars or originals. Content is to be dissolved so completely into form that the work of management essay art or literature cannot be reduced in behavior essay copy, whole or in part to anything not itself. But the absolute is absolute, and the poet or artist, being what he is, cherishes certain relative values more than others.
The very values in the name of which he invokes the absolute are relative values, the values of aesthetics. And so he turns out to be imitating, not God -- and here I use imitate in its Aristotelian sense -- but the essay disciplines and processes of art and literature themselves. Sport Day Essay Pmr? This is the environmental essay genesis of the abstract.(1) In turning his attention away from subject matter of common experience, the poet or artist turns it in upon the medium of his own craft. The nonrepresentational or abstract, if it is to have aesthetic validity, cannot be arbitrary and accidental, but must stem from obedience to some worthy constraint or original. This constraint, once the world of common, extroverted experience has been renounced, can only be found in the very processes or disciplines by which art and literature have already imitated the former. These themselves become the subject matter of art and literature. If, to continue with Aristotle, all art and lincoln douglas debate, literature are imitation, then what we have here is the essay imitation of imitating. To quote Yeats:
Nor is there singing school but studying. Monuments of its own magnificence. Picasso, Braque, Mondrian, Miro, Kandinsky, Brancusi, even Klee, Matisse and Cézanne derive their chief inspiration from the medium they work in.(2) The excitement of their art seems to lie most of all in its pure preoccupation with the invention and copy, arrangement of spaces, surfaces, shapes, colors, etc., to the exclusion of whatever is not necessarily implicated in these factors. The attention of poets like Rimbaud, Mallarmé, Valéry, Éluard, Pound, Hart Crane, Stevens, even Rilke and environmental essay, Yeats, appears to sport, be centered on the effort to create poetry and on the moments themselves of poetic conversion, rather than on experience to environmental, be converted into essay, poetry. Of course, this cannot exclude other preoccupations in their work, for poetry must deal with words, and words must communicate. Certain poets, such as Mallarmé and Valéry (3) are more radical in this respect than others -- leaving aside those poets who have tried to compose poetry in environmental essay topics, pure sound alone. Behavior Essay? However, if it were easier to define poetry, modern poetry would be much more pure and abstract. As for essay topics, the other fields of literature -- the definition of of capital avant-garde aesthetics advanced here is no Procrustean bed. But aside from the fact that most of our best contemporary novelists have gone to school with the avant-garde, it is significant that Gide's most ambitious book is a novel about the writing of a novel, and that Joyce's Ulysses and Finnegans Wake seem to be, above all, as one French critic says, the reduction of management essay topics experience to expression for the sake of expression, the expression mattering more than what is being expressed.
That avant-garde culture is the imitation of imitating -- the fact itself -- calls for neither approval nor disapproval. It is true that this culture contains within itself some of the very Alexandrianism it seeks to pmr, overcome. The lines quoted from environmental management topics, Yeats referred to Byzantium, which is very close to Alexandria; and in a sense this imitation of imitating is a superior sort of Alexandrianism. Sixth Grade Math Problems? But there is environmental topics, one most important difference: the debate essay avant-garde moves, while Alexandrianism stands still. And this, precisely, is what justifies the avant-garde's methods and makes them necessary.
The necessity lies in the fact that by no other means is it possible today to environmental management essay topics, create art and literature of a high order. To quarrel with necessity by throwing about terms like formalism, purism, ivory tower and so forth is either dull or dishonest. This is not to say, however, that it is to the social advantage of the avant-garde that it is morality of capital essay, what it is. Quite the opposite. The avant-garde's specialization of itself, the fact that its best artists are artists' artists, its best poets, poets' poets, has estranged a great many of those who were capable formerly of enjoying and appreciating ambitious art and literature, but who are now unwilling or unable to acquire an initiation into their craft secrets.
The masses have always remained more or less indifferent to culture in the process of development. But today such culture is being abandoned by those to whom it actually belongs -- our ruling class. Environmental Management Essay? For it is to the latter that the avant-garde belongs. No culture can develop without a social basis, without a source of stable income. And in the case of the avant-garde, this was provided by an elite among the ruling class of that society from which it assumed itself to copy, be cut off, but to which it has always remained attached by an umbilical cord of management essay topics gold. The paradox is real. And now this elite is rapidly shrinking. Since the avant-garde forms the only living culture we now have, the survival in the near future of culture in general is thus threatened.
We must not be deceived by deaf, superficial phenomena and local successes. Picasso's shows still draw crowds, and environmental essay, T. S. Eliot is morality essay, taught in management essay, the universities; the lincoln douglas debate essay dealers in modernist art are still in business, and the publishers still publish some difficult poetry. But the avant-garde itself, already sensing the danger, is becoming more and more timid every day that passes. Academicism and commercialism are appearing in the strangest places. This can mean only one thing: that the avant-garde is becoming unsure of the audience it depends on -- the rich and the cultivated. Is it the nature itself of avant-garde culture that is alone responsible for the danger it finds itself in? Or is that only a dangerous liability?
Are there other, and perhaps more important, factors involved? Where there is an management essay topics avant-garde, generally we also find a rear-guard. True enough -- simultaneously with the sport pmr entrance of the avant-garde, a second new cultural phenomenon appeared in the industrial West: that thing to which the Germans give the wonderful name of Kitsch : popular, commercial art and literature with their chromeotypes, magazine covers, illustrations, ads, slick and pulp fiction, comics, Tin Pan Alley music, tap dancing, Hollywood movies, etc., etc. For some reason this gigantic apparition has always been taken for granted. It is time we looked into its whys and wherefores.
Kitsch is a product of the industrial revolution which urbanized the masses of Western Europe and environmental management essay, America and established what is behavior copy, called universal literacy. Prior to this the only market for formal culture, as distinguished from management essay topics, folk culture, had been among those who, in addition to being able to read and write, could command the leisure and comfort that always goes hand in hand with cultivation of sport day essay some sort. This until then had been inextricably associated with literacy. But with the introduction of universal literacy, the ability to read and write became almost a minor skill like driving a car, and management essay topics, it no longer served to distinguish an individual's cultural inclinations, since it was no longer the exclusive concomitant of refined tastes. The peasants who settled in the cities as proletariat and petty bourgeois learned to morality of capital, read and write for the sake of efficiency, but they did not win the leisure and comfort necessary for the enjoyment of the city's traditional culture.
Losing, nevertheless, their taste for the folk culture whose background was the countryside, and discovering a new capacity for boredom at the same time, the new urban masses set up a pressure on society to provide them with a kind of culture fit for their own consumption. To fill the demand of the new market, a new commodity was devised: ersatz culture, kitsch, destined for essay topics, those who, insensible to help, the values of genuine culture, are hungry nevertheless for the diversion that only culture of some sort can provide. Kitsch, using for raw material the debased and academicized simulacra of genuine culture, welcomes and cultivates this insensibility. It is the environmental management source of its profits. Kitsch is mechanical and operates by formulas. Kitsch is vicarious experience and faked sensations. Kitsch changes according to style, but remains always the same.
Kitsch is the epitome of all that is spurious in the life of our times. Kitsch pretends to demand nothing of its customers except their money -- not even their time. The precondition for kitsch, a condition without which kitsch would be impossible, is the copy availability close at environmental essay topics, hand of a fully matured cultural tradition, whose discoveries, acquisitions, and perfected self-consciousness kitsch can take advantage of for its own ends. It borrows from it devices, tricks, stratagems, rules of thumb, themes, converts them into a system, and discards the rest. It draws its life blood, so to speak, from this reservoir of accumulated experience. This is sixth math, what is really meant when it is said that the popular art and literature of environmental management today were once the daring, esoteric art and literature of yesterday. Of course, no such thing is true. What is meant is that when enough time has elapsed the new is looted for new twists, which are then watered down and served up as kitsch. Self-evidently, all kitsch is academic; and behavior essay copy, conversely, all that's academic is kitsch.
For what is called the academic as such no longer has an independent existence, but has become the stuffed-shirt front for kitsch. The methods of environmental management topics industrialism displace the handicrafts. Because it can be turned out mechanically, kitsch has become an integral part of our productive system in a way in which true culture could never be, except accidentally. It has been capitalized at behavior copy, a tremendous investment which must show commensurate returns; it is compelled to extend as well as to keep its markets. While it is essentially its own salesman, a great sales apparatus has nevertheless been created for it, which brings pressure to bear on every member of environmental essay topics society. Traps are laid even in lincoln douglas essay, those areas, so to essay, speak, that are the preserves of genuine culture. It is not enough today, in of capital punishment essay, a country like ours, to have an essay topics inclination towards the latter; one must have a true passion for it that will give him the power to resist the faked article that surrounds and presses in on him from the sixth math moment he is old enough to look at the funny papers. Kitsch is essay, deceptive.
It has many different levels, and douglas debate essay, some of them are high enough to environmental management topics, be dangerous to the naive seeker of true light. A magazine like the New Yorker , which is fundamentally high-class kitsch for the luxury trade, converts and waters down a great deal of debate essay avant-garde material for its own uses. Nor is every single item of kitsch altogether worthless. Now and then it produces something of merit, something that has an authentic folk flavor; and these accidental and isolated instances have fooled people who should know better. Kitsch's enormous profits are a source of temptation to the avant-garde itself, and its members have not always resisted this temptation.
Ambitious writers and artists will modify their work under the pressure of kitsch, if they do not succumb to it entirely. And then those puzzling borderline cases appear, such as the popular novelist, Simenon, in France, and Steinbeck in environmental management, this country. The net result is construction, always to the detriment of true culture in any case. Kitsch has not been confined to environmental essay topics, the cities in which it was born, but has flowed out over the countryside, wiping out folk culture. Nor has it shown any regard for morality of capital punishment, geographical and national cultural boundaries. Another mass product of Western industrialism, it has gone on a triumphal tour of the world, crowding out and defacing native cultures in one colonial country after another, so that it is environmental management topics, now by way of becoming a universal culture, the first universal culture ever beheld. Today the native of China, no less than the South American Indian, the Hindu, no less than the Polynesian, have come to prefer to the products of their native art, magazine covers, rotogravure sections and calendar girls. How is this virulence of douglas kitsch, this irresistible attractiveness, to be explained? Naturally, machine-made kitsch can undersell the native handmade article, and environmental management essay topics, the prestige of the West also helps; but why is kitsch a so much more profitable export article than Rembrandt? One, after all, can be reproduced as cheaply as the other.
In his last article on the Soviet cinema in the Partisan Review, Dwight Macdonald points out that kitsch has in the last ten years become the dominant culture in Soviet Russia. For this he blames the sixth grade political regime -- not only for the fact that kitsch is the official culture, but also that it is actually the dominant, most popular culture, and he quotes the following from Kurt London's The Seven Soviet Arts : . . . the attitude of the masses both to the old and management essay, new art styles probably remains essentially dependent on the nature of the education afforded them by sixth math, their respective states. Macdonald goes on to say: Why after all should ignorant peasants prefer Repin (a leading exponent of Russian academic kitsch in painting) to management essay, Picasso, whose abstract technique is at least as relevant to their own primitive folk art as is the former's realistic style? No, if the masses crowd into the Tretyakov (Moscow's museum of contemporary Russian art: kitsch), it is largely because they have been conditioned to shun 'formalism' and to admire 'socialist realism.' In the first place it is not a question of sixth grade math a choice between merely the old and merely the new, as London seems to think -- but of a choice between the bad, up-to-date old and the genuinely new. The alternative to Picasso is management essay topics, not Michelangelo, but kitsch. Grade Math? In the second place, neither in backward Russia nor in the advanced West do the masses prefer kitsch simply because their governments condition them toward it. Where state educational systems take the trouble to mention art, we are told to respect the old masters, not kitsch; and yet we go and hang Maxfield Parrish or his equivalent on our walls, instead of environmental essay Rembrandt and grade problems, Michelangelo. Moreover, as Macdonald himself points out, around 1925 when the Soviet regime was encouraging avant-garde cinema, the essay Russian masses continued to prefer Hollywood movies. No, conditioning does not explain the potency of kitsch. All values are human values, relative values, in art as well as elsewhere.
Yet there does seem to have been more or less of essay a general agreement among the cultivated of mankind over the ages as to environmental essay, what is good art and essay, what bad. Taste has varied, but not beyond certain limits; contemporary connoisseurs agree with the eighteenth-century Japanese that Hokusai was one of the greatest artists of his time; we even agree with the ancient Egyptians that Third and Fourth Dynasty art was the most worthy of being selected as their paragon by those who came after. We may have come to prefer Giotto to Raphael, but we still do not deny that Raphael was one of the best painters of his time. There has been an agreement then, and this agreement rests, I believe, on a fairly constant distinction made between those values only to be found in art and the values which can be found elsewhere. Kitsch, by virtue of a rationalized technique that draws on science and industry, has erased this distinction in management, practice. Left: Repin, Cossacks ; Right: Piacsso, Woman with a Fan. Let us see, for example, what happens when an ignorant Russian peasant such as Macdonald mentions stands with hypothetical freedom of choice before two paintings, one by Picasso, the other by Repin. In the first he sees, let us say, a play of lines, colors and spaces that represent a woman. The abstract technique -- to accept Macdonald's supposition, which I am inclined to doubt -- reminds him somewhat of the sixth grade math icons he has left behind him in the village, and he feels the attraction of the familiar. We will even suppose that he faintly surmises some of the environmental great art values the deaf essay cultivated find in Picasso.
He turns next to Repin's picture and sees a battle scene. The technique is not so familiar -- as technique. But that weighs very little with the environmental management peasant, for he suddenly discovers values in Repin's picture that seem far superior to the values he has been accustomed to morality essay, find in icon art; and the unfamiliar itself is one of the sources of those values: the values of the vividly recognizable, the environmental management topics miraculous and the sympathetic. In Repin's picture the problems peasant recognizes and topics, sees things in the way in which he recognizes and lincoln douglas debate, sees things outside of pictures -- there is no discontinuity between art and life, no need to management essay, accept a convention and say to oneself, that icon represents Jesus because it intends to represent Jesus, even if it does not remind me very much of a man. That Repin can paint so realistically that identifications are self-evident immediately and without any effort on the part of the event spectator -- that is environmental, miraculous. The peasant is also pleased by the wealth of self-evident meanings which he finds in the picture: it tells a story. Picasso and morality of capital, the icons are so austere and essay, barren in sport, comparison. What is more, Repin heightens reality and makes it dramatic: sunset, exploding shells, running and falling men.
There is no longer any question of Picasso or icons. Repin is what the peasant wants, and nothing else but Repin. It is lucky, however, for Repin that the peasant is protected from the products of American capitalism, for he would not stand a chance next to a Saturday Evening Post cover by Norman Rockwell. Ultimately, it can be said that the cultivated spectator derives the same values from management topics, Picasso that the peasant gets from Repin, since what the latter enjoys in Repin is behavior, somehow art too, on however low a scale, and he is sent to look at pictures by the same instincts that send the cultivated spectator. Environmental Topics? But the ultimate values which the cultivated spectator derives from Picasso are derived at a second remove, as the result of reflection upon of capital punishment, the immediate impression left by environmental essay topics, the plastic values. It is only then that the recognizable, the behavior essay copy miraculous and the sympathetic enter. They are not immediately or externally present in Picasso's painting, but must be projected into it by the spectator sensitive enough to react sufficiently to plastic qualities. They belong to the reflected effect. In Repin, on the other hand, the reflected effect has already been included in the picture, ready for the spectator's unreflective enjoyment.(4) Where Picasso paints cause, Repin paints effect.
Repin predigests art for the spectator and spares him effort, provides him with a shore cut to the pleasure of art that detours what is necessarily difficult in genuine art. Repin, or kitsch, is synthetic art. The same point can be made with respect to kitsch literature: it provides vicarious experience for the insensitive with far greater immediacy than serious fiction can hope to do. And Eddie Guest and the Indian Love Lyrics are more poetic than T. S. Eliot and essay, Shakespeare. If the essay avant-garde imitates the processes of art, kitsch, we now see, imitates its effects. The neatness of this antithesis is more than contrived; it corresponds to and defines the tremendous interval that separates from each other two such simultaneous cultural phenomena as the environmental management avant-garde and kitsch.
This interval, too great to be closed by all the infinite gradations of popularized modernism and debate, modernistic kitsch, corresponds in turn to a social interval, a social interval that has always existed in formal culture, as elsewhere in civilized society, and whose two termini converge and diverge in fixed relation to essay, the increasing or decreasing stability of the given society. There has always been on one side the minority of the behavior powerful -- and therefore the cultivated -- and on the other the management essay great mass of the exploited and poor -- and therefore the ignorant. Formal culture has always belonged to the first, while the last have had to sport, content themselves with folk or rudimentary culture, or kitsch. In a stable society that functions well enough to management essay, hold in solution the contradictions between its classes, the cultural dichotomy becomes somewhat blurred. The axioms of the few are shared by the many; the latter believe superstitiously what the former believe soberly. And at such moments in history the masses are able to feel wonder and admiration for the culture, on no matter how high a plane, of its masters.
This applies at least to plastic culture, which is accessible to all. In the Middle Ages the plastic artist paid lip service at day essay pmr, least to essay topics, the lowest common denominators of experience. This even remained true to some extent until the seventeenth century. There was available for imitation a universally valid conceptual reality, whose order the artist could not tamper with. The subject matter of art was prescribed by those who commissioned works of art, which were not created, as in bourgeois society, on speculation. Precisely because his content was determined in advance, the artist was free to concentrate on his medium. He needed not to be philosopher, or visionary, but simply artificer. As long as there was general agreement as to what were the worthiest subjects for art, the artist was relieved of the necessity to be original and inventive in essay copy, his matter and management topics, could devote all his energy to coursework help, formal problems. For him the environmental management essay topics medium became, privately, professionally, the content of lincoln douglas debate essay his art, even as his medium is today the public content of the abstract painter's art -- with that difference, however, that the medieval artist had to suppress his professional preoccupation in management essay topics, public -- had always to suppress and subordinate the personal and professional in the finished, official work of art. If, as an ordinary member of the Christian community, he felt some personal emotion about his subject matter, this only contributed to the enrichment of the work's public meaning. Only with the Renaissance do the inflections of the personal become legitimate, still to be kept, however, within the limits of the simply and universally recognizable.
And only with Rembrandt do lonely artists begin to appear, lonely in their art. But even during the Renaissance, and as long as Western art was endeavoring to perfect its technique, victories in this realm could only be signalized by success in realistic imitation, since there was no other objective criterion at hand. Thus the masses could still find in the art of their masters objects of admiration and wonder. Even the behavior copy bird that pecked at the fruit in Zeuxis' picture could applaud. It is a platitude that art becomes caviar to management essay, the general when the reality it imitates no longer corresponds even roughly to the reality recognized by the general.
Even then, however, the sixth grade resentment the common man may feel is silenced by the awe in which he stands of the patrons of this art. Only when he becomes dissatisfied with the social order they administer does he begin to criticize their culture. Then the environmental essay topics plebian finds courage for the first time to voice his opinions openly. Every man, from the Tammany alderman to the Austrian house-painter, finds that he is entitled to grade math problems, his opinion. Most often this resentment toward culture is to be found where the dissatisfaction with society is a reactionary dissatisfaction which expresses itself in revivalism and puritanism, and latest of all, in fascism. Here revolvers and environmental essay, torches begin to be mentioned in the same breath as culture. In the name of godliness or the blood's health, in the name of simple ways and solid virtues, the statue-smashing commences. Returning to our Russian peasant for sixth, the moment, let us suppose that after he has chosen Repin in preference to Picasso, the environmental management state's educational apparatus comes along and tells him that he is wrong, that he should have chosen Picasso -- and shows him why. It is quite possible for the Soviet state to do this.
But things being as they are in Russia -- and everywhere else -- the peasant soon finds the necessity of working hard all day for punishment essay, his living and the rude, uncomfortable circumstances in which he lives do not allow him enough leisure, energy and comfort to management essay, train for the enjoyment of Picasso. This needs, after all, a considerable amount of conditioning. Construction Coursework Help? Superior culture is one of the most artificial of all human creations, and the peasant finds no natural urgency within himself that will drive him toward Picasso in spite of all difficulties. In the end the peasant will go back to kitsch when he feels like looking at pictures, for he can enjoy kitsch without effort. The state is helpless in this matter and remains so as long as the problems of production have not been solved in environmental topics, a socialist sense. The same holds true, of course, for capitalist countries and lincoln debate essay, makes all talk of environmental management essay topics art for the masses there nothing but demagogy.(5) Where today a political regime establishes an official cultural policy, it is for the sake of demagogy. If kitsch is the official tendency of culture in Germany, Italy and Russia, it is not because their respective governments are controlled by philistines, but because kitsch is the culture of the essay masses in these countries, as it is everywhere else. Environmental? The encouragement of kitsch is merely another of the inexpensive ways in which totalitarian regimes seek to ingratiate themselves with their subjects. Since these regimes cannot raise the morality of capital punishment essay cultural level of the masses -- even if they wanted to -- by anything short of a surrender to international socialism, they will flatter the masses by bringing all culture down to their level.
It is for this reason that the avant-garde is essay topics, outlawed, and not so much because a superior culture is deaf event essay, inherently a more critical culture. Environmental Essay Topics? (Whether or not the avant-garde could possibly flourish under a totalitarian regime is not pertinent to the question at this point.) As a matter of fact, the main trouble with avant-garde art and literature, from the point of view of fascists and sport day essay, Stalinists, is not that they are too critical, but that they are too innocent, that it is too difficult to inject effective propaganda into them, that kitsch is more pliable to essay, this end. Kitsch keeps a dictator in closer contact with the debate essay soul of the people. Essay? Should the official culture be one superior to the general mass-level, there would be a danger of isolation. Nevertheless, if the day essay pmr masses were conceivably to ask for avant-garde art and literature, Hitler, Mussolini and Stalin would not hesitate long in attempting to satisfy such a demand. Hitler is a bitter enemy of the avant-garde, both on doctrinal and personal grounds, yet this did not prevent Goebbels in 1932-1933 from strenuously courting avant-garde artists and writers. When Gottfried Benn, an Expressionist poet, came over to the Nazis he was welcomed with a great fanfare, although at that very moment Hitler was denouncing Expressionism as Kulturbolschewismus . This was at a time when the Nazis felt that the prestige which the avant-garde enjoyed among the cultivated German public could be of advantage to them, and practical considerations of essay topics this nature, the Nazis being skillful politicians, have always taken precedence over Hitler's personal inclinations. Lincoln Debate? Later the management essay topics Nazis realized that it was more practical to accede to the wishes of the masses in matters of culture than to those of their paymasters; the latter, when it came to lincoln douglas, a question of topics preserving power, were as willing to sacrifice their culture as they were their moral principles; while the former, precisely because power was being withheld from them, had to be cozened in every other way possible. Sixth Grade Math Problems? It was necessary to promote on environmental essay, a much more grandiose style than in the democracies the illusion that the masses actually rule.
The literature and art they enjoy and understand were to be proclaimed the only true art and literature and sport pmr, any other kind was to be suppressed. Under these circumstances people like Gottfried Benn, no matter how ardently they support Hitler, become a liability; and we hear no more of them in Nazi Germany. We can see then that although from one point of view the personal philistinism of topics Hitler and math, Stalin is not accidental to the roles they play, from another point of view it is environmental essay topics, only an incidentally contributory factor in determining the cultural policies of their respective regimes. Essay? Their personal philistinism simply adds brutality and double-darkness to policies they would be forced to support anyhow by the pressure of all their other policies -- even were they, personally, devotees of avant-garde culture. What the acceptance of the isolation of the Russian Revolution forces Stalin to do, Hitler is compelled to do by his acceptance of the contradictions of environmental management essay capitalism and his efforts to freeze them. As for coursework, Mussolini -- his case is a perfect example of the management essay disponsibilité of a realist in these matters.
For years he bent a benevolent eye on the Futurists and built modernistic railroad stations and government-owned apartment houses. One can still see in the suburbs of Rome more modernistic apartments than almost anywhere else in sport day essay pmr, the world. Perhaps Fascism wanted to show its up-to-dateness, to conceal the fact that it was a retrogression; perhaps it wanted to conform to the tastes of the wealthy elite it served. At any rate Mussolini seems to have realized lately that it would be more useful to him to please the cultural tastes of the Italian masses than those of their masters. The masses must be provided with objects of admiration and wonder; the latter can dispense with them. And so we find Mussolini announcing a new Imperial style. Marinetti, Chirico, et al ., are sent into the outer darkness, and the new railroad station in environmental management, Rome will not be modernistic.
That Mussolini was late in coming to this only illustrates again the deaf event essay relative hesitance with which Italian Fascism has drawn the necessary implications of its role. Capitalism in decline finds that whatever of quality it is still capable of producing becomes almost invariably a threat to its own existence. Advances in culture, no less than advances in science and industry, corrode the very society under whose aegis they are made possible. Here, as in every other question today, it becomes necessary to quote Marx word for word. Topics? Today we no longer look toward socialism for a new culture -- as inevitably as one will appear, once we do have socialism.
Today we look to socialism simply for essay, the preservation of whatever living culture we have right now. 1. The example of music, which has long been an abstract art, and which avant-garde poetry has tried so much to emulate, is interesting. Music, Aristotle said curiously enough, is the most imitative and vivid of all arts because it imitates its original -- the environmental management state of the soul -- with the greatest immediacy. Morality Of Capital? Today this strikes us as the exact opposite of the truth, because no art seems to us to have less reference to something outside itself than music. Topics? However, aside from the fact that in a sense Aristotle may still be right, it must be explained that ancient Greek music was closely associated with poetry, and depended upon its character as an accessory to verse to make its imitative meaning clear. Plato, speaking of music, says: For when there are no words, it is very difficult o recognize the meaning of the harmony and day essay, rhythm, or to see that any worthy object is imitated by them. As far as we know, all music originally served such an accessory function. Once, however, it was abandoned, music was forced to withdraw into itself to essay, find a constraint or original. Help? This is found in the various means of its own composition and performance. Return to text
2. I owe this formulation to a remark made by Hans Hofmann, the art teacher, in one of his lectures. From the point of management view of this formulation, Surrealism in plastic art is a reactionary tendency which is attempting to restore outside subject matter. The chief concern of a painter like Dali is to represent the processes and construction, concepts of his consciousness, not the processes of his medium. Return to text 4. T. S. Eliot said something to the same effect in accounting for the shortcomings of English Romantic poetry. Indeed the Romantics can be considered the original sinners whose guilt kitsch inherited. They showed kitsch how. What does Keats write about mainly, if not the effect of poetry upon himself? Return to text 5. It will be objected that such art for the masses as folk art was developed under rudimentary conditions of production -- and that a good deal of folk art is on a high level.
Yes it is environmental essay, -- but folk art is not Athene, and it's Athene whom we want: formal culture with its infinity of aspects, its luxuriance, its large comprehension. Besides, we are now told that most of what we consider good in sixth math problems, folk culture is the essay topics static survival of dead formal, aristocratic, cultures. Our old English ballads, for instance, were not created by pmr, the folk, but by the post-feudal squirearchy of the English countryside, to survive in the mouths of the folk long after those for whom the ballads were composed had gone on to other forms of literature. Unfortunately, until the machine age, culture was the exclusive prerogative of a society that lived by the labor of serfs or slaves. They were the real symbols of culture. For one man to spend time and energy creating or listening to poetry meant that another man had to produce enough to keep himself alive and the former in comfort.
In Africa today we find that the environmental management essay culture of slave-owning tribes is generally much superior to sixth grade, that of the tribes that possess no slaves. Return to text
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essay or report Click on the highlighted text to see the management topics, comments. Computer systems computer systems. This report investigates the current state of scanner technology and examines the predicted future advancements of scanners. A brief history of the scanner and its operation is initially outlined. The discussion then focuses on the advantages and limitations of the five main types of scanners in common use today: drum, flatbed, sheet-fed, slide, and hand held scanners. The performance of sport these scanners is environmental topics, examined in relation to four main criteria: resolution, bit-depth, dynamic range and software. It is concluded that further technological advances in these four areas as well as the deployment of new sensor technology will continue to improve the quality of deaf event essay scanned images. It is also suggested that specialised scanners will increasingly be incorporated into other types of technology such as digital cameras. The purpose of this report is to survey the current state of scanner technology and to topics, briefly discuss predicted advancements in the field.
By examining a range of recently published journal articles, magazine articles and internet sites on the topic of scanners this report describes the pmr, main types of scanners in common use today and examines their performance in relation to four criteria: resolution, bit-depth, dynamic range and software. The report then considers the effect of further technological advances in these four areas, as well as the deployment of new sensor technology on the future development of scanners. The first scanner, initially referred to as a #039;reading machine#039;, was developed in environmental, 1960 by Jacob Rabinow, a Russian born engineer. The device could scan printed material and then compare each character to essay copy, a set of standards in a matrix using, for the first time, the best match principle to determine the original message (Blatner, Fleishman and Roth 1998, p.3). This reading machine was to form the basis for the development of current scanning, sorting and processing machines. An early improvement on the reading machine was the drum scanner.
These scanners used a type of scanning technology called photomultiplier tubes (PMT) . Essay. Drum scanners are still used in industry today because of the deaf event, high quality images they produce. The development of smaller, more economical scanners such as desktop scanners and scanners for domestic use followed the essay topics, drum scanner as the number of computer users increased and essay computer technology advanced. Scanners can now capture images from a wide variety of two and three dimensional sources. Management Essay Topics. These images are converted to digitised computer files that can be stored on a hard-drive or floppy disk. With the coursework, aid of topics specific software, these images can then be manipulated and enhanced by the user. It is now possible to deploy electronic acquisition to create an entire layout (including all graphic elements) from the same computer. This means manual stripping is no longer required (Scanners, digital cameras and photo CDs 2000).
Scanners are considered an invaluable tool for adding graphics and text to essay copy, documents and have been readily adopted by both business and environmental essay domestic users. A scanner is a device that uses a light source to electronically convert an image into binary data (0s and 1s). This binary data can then be used to store the scanned image on a computer. A scanner recreates an sixth grade math problems, image by using small electronic components referred to as the scanner#039;s #039;eyes#039; (Scanner tips 2000). The type of management essay #039;eyes#039; used in today#039;s scanners are charge-coupled devices (CCD) and photomultiplier tubes (PMT). These electronic eyes measure the amount of light reflected from individual points on construction coursework, the page and translate it to digital signals that correspond to the brightness of environmental essay topics each point (Englander 2000).
To create a file on the computer that represents a colour image, the scanner divides the image into a grid with many individual points called pixels or picture elements (Scanner tips 2000). A scanning head, termed a row of construction coursework help #039;eyes#039;, reads over the grid and assigns a number to each pixel based on the main colour in that pixel, using green, blue and red. For example an aqua pixel would be saved as a number to represent the proportion of blue, green and management red which represents the colour aqua (Scanners, digital cameras and photo CDs 2000). There are five main types of scanners in debate, common use today: drum scanners, flatbed scanners, sheet-fed scanners, slide scanners, and essay hand held scanners. Drum scanners were widely used in the past, however they are much less commonly used today due to advances in scanner technology. As a result of behavior copy their expense, these machines are primarily used by professionals in industry, where they are considered important due to the high-end quality image they produce and because they use PMT technology which is more sophisticated than charge-coupled devices (CCDs) and environmental management topics contact image sensor#039;s (CISs).
Drum scanners are difficult to deaf essay, operate and management essay technicians operate these scanners by placing the item to sixth grade math problems, be scanned on a glass cylinder rotating at high speeds around the sensor (Sullivan 1996). The most popular scanners for essay topics general use are flatbed scanners. This type of scanner is highly versatile because it is able to scan flat objects as well as small three dimensional objects. Flat-bed scanners operate by placing the item to be scanned on a glass window while scanning heads move underneath it. A transparency adapter is used to scan transparent originals such as slides or x-rays, and behavior copy an automatic document feeder is available for scanning large numbers of documents (Scanner tips 2000) . Sheet-fed scanners have grown in popularity in recent years, particularly for small office or domestic use as they are reasonably priced, can scan full-sized documents and are compact, requiring limited desk space (Scanner tips 2000).
Most models of sheet-fed scanners have an inbuilt document feeder to overcome the problem of manually feeding one sheet of paper at a time. However the actual process or scanning with a sheet-fed scanner may result in management essay, distortion as the image to be scanned moves over the scanning heads (Scanner tips 2000). A further limitation of sheet-fed scanners is douglas, that they are unable to scan three dimensional objects. This type of scanner is used to scan items such as slides that need careful handling during scanning. Unlike other scanners, the scanning heads in slide scanners do not reflect light from the image, but rather pass light through it.
This enables these scanners to produce superior results without distortions caused by reflective light. To be able to scan small and detailed items, these scanners have a large number of eyes on the scanning head which produces a high quality result. Slide scanners tend to management topics, be more expensive and less versatile than flatbed and morality of capital sheet-fed scanners as they are limited to only scanning slides and film. These scanners, however, are well suited to users requiring high quality scans of large numbers of slides (Scanner tips 2000). Hand held scanners are compact, portable scanners which are simply dragged across a page manually to capture an image. These scanners are easy to use and economical to management essay topics, purchase; however, their use is limited to text of up to four inches in diameter that does not require a high resolution. For this reason, hand held scanners are unsuitable for colour images.
A further disadvantage of hand held scanners is that the user must have a steady hand when scanning or the resulting image will be distorted (Scanner tips 2000). The performance of a scanner can be examined in relation to four main criteria: resolution, bit-depth, dynamic range and software. Resolution is a measure of how many pixels a scanner can sample in a given image. It is used to describe the amount of detail in an image (Figeiredo, McIllree and Thomas 1996). Higher resolution scanners are generally more expensive and produce superior results as they have a greater capacity to capture detail. Scanners have two types of resolutions: optical resolution and interpolated resolution. Optical resolution, or hardware resolution, is a measure of how many pixels a scanner can actually read. A current model desktop scanner typically has a resolution of morality essay 300 x 300 dots per inch (dpi) (Anderson 1999) . Management Topics. This means that this scanner has a scanning head with 300 sensors per inch, so it can sample 300 dpi in one direction and 300 dpi in the other direction by stopping the scanning head 300 times per inch in both directions. Some scanners stop the scanning head more frequently as it moves down the page, giving an optical resolution of 300 x 600 dpi; however, scanning more frequently in event, one direction does not improve the result of the scan. The basic requirement for scanning detailed images and management topics line art from photos or other printed originals is an optical resolution of 600 dpi. When scanning slides and of capital punishment negatives the minimum optical resolution is 1200 dpi.
Interpolated resolution measures the number of pixels a scanner is able to predict. Essay. A scanner can turn a 300 x 300 dpi scan into punishment a 600 x 600 dpi scan by looking in-between scanned pixels and guessing what that spot would have looked like if it had been scanned. Management. This prediction is morality, then used to insert new pixels in between the actual ones scanned. Essay Topics. This technique is less precise than optical resolution; however it assists in improving the enlargement of scanned images. Bit depth refers to the amount of information that a scanner records for each pixel when converting an image to digital form. Scanners differ in the amount of data they record for each pixel within an essay copy, image. The simplest kinds of scanners only record data related to black and white details and have a bit depth of 1 (Anderson 1999). The minimum bit depth required for management essay topics scanning photographs and documents is 24-bits, while slides, negatives or transparencies need a scanner with at least 30-bits. Thus for a scanner to produce a high quality scan with colour, a higher bit depth is required.
In general, current scanners have a bit depth of 24, which means that 8 bits of sport pmr information can be collected for the three primary colours used in scanning; blue, red and green (Anderson 1999). This high resolution allows scanners to produce images close to environmental management, photographic quality. Dynamic range refers to math, the measurement of the range of tones a scanner can record on a scale of 0.0 to 4.0, with 0.0 being perfect white and 4.0 being perfect black. Colour flat-bed scanners usually have a dynamic range of 2.4. A range of this measurement is unable to management topics, provide high quality colour scans.
A dynamic range of 2.8 and 3.2 is sport day essay pmr, suited to professional purposes and can be found in high-end scanners. Management Essay Topics. An even higher dynamic range of 3.0 to 3.8 can be provided by drum scanners. A scanner, like any type of hardware, requires software. Typically the two most common pieces of software provided with scanners include optical character recognition (OCR) and image editing software. Optical character recognition software translates the information recorded in a scan, tiny dots, into a text file which can be edited. Image editing software allows the tones and colours of an image to be manipulated for better printing and copy display. Image editing also gives filters to management essay topics, apply special effects to scanned images. The quality of lincoln douglas essay scanned images is constantly improving as characteristics such as resolution, bit-depth and dynamic range are enhanced and further developed. More sophisticated image editing and optical character recognition software development is also resulting in superior quality scans. Future advances are expected to result in the incorporation of management essay topics specialized scanners into other types of sixth technology such as the recently developed digital camera.
This device allows the user to take pictures of three-dimensional objects much like a regular camera, except that instead of environmental management topics using film, the objects are scanned by the camera in a similar process to the functioning of event a flatbed scanner. The relatively new area of sensor technology in the form of a contact image sensor (CIS) (see Appendix 1) is expected to improve the functionality of scanners and the quality of images as it replaces the cumbersome optical reduction technique with a single row of sensors (Grotta and essay topics Wiener 1998, p. 1). Developers have already been able to produce a CIS scanner which is sport, thinner, lighter, more energy efficient and cheaper to manufacture than a traditional CCD base device. However, the quality of the scan is not as good as its counterparts. Further development of CIS technology is needed to improve image quality and environmental management essay topics colour, and to address the problem of essay copy a limited 300 or 600 dpi. This report has identified five types of environmental management topics scanners currently available. Some are primarily used for professional purposes such as the drum scanner; others are used more broadly in the workplace and home such as flatbed scanners and to a lesser extent sheetfed scanners.
Scanners for specialized purposes have also been identified such as slide and handheld scanners. Essay Copy. The performance of management these scanners is dependent upon their resolution, bit-depth, dynamic range and of capital essay software. Scanners have improved significantly in recent years in terms of weight, size, price and speed, and the replacement of CCD technology with CIS technology is anticipated to produce further benefits to these areas as well as to scan quality. The impact of these improvements is expected to increase the accessibility of scanner technology to a wider range of users and environmental essay topics its suitability for a wider range of purposes. Sport Day Essay Pmr. In relation to this, the future of scanner technology seems to point to the convergence of different technologies. Specialized scanners are currently being incorporated into other types of technologies such as digital cameras, printers, and essay photocopiers.
This can be expected to continue with other forms of technology in problems, conjunction with further improvements to image quality, speed, price, size and weight. Anderson, D. Environmental Management. The PC Guide. [http:www.pctechguide.com/18scanners.htm]. Blatner, D., Fleishman, G. Roth, G. (1998) Real world scanning and halftones 2nd edition, Peachpit Press, USA. Englander, I (2000). The Architecture of computer hardware and construction help systems software. John Wiley, USA, p272. Figeiredo, J. Essay Topics. McIllree, J. Thomas, N. Sport. (1996) Introducing information technology 2nd edition Jacaranda Press, Singapore, p145. Grotta, D. and Weiner, S. What#039;s now . What#039;s next. [http://www.zdnet.com/pcmag/features/scanners98/intro.html] PC Magazines 20 October 1998. 8/4/00. Prepress, scanners, digital cameras and photoCDs. [http://www.prepress.pps.com/mem/lib/ptr/scanners.html] 1998. Environmental Topics. 6/4/00.
Scansoft scanner tips [http://www.scannercentral.com/scanners/tips/tips1.asp] 2000.6/4/00. Sullivan. M. Types of scanners. [http://hsdesign.com/scanning/types/types.html] 1996. 8/4/00. Clear statement of the four criteria used in the report to assess the coursework, technology. Appropriately mentions an important aspect of future enhancements - sensor technology, as well as other aspects of management topics future scanning technology. The comment on the quality of scanned images could be extended to include other desirable improvement outcomes; for behavior copy example, faster scanning or 3D scanning. States the purpose and outlines the content of the report succinctly at the start. Historical background is then provided.
This level of detail should be placed in Section 2 #039;How Scanners Work#039;. Try to avoid repeating ideas in the body of the report by grouping ideas on the same topic or subtopic together. Good comment - provides an overall picture. It would be more appropriate to discuss such detailed aspects of scanning in environmental essay, the body of the report rather than the introduction. When a technical term such as this is used it should be explained and related to the previous sentence(s). This paragraph presents a clear definition of how a scanner works. The student#039;s understanding of the concept is evident because the definition has been clearly expressed in the student#039;s own words and the sources of the definition have been acknowledged.
The student has used information from only one source for Sections 3.2, 3.3, 3.4, and event 3.5. This has severely limited the content of these sections of the report. This paragraph provides a good description of this criteria in simple clear language. It would be better to use a more recent reference here. A 1999 reference which states this is environmental essay topics, current typical resolution in punishment essay, an essay written in 2002 is inappropriate - computer technology develops very quickly. This concept is poorly explained. The student needs to express the main point in more detail. The ideas in this paragraph are well expressed; however the source of these ideas has not been provided. Environmental. The student needs to provide references. The concept of #039;dynamic range#039; has not been sufficiently explained here. Sixth Grade Math Problems. The student needs to environmental topics, provide further detail and to provide references to the sources of information used.
As in the previous paragraph, the concept has not been sufficiently explained. Further detail is required, especially in relation to the current capabilities and limitations of the software. References to the sources used are also required here. This sentence is too general. It would be better to include more specific information about the kind of of capital punishment essay enhancements being referred to. This paragraph provides an appropriate amount of detail. Significant improvements to the field are identified in a brief discussion of environmental essay topics new technology. However the student has again omitted references to the sources used in the discussion. This conclusion presents a brief summary of the main ideas that have been established in the report. Unfortunately, it typifies the limitations of the report; that is, the content is too general - more specific detail is required. A further improvement would be to provide more detail on how the current state and future position of deaf essay scanner technology is related to the broader field of computer technology.
WARNING - do not use this reference list as a model! The number of sources used in environmental management, an assignment depends on the quality of the sources - their currency, reliability, and the amount of relevant information. This reference list consists of 8 sources: 3 books, 1 magazine, and sixth grade math 4 commercial web sites. It does not meet the requirements of the assignment description. Topics. One source is used for coursework a number of sections in the report. The reference list needs to include several academic journal articles and more magazine articles.
This would enable a wider range of opinions and ideas to be included. For this report, it is environmental management topics, best to only use commercial web sites published by major manufacturing companies which provide technical and deaf event essay educational information rather than online shopping or reseller sites, or sites developed by environmental essay topics individuals. Content and layout: The citations need to include appropriate details, and to day essay pmr, be punctuated according to the Harvard Referencing System. For example, the management essay topics, country (USA) has been provided as the place of publication in a number of citations instead of the name of a city or town, the copyright dates of many of the web sites has not been included, and the inclusion of a page number for a book (p.145) is not necessary in the reference list (it is required in the text if the behavior copy, student is making a direct quote). The use of punctuation in this reference list is environmental management essay, inconsistent and not always appropriate.
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