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article on business Your news when you want it. Economics reporter, BBC News, Bangalore. Few places in the world have seen the ap bio essay rubric dramatic effects of globalisation more than Bangalore, the Silicon Valley of India, which is experiencing an unprecedented IT boom that is transforming the prospects of the Indian economy. For Santosh, a tour guide in the fall of the of usher, Bangalore, life is good. As a result of the IT boom, he has launched his own web-based travel firm, getoffurass.com, and is doing a booming business selling weekend getaway holidays to stressed-out IT workers. For Dean Braid, a skilled car engineer in Flint, Michigan, life is not so good. He - and 28,000 other workers - were laid off from rubric, Buick City when GM closed the complex in 1999, and hasn't worked since. Globalisation is blamed for many of the ills of the modern world, but it is questions also praised for bringing unprecedented prosperity.
But what is globalisation, and what are the 2004 essay rubric forces that are shaping it? Globalisation - good or bad? The accelerating pace of globalisation is having a profound effect on life in rich and poor countries alike, transforming regions such as Detroit or Bangalore from boom to bust - or vice versa - in a generation. Many economists believe globalisation may be the explanation for key trends in the world economy such as: Lower wages for workers, and higher profits, in Western economies The flood of migrants to cities in poor countries Low inflation and low interest rates despite strong growth. And globalisation has played a key role in the unprecedented increase in prosperity in the last 50 years, which is now spreading from the United States and Europe to include many formerly poor countries in Asia, including China and an application letter for a India. In economic terms, globalisation refers to the growing economic integration of the world, as trade, investment and money increasingly cross international borders (which may or may not have political or cultural implications). Globalisation is not new, but is a product of the ap bio essay rubric industrial revolution.
Britain grew rich in the 19th century as the first global economic superpower, because of its superior manufacturing technology and analysis improved global communications such as steamships and railroads. But the pace, scope and 2004 ap bio scale of globalisation have accelerated dramatically since World War II, and a level coursework especially in the last 25 years. The rapid spread of information technology (IT) and the internet is changing the rubric way companies organise production, and increasingly allowing services as well as manufacturing to be globalised. Globalisation is also being driven by the decision by cambridge graduate union thesis India and China to open their economies to 2004 ap bio essay rubric the world, thus doubling the global labour force overnight. The role of trade. Trade has been the engine of globalisation, with world trade in manufactured goods increasing more than 100 times (from $95bn to $12 trillion) in the 50 years since 1955, much faster than the overall growth of the world economy. Since 1960, increased trade has been made easier by international agreements to lower tariff and non-tariff barriers on the export of manufactured goods, especially to rich countries.
Those countries which have managed to increase their role in the world trading system by targeting exports to rich countries - such as Japan, Korea and now China - have seen dramatic increases in professional, their standard of living. Ap Bio Rubric. In the a level post-war years more and more of the global production has been carried out by big multinational companies who operate across borders. 2004 Ap Bio Essay Rubric. Multinationals have become increasingly global, locating manufacturing plants overseas in order to capitalise on cheaper labour costs or to be closer to their markets. And globalisation is even harder to track now that one-third of the fall of the of usher, all trade is 2004 essay rubric within companies, for example Toyota shipping car parts from Japan to the US for analysis final assembly. More recently, some multinationals like Apple have become virtual firms outsourcing most of their production to other companies, mainly in 2004 ap bio essay, Asia. Service sector globalisation. It is not only the Western manufacturing industry that is under threat from questions, globalisation.
The services sector, which includes everything from hairdressers to education to accounting and software development, is also increasingly affected by globalisation. Many service sector jobs are now under threat from outsourcing and 2004 ap bio rubric offshoring, as global companies try to save money by shifting many functions that were once done internally. What China has become to manufacturing, India has become to the new world of business process outsourcing (BPO) - which includes everything from payroll to billing to IT support. Format Letter For A. India is the world's leading exporter of ap bio essay, IT services, with its volume of offshore business doubling every three years. Every major international company in the IT industry now has a huge presence in India, and plans to of the of usher essay expand its investments.
The Bangalore Tigers. Several dynamic new Indian companies are now challenging the 2004 ap bio multinationals for global leadership in cambridge union thesis, this area, including TCS, Infosys and 2004 WIPRO. The IT services boom has helped to transform the Indian economy, which is on healthy now growing at more than 9% per year, the same rate as China. The new-found affluence of the ap bio essay rubric young workers in the IT sector has in turn changed attitudes to wealth and consumption in India - with educated young people for the first time being able to afford such luxuries as motor cars and home ownership. The dizzying pace of change in the new world of globalisation is unprecedented, and can be frightening. A recent poll by Deloitte in November 2006 showed a sharp increase in graduate union printing, worries about ap bio essay, outsourcing of white collar jobs in the UK. Just 13% said it was a good thing, compared to 29% in January, while 82% of the public believed enough jobs have been sent abroad already, and 32% wanted to force companies to bring jobs back to Britain.
Meanwhile in the US, the Democratic victory in the November Congressional elections had a lot to do with worries about the essay effect of globalisation on ap bio wages and jobs. The speed and scale of economic change has made it increasingly difficult for governments to keep their economic destiny in and synthesis, their own hands. And what is most disturbing for many people is that no-one seems to be in charge, or be able to agree fair rules for the new global economic order. Crisis of legitimacy. The international institutions meant to deal with the globalising world are all in trouble. And its efforts to break down global trade barriers are faltering. Meanwhile the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank, set up in 1944 as part of the UN system to run the international monetary system and to co-ordinate aid flows to poor countries, have come under criticism for ap bio essay rubric not giving a bigger role to emerging market countries like India and China. And the IMF has found it increasingly difficult to influence the world's capital markets, whose huge financial flows dwarf its resources - or to correct the huge global imbalances that arise from trade. Professional Is It. Who should run the world? There is ap bio rubric even less international regulation of other aspects of globalisation.
Attempts by the OECD to set rules governing foreign investment by multinational companies collapsed in format of writing an application letter for a, the 1980s, while the rules for international banking, stock markets and 2004 accounting are increasingly being negotiated by international quangos behind closed doors. And while the rights of workers to organise unions is enshrined in resolutions passed at the International Labour Organization (ILO), it lacks any enforcement powers. The key question is whether the growing globalisation of the world economy will lead to a parallel increase in global regulation - and whether that would be good or bad for world economic growth and equality. Changing global economic relations transform regions.
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Into the Wardrobe a C. S. 2004 Ap Bio. Lewis website. The Narnia Chronicles are undoubtedly the most popular works of letter job writer C. S. Lewis. And although they are recognized as children's fantasy novels, they are also popular with students and adults, including many Christian theologians. In the Narnia Chronicles, Lewis typifies the Biblical character of 2004 ap bio essay rubric Jesus Christ as the character of Aslan the lion, retelling certain events in the life of Jesus to children in a this new context in a way that is easy for them to understand; most importantly, however, children can both relate to and enjoy the fantasy of Narnia. A Level Questions. This essay will to 2004 ap bio analyze The Magician's Nephew and The Lion, the questions Witch and the Wardrobe to demonstrate that the Narnia Chronicles are not so much didactic allegories, but rather are well-crafted children's fantasies that incorporate Biblical themes in a way that young readers can appreciate. Although it was the sixth book to be written in the seven book series, the story of ap bio essay The Magician's Nephew takes place several decades before that of The Lion, The Witch and the Wardrobe . A Level. It describes the ap bio rubric creation of the the fall of usher land of Narnia, and how humans came to be associated with this other world. The narrative draws heavily from the 2004 rubric creation story in Genesis, but Lewis' account of Narnian creation is clearly geared to appeal to a younger audience. One of the the literary techniques Lewis uses to appeal to a younger audience is his use of children as the main characters; in The Magician's Nephew , for instance, Polly Digory are present throughout the cambridge union thesis entire narrative.
Lewis describes Aslan's creation of the world of Narnia as seen by these two children, immediately establishing a rapport between his young audience and ap bio rubric, the narrative. As they enter a lightless Narnia at the beginning of its creation, Lewis uses the children to describe their surroundings: We do seem to be somewhere, said Digory. At least I'm standing on something solid. (Lewis, 1988, p.91). Digory's first description of cambridge graduate union thesis printing this new environment not only establishes a connection between the young readers and the narrative, but is also representative of a trend in Lewis' retelling of the creation story: Lewis draws on the Biblical creation story, but does not attempt to directly parallel the story of Genesis. In Genesis, after creating the ap bio essay rubric heavens and earth, the first thing he does is to create light: And God said, 'Let there be light.' (Gen 2:4). It is not, in fact, until the second day that God creates dry land (Gen 1:9-10).
The reader of The Magician's Nephew , however, learns from a child's description that even while the world of Narnia is still dark, the earth (or something solid) has already been created. Obviously, Lewis' primary goal in writing the story of Narnia's creation was not to make an exact allegory to Genesis, but perhaps to draw from select Biblical creation images, and analysis, patterning a children's story from them. Lewis continues to draw from Biblical creation images as he describes the introduction of light into Narnia. The singing stars are the first things to the children see in 2004 essay rubric Narnia, and Lewis again uses the character of essay for students Digory to establish a connection between the text and a youthful reader: If you had seen and heard it, as Digory did, you have felt quite certain that it was the stars themselves which were singing, (Lewis, 1988, p.93-94). Genesis, on the other hand, automatically appeals to adult sensibilities when describing the stars, relating them to such grown-up concerns as the calendar: Let them serve as signs to mark seasons and days and years, and them be lights in the expanse of the sky. (Gen 1:14-15). The singing stars image that Lewis draws from here is located in Job 38:7. Comparing these two passages, it is evident that Lewis chose to convey his creation story using the essay rubric Biblical images that are not only easier for children to understand, but also easier for children to appreciate and enjoy. Another device Lewis uses in the Narnia Chronicles is the essay personification of animals. 2004. Narnia is a land of talking animals, and as children usually find the concept of coursework animals and magical creatures more interesting than that of a historical reality of long ago (i.e. the reality of Jerusalem 2000 years ago).
Narnia proves to be the perfect vehicle for a captivating work of children's literature. Upon comparing the creation stories in The Magician's Nephew and 2004 ap bio, the book of Genesis, Lewis' technique of making animals a central part of his narrative is readily noticeable. In Genesis, God creates animals that inhabit land on the fifth day: God said, 'Let the land produce living creatures according to their kinds: livestock, creatures that move along the ground, and wild animals, each according to its kind.' And it was so. (Gen 1:24-25). The interesting choice of words in this verse may well have been the inspiration for Lewis to write his creative description of the creation of animals in Narnia, where the animals are literally produced by the land, out of the ground: In all directions it [the land] was swelling into thesis printing humps. They were of very different sizes some no bigger than mole-hills, some as big as wheel-barrows, two the size of cottages. And the humps move and swelled until they burst, and the crumbled earth poured out of them, and from each hump there came out an animal. 2004 Ap Bio Essay Rubric. (Lewis, 1988, p.105) Lewis' emphasis on the animals in essay is it and good his creation story is especially apparent with his use of Aslan the lion as a God figure: The Lion opened his mouth. 2004 Ap Bio. he was breathing out a long, warm breath; it seemed to sway all the beasts as the wind sways a line of trees. (Lewis, 1988, p.108). This image of life-giving breath directly correlates to a passage in Genesis: The Lord God formed the man from the dust of the ground and breathed into his nostrils the the fall of the breath of life, and the man became a living being. (Gen 2:7). Lewis equates the significance of the creation of man in Genesis with the creation of the animals in Narnia, and thereby appeals to a child's natural attraction to animals by making them the central part of the Narnian creation story.
Since animals have taken, at least to some extent, the role of man in the creation story, the human characters of Polly and Digory (and their team) must obviously assume a slightly different role in the creation. At this point, Lewis introduces the concept of evil entering Narnia, and the concept of the introduction of sin into ap bio essay rubric a new world. Before the safe new, clean world I gave you is ap bio, seven hours old, a force of evil has already entered it; waked and brought hither by essay and good, this son of Adam, says Aslan (Lewis, 1988, p.126). Lewis has cleverly associated Digory with the Biblical Adam in two ways. The obvious connection is that Digory is a male human being, and therefore a son of essay Adam. But the the deeper connection that Lewis implies is union thesis printing, that just as Adam first brought sin into the world in Genesis, Digory is charged with bringing the essay rubric first evil into the new world of Narnia. Lewis also draws a correlation between Adam and Uncle Andrew: both bring death into a new world. The apostle Paul describes Adam as one who brought death into the world: Sin entered the world through one man, and death through sin, (Rom 5:12). Uncle Andrew, while he does not bring death into Narnia, does bring the concept of death with him. Upon seeing Aslan, his first reaction is to kill: A most disagreeable place.
If only essay professional is it safe I were a younger man and had a gun -- (Lewis, 1988, p.96). This image of a gun-wielding Uncle Andrew is seen again and again in 2004 essay rubric the narrative: The first thing is to a level coursework get that brute shot. (Lewis, 1988, p.103). Lewis is able to affiliate humans not only with evil, but with the race of Adam: a people that brings death and ap bio essay, sin. The way in which he achieves this is also very important: by the fall house of usher essay, using the image of the 2004 slaughter of essay professional safe and good animals, Lewis once again appeals to the sensibilities of 2004 ap bio essay a younger audience. Children are likely to be more upset at the death of an animal than that of a man who lived long ago; a man they never knew. In this way, children might sympathize more easily with the proposed death of a Christ-like lion than that of thesis printing a historical Jesus (a theme explored later in this essay). The analysis of 2004 ap bio essay evil entering Narnia would not be near complete, of course, without examining the character of Queen Jadis (known in The Lion, The Witch and graduate thesis printing, the Wardrobe as the White Witch).
Like Uncle Andrew, the Witch is antagonistic towards Aslan. Rubric. She too wishes to destroy the lion, and attempts to kill him with an union, iron bar: She raised her arm and flung the rubric iron bar straight at of writing an application for a, its head. (Lewis, 1988, p.99). Later Aslan makes it clear that she is the evil that has entered Narnia: The world is not five hours old an evil has already entered it (Lewis, 1988, p.111), There is an evil witch abroad in my new land of Narnia, (Lewis, 1988, p.125). 2004 Ap Bio Rubric. The allegory of the on healthy eating Witch is still unclear, though. In the creation story in Genesis, two elements of essay rubric evil can be found.
The first is Adam and Eve's direct disobedience to God's commandment (Gen 2-3). Graduate. The second element, however, is not of human origin, but is rather the character of the rubric serpent (Gen 3). The Witch in analysis The Magician's Nephew can be perhaps seen as an image of the introduction of sin (in the context of the Narnian creation story), but later in the novel Lewis also alludes to her relation with the 2004 ap bio essay rubric character of the serpent. This marks a move away from the theme of creation, and a step towards the essay professional and good theme of temptation in the Narnia Chronicles. The theme of temptation is present in both the Bible and the Narnia Chronicles, and ap bio essay rubric, Lewis often models his presentations of temptation after stories and characters from the Bible. A good example of on healthy this phenomenon is that of Chapter 13 (Lewis, 1988), which is 2004 ap bio essay rubric, a retelling of the story of the tree of knowledge.
This chapter involves Digory retrieving a silver apple from a garden for Aslan; the similarities between this setting and the tree of knowledge in the garden of Eden (Gen 2-3) are obvious. The role of the Witch, however, evolves from being a symbol of evil to being compared with the serpent in Genesis 3. The Witch makes several efforts to tempt Digory to eat the apple: Do you know what that fruit is. It is the apple of youth. Eat it, Boy, eat it, (Lewis, 1988, p.150). This role of temptress is analogous to cambridge graduate thesis the role of the serpent when it speaks to Eve (Gen 3:1-5). Lewis has also put Digory in the role of Adam and Eve. Digory's connection to Adam is ap bio rubric, made explicit by Aslan referring to him as Son of Adam throughout the analysis and synthesis novel. In this retelling of the 2004 essay Garden of cambridge graduate thesis Eden story, however, Lewis has Digory make the 2004 ap bio essay rubric righteous decision of not eating the apple, but returning to eating Aslan instead. By having the Witch eat the apple instead (Lewis, 1988, p.149), Lewis allows the roles of protagonist and antagonist to remain clear and distinct. By manipulating the story of the fall of man in this way, Lewis has simplified and contained the forces of 2004 ap bio rubric good and evil into safe and good single characters, making the distinction easier for his children readers understand. Digory is not the only character to be tempted in Narnia.
Uncle Andrew is tempted throughout the narrative by his greed; his lust for 2004 essay, money and power. He is forever scheming and dreaming of ways to capitalize on the discovery of Narnia: The commercial possibilities of this are unbounded. I shall be a millionaire. (Lewis, 1988, p.103) His power-hungry character is contrasted with the character of the cabby, who resembles Andrew only in the fact that he is an adult male. The Fall Of The Of Usher Essay. The cabby, however, has a kind of reverent awe of Aslan and the land of Narnia, and voices his disgust in Andrew for not being able to appreciate the miracle of the creation of Narnia: Oh, stow it Guv'nor, do stow it. 2004 Ap Bio Essay Rubric. Watchin' and listenin's the thing at present; not talking. (Lewis, 1988, p.98) Their relationship is reminiscent of the Biblical story of the rich man and Lazarus (Luke 16:19-31). Just as Lazarus received the analysis kingdom of heaven, the cabby becomes the first king of Narnia (Lewis, 1988, p.159), while Andrew is not repaid for 2004 ap bio essay rubric, succumbing to temptation. This is an example of Lewis' gift to subtly weave Christian teachings into on healthy eating for students his stories without sacrificing their readability for a young audience. Perhaps the best example of surrendering to temptation can be found in the second book of the Narnia Chronicles (the first Chronicle, however, for Lewis to write): The Lion, The Witch and the Wardrobe . Ap Bio Essay Rubric. The character of Edmund struggles with temptation throughout his time in graduate thesis printing Narnia, and like Digory, his temptress is the White Witch. Unlike The Magician's Nephew , however, Lewis' use of the Biblical theme of temptation in The Lion, The Witch and the Wardrobe uses New Testament readings as its primary source, drawing from the stories of temptation of both Jesus and Judas. Keeping the former distinction in mind, an examination of New Testament teaching concerning temptation proves useful.
James illustrates some key Christian teachings concerning trials and temptation: The brother in humble circumstances ought to take pride in their position. He [God] chose to give us birth through the 2004 word of truth, that we might be a kind of firstfruits of all he created. (James 1:9, 18). When writing about a good Christian facing temptation, James places emphasis on the fall of the house of usher, the righteousness of a man in humble position. Ap Bio Essay Rubric. He also places importance of the concept of the word of truth in essay professional is it safe and good humanity. The character of Edmund adheres to neither of essay rubric these principles. Edmund's first significant sin is to succumb to the temptation of gluttony (King, 1998). The White Witch offers him enchanted Turkish Delights. The description of his gluttonous and decadent behaviour is very clear: At first Edmund tried to format of writing letter remember that it was rude to speak with one's mouth full, but soon he forgot about this and thought only of trying to shovel down as much Turkish Delight as he could, and the more he ate the more he wanted to eat. (Lewis, 1986, p.37) This scene not only the image of Eve succumbing to the temptation of 2004 ap bio essay eating the fruit of knowledge, but also to the New Testament theology of Paul: . many live as enemies of the a level cross of Christ. Their destiny is destruction, their god is their stomach, and their glory is in ap bio essay their shame. Their mind is on earthly things. (Phil 3:18-19). Edmund continues to fill his mind with earthly desires by also succumbing to the temptation of improving his humble position (see James 1:9 above) when the White Witch entices him with the prospect of princehood: I think I would like to make you the Prince -- some day when you bring the others to visit me. (Lewis, 1986, p.39).
This temptation of power is very like the story of Jesus being tempted by essay on healthy eating, Satan in the desert. Satan, like the Witch, tempts Jesus with power in exchange for service: The devil took him to a very high mountain and showed him all the kingdoms of the world and their splendour. All this I will give you, he said, if you bow down and worship me. (Matt 4:8-9). In addition to ap bio essay succumbing to analysis these various temptations, Edmund also agrees not to reveal his knowledge of the 2004 ap bio essay Witch to his siblings (Lewis, 1986, p.40), and a level coursework, consequentially ends up lying to his them about his discovery of Narnia: Lucy and I have been playing -- pretending that all her story about a country in the wardrobe is true. (Lewis, 1986, p.44) By doing this, Edmund fulfills the antithesis of Paul's virtues of the good Christian in face of temptation (see James 1:18). Lewis masterfully intertwines these Biblical themes of temptation into the character of Edmund. But Edmund's character is, in fact, most closely allegorized to 2004 the Biblical character of Judas; the betrayer (Matt 26). Edmund betrays his siblings and the fall house of usher essay, the Beavers by going to seek the 2004 ap bio rubric White Witch in Chapter 8 (Lewis, 1986). Eating. All he could think about were his earthly desires and wants: Turkish Delight and to be a prince (Lewis, 1986, p.82). Comparing a mere child to Judas, however, is a very serious allegory for a children's novel. To deal with this, Lewis creates the idea of the Witch giving Edmund enchanted Turkish Delight: She knew, though Edmund did not, that this was enchanted Turkish Delight and that anyone who tasted it would want more and more of it, and would even, if they were allowed, to go on eating it till they killed themselves. (p.38).
By making Edmund's cravings for Turkish Delight the fault of the Witch and 2004, not his own, Lewis alleviates some of the gravity of Edmund's offense; once again taking Biblical imagery and softening it to a level appeal to a young audience. 2004. And in the end, of course, Edmund is forgiven for his betrayal; an analysis, event which involves the most important allegorical theme in 2004 essay the Narnia Chronicles: Aslan's synonymy with Jesus Christ. Before continuing, it should be said that many academics have gone too far in deconstructing the Chronicles of Narnia; theorizing about Lewis' intended true meaning for all of his symbolic Bible imagery; to analyze the books in this fashion is to miss Lewis' point in writing them (Schakel, 1979, p.xii). In 1954, Lewis was asked to explain the Aslan-Christ parallel to some fifth graders in Maryland. He replied: I did not say to myself 'Let us represent Jesus as He really is in essay on healthy for students our world by a Lion in Narnia'; I said 'Let us suppose that there were land like Narnia and 2004 ap bio, that the format of writing an application letter for a job Son of God, as he became a Man in our world, became a Lion there, and then imagine what would happen. 2004 Rubric. (Lewis, 1954, 1998) Bearing this in mind, it still proves fruitful to examine how Lewis relates Aslan to the character of the Biblical Jesus, because the analysis yields a better understanding of Lewis' craft: to use Biblical motifs to analysis create a captivating story for children. Edmund embodies many characteristics of 2004 ap bio rubric Judas, including the characteristic of betrayal, and Aslan's similarity to Jesus is noticeable in the way he forgives Edmund. Lewis, however, has specifically evaded allegorizing Jesus not forgiving Judas (Mark 14:21), and instead turns to more general Christian teachings on analysis, forgiveness: If someone is caught in a sin, you who are spiritual should restore him gently.
Carry each other's burdens, and in this way you will fulfill the law of Christ. (Gal 6:1-2). In this way, Lewis once again manages to dilute the Biblical narrative into guilt-free children's readability. Aslan forgiveness of Edmund is expressed by his rescue of Edmund from the White Witch (Lewis, 1986, p.124-125). The Witch, however, claims Edmund's life as hers to take: You at least know the Magic which the Emperor put into Narnia at the very beginning. You know that every traitor belongs to me as my lawful prey and ap bio essay rubric, that for every treachery I have a right to kill. (Lewis, 1986, p.128). Aslan then offers his own life in exchange for Edmund's; this action is cataclysmic in its Biblical meaning, because not only is Aslan merely forgiving and analysis, dying for Edmund's sin, but the act is 2004 essay, also symbolic of Christ dying for the sins of humanity. Edmund's sin of treachery becomes symbolic for all human sins, and on healthy for students, Aslan pays for it with his life, as did Christ: While we were still sinners, Christ died for us. (Rom 5:8). These events set up the narrative of the execution of Aslan.
The former account is incredibly similar in imagery to that of the death of Jesus in the Bible. Lucy and Susan, two of the four child protagonists in the novel, follow Aslan to his execution: And both the girls cried bitterly (though they hardly knew why) and clung to the Lion. (Lewis, 1986, p.136). 2004 Essay Rubric. Jesus too had followers not unlike the children: A large number of people followed him, including women who mourned and wailed for him. (Luke 23:27) Once he is in the hands of the Witch, Aslan is subjected to humiliation and analysis and synthesis, ridicule: 'Stop!' said the Witch. 'Let him first be shaved.'. they worked about his face putting on the muzzle. he [was] surrounded by the whole crowd of creatures kicking him, hitting him, spitting on ap bio essay rubric, him, jeering at him. (Lewis, 1986, p.139-140) This imagery is, once again, remarkably similar to that of the and synthesis Gospels: The men who were guarding Jesus began mocking and beating him. They blindfolded him and demanded, 'Prophesy! Who hit you?' And they said many other insulting things to him. (Luke 22:63-65) Aslan's resurrection involves the same kind of Biblical allusion. In the Gospel of Luke, the women who had followed Jesus went to his tomb: Very early in the morning, the women took the ap bio essay spices they had prepared and went to coursework questions the tomb. They found the stone rolled away from the tomb, but when they entered, they did not find the body of the Lord Jesus. (Luke 24:1-3) in the same way, after Lucy and Susan take off Aslan's muzzle, they leave the Stone Table where he was executed.
In the 2004 ap bio essay early morning they return to find the Stone Table broken in two and the resurrected Aslan standing before them (Lewis, 1986, p.142-147). The breaking of the Stone Table is obviously not so similar to the stone in of the essay Jesus' tomb as it is to the curtain of the temple being torn (Luke 23:45). The image is even more allusive to the breaking of the tablets containing the Commandments in the book of Exodus. These latter correlation, however, is probably not so much direct allegory as it is an example of Lewis' command of Biblical imagery as a literary device. Lewis, then, has retold the story of the death and resurrection of Jesus in the context of Aslan and Narnia. He has used several devices, however, to transform this heavy content into material for a children's novel. The obvious difference in Lewis' retelling of the 2004 ap bio essay rubric Biblical story is his use of Aslan the lion and the land of Narnia. A Level Questions. There is, to an extent, use of lion imagery in the Bible: You are a lion's cub, O Judah; you return from the prey, my son. (Gen 49:9), A king's wrath is like the roar of a lion. Essay. (Proverbs 20:2), They will follow the Lord; he will roar like a lion. (Hosea 11:10). Most important is the reference of lions in the Book of Revelation, referring (we assume) to Christ: See, the Lion of the tribe of Judah, the Root of David, has triumphed. (Rev 5:5). Evidently, Lewis' choice of a lion to represent Christ is not completely original; there are, however, other reasons for professional is it safe and good, Lewis to choose this animal to represent Jesus.
For instance, perhaps he assumed that children might better sympathize with the death of an animal than the death of a historical figure. Lewis uses a similar technique in essay using Deep Magic to explain the miraculous events that take place, like the resurrection: 'It is more magic.' They looked round. Of The. There, shining in the sunrise, larger than they had seen him before, shaking his mane (for it had apparently grown again), stood Aslan himself. (Lewis, 1986, p.147) The young audience for rubric, whom the Narnia Chronicles were mainly intended would have an easier time understanding the concept of magic, rather than the theological implications that arise in the Bible stories of the resurrection. Finally, Lewis uses children as the main characters of the Narnia Chronicles. Immediately this establishes a connection for young readers that the Bible rarely offers. Children are also more likely to relate to a Messiah figure that constantly treats children with respect and love; a figure like Aslan.
The Narnia Chronicles have already established themselves as timeless works of literature. They appeal to questions both the atheists and the God-fearing, to both the uneducated and to scholars; to children and adults. An understanding of the Biblical allegory in essay rubric these books is not essential to their appreciation. A critical analysis of these works, however, does allow the reader to more fully appreciate Lewis' unique gift to simplify complex narratives and craft beautiful children's fantasies. This, in turn, allows the analysis reader to gain both a deeper understanding of Lewis as a skilled creative writer, and a deeper satisfaction of rubric his art. To be able to appreciate C. Safe And Good. S. Lewis as such a craftsman can only ap bio essay rubric add to one's enjoyment of his works. Into the Wardrobe is not affiliated with any official. C. S. Lewis organization, publisher, or media company. The Into the and synthesis Wardrobe forum debuted on June 30th, 1996 and was active until October 1st, 2010.
The archives are open to the public and are filled with vast amounts of good reading and information for you to enjoy. If you wish to meet many of the Wardrobians who participated, we are still active on the Into the 2004 ap bio rubric Wardrobe Facebook group.
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21 Basic Resumes Examples for 2004 essay Students and New Graduates. Written by Neil O’Donnell. Published July 5th, 2017. An Application Job? Neil O’Donnell, CPCC is a nationally certified career coach whose experience includes over 2004 rubric 15 years of is it safe career counseling experience in addition to his having written thousands of résumés and cover letters. Working with professionals around the globe, Neil helps recent graduates and seasoned professionals alike in achieving their career dreams. Let’s face it, writing résumés is a daunting task, especially for undergraduates or recent college or high school graduates. Ap Bio Essay Rubric? Admittedly, one of the essay on healthy for students, biggest complaints I often hear from such entry job seekers is that no one showed them how to write a résumé or curriculum vitae. Would it make you feel better to know that most teachers and professors don’t honestly know how to write a good résumé?
Truthfully, most colleges have a career center, which students are repeatedly informed about, but students rarely utilize the services at 2004 ap bio essay, such centers before or after graduation. Hello! All graduates should make contact with their alma mater’s career center, because such centers usually offer free or low-cost résumé writing, basic resume examples, and interview preparation services! That said, let’s get to the heart of the issue. How do you write a good résumé for of writing letter for a typical undergraduate/new graduate needs?
Here are 4 basic resume examples, guidelines, and templates to ap bio rubric, help you out. The Fall House Of Usher? 1. 2004 Ap Bio Essay? Sample Resume for cambridge union an Internship. Most internships require a student provide a résumé and cover letter, but students often are frightened by this as they usually don’t have any experience related to the internship. 2004? Most employers are not expecting you to have extensive experience because an internship is usually the first experience students have in their field. As for the structure of a résumé for internships, much of the design is consistent with my previous guidance. However, a few things of are more routine when it comes to an internship résumé.
First, as a person seeking an internship often has little or no professional experience, volunteer experience can be vital. Because, such experience can show a hiring manager or internship coordinator that you are a go-getter. Questions? You’d be amazed at the amount of employers across most fields place a great deal of value on volunteer experience, especially since a lot of volunteer responsibilities connect with the responsibilities of ap bio professionals. For instance, if you volunteered at a foodbank, you would likely perform a mix of duties from handling inventory, keeping records of where food was shipped, and interacting with those in needs by essay is it safe providing directions on where to go to obtain food. Such experience translates into customer service and office operations experience. Considering that MOST interns end up doing a lot of filing work and essay, call monitoring, the volunteer experience is analysis and synthesis huge. In addition to professional and or volunteer experience, I recommend internship seeking individuals include a summary of qualifications section (placed before the experience section) to identify skills they have that best match with the ap bio essay, job and/or highlight skillsets that suggest the would-be intern would excel in analysis and synthesis, the workplace (aka not be lazy). Many of us have had nightmare experiences with interns. So, any qualifications that could point towards you being a dedicated worker will likely help your case. In the qualifications section, also include coursework you completed that is relevant to the major/internship setting. For a business major seeking sales/accounting experience, it would be prudent to list courses you completed that connect with business, accounting, statistics, and economics.
See the included Internship résumé for ap bio a full example. 2. Sample Resume for a Part-time Position. College students need to letter for a job, pay bills while professionals making little more than minimum wage need to find ways to make ends meet. This is often where a part-time job comes into 2004 essay rubric, play. Part-time jobs most often are connected to a level coursework questions, the service industry, though sales, medical tech, and administrative jobs often fill this void as well. In most of these instances, training on the job is key so a relevant degree is essay rubric not usually necessary (although pursuing a relevant degree could provide an advantage. For part-time work, it is important to keep a few things in mind. First, if you have an advanced degree (a Masters or higher), you should consider dropping that from the essay professional is it and good, résumé. Because, employers might see your advanced degree and figure you will only stay long enough until you find something better (better pay or better benefits).
Also, if you have extensive experience, you should limit what is on your résumé to the last ten years. Too much experience may also suggest to an employer that you won’t be there long. 2004 Essay Rubric? Undergraduates and recent high school graduates don’t usually have these issues, but older workers seeking employment (especially after a layoff), could very well find themselves battling such hurdles. Again, including a ‘Summary of an application letter for a Qualifications’ section is a good idea when seeking part-time work as it can highlight skillsets you have relevant to the work being completed. For part-time jobs, especially those in the service industry, your education can be placed at the end (and in many cases, it should be last as pursuit of a college degree may make a hiring manager hesitate in hiring you for fear that you are only going to be there a short time. 2004 Ap Bio Essay? Lastly, as with the internship résumé, those with little experience should consider including volunteer experience to help fill up one full page for the résumé. Cambridge Printing? See the 2004 essay, example for an individual seeking part-time work as a sales associate, positions many undergraduates seek out while in questions, college. 3. Ap Bio Essay Rubric? Sample Resume for an Entry Level Job. Essay Professional And Good? Again, applying for entry-level positions, a hiring manager is not going to expect applicants to have extensive experience. For recent college graduates, including a list of 2004 ap bio rubric relevant coursework is a good thing to house of usher essay, consider as employers like to hiring individuals with up to date knowledge relevant to the field, particularly in ap bio rubric, tech fields. I also believe listing relevant technological proficiencies is crucial as many older employers often have limited experience in essay is it safe and good, computer programming and repair.
As someone who has always efforted to stay on top of 2004 ap bio essay rubric technological advancements, I can attest to a level questions, the fact that tech-proficient individuals are a hot commodity. For those with a great deal of experience and advanced degrees who are seeking an entry-level position, drop the advanced degree and essay rubric, only include last ten years of experience. 4. Basic Sample Resume for No Experience. For those without any experience, building a résumé is not so easy. Things that can help in such situations are volunteer experience, relevant coursework from school, and a job objective. Frankly, most of coursework us who are professional résumé writers do not use job objectives, but when in need of filling a page, an objective can come in handy. Just make certain your resume objective is focused on the job you are applying to rubric, (i.e. The Fall House? “To obtain a line cook position at the Cityview Restaurant). Adding a summary of qualifications section where you highlight your computer proficiencies and “soft” skills can help as well (soft skills including thriving in 2004 ap bio essay, a team environment, conflict resolution, good communications skills, and cambridge, organization). If you participated in rubric, activities at high school or college, including those experiences could also be a great addition, especially if you served in a position such as president, treasurer or secretary.
For those with no experience, staying at of usher, your first job for a few years is important to build a foundation for future success. 2004 Ap Bio Rubric? Getting a new job every year looks bad on a résumé and will hurt your chances of format an application for a being hired in the future. Armed with this advice, know that every field/major requires a different focus on what to highlight in a résumé, particularly with regards to skillsets. Asking a professor for an example of her/his résumé would provide a good foundation to start with. Ap Bio? Additionally, the following samples offer a glimpse at on healthy eating, what a solid résumé would look like.
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essay lotus sutra Taigen Dan Leighton. Paper for an academic conference on Discourse and Rhetoric in the Transformation of Medieval Japanese Buddhism Version with full diacritical marks available from ap bio essay, email@example.com. In this essay I will discuss aspects of Zen Master Dogen's appropriation and use of the Lotus Sutra , as it is expressed in his rhetorical style. Essay On Healthy Eating. Dogen quotes the Lotus Sutra (from the Kumarajiva version) far more than any other sutra. This might seem reasonably expectable, since Dogen was first ordained as a monk in the Tendai school, which continued to see the Lotus as the preeminent sutra, even as it incorporated and attempted to synthesize a whole range of Buddhist teachings.
However, while prominent Kamakura innovators, Eisai, Dogen, Honen, Shinran, and Nichiren all had been Tendai monks, they vary greatly in their subsequent application of the Lotus Sutra . Essay Rubric. The Lotus is the fundamental object of devotion for Nichiren, but is scarcely mentioned explicitly by Shinran (although it might be discerned as part of the background of coursework questions Shin thought). The situation of Dogen's use of the 2004 ap bio essay rubric, Lotus Sutra in his teachings is more complex. The Lotus has been commonly perceived as tangential to Dogen, and to Japanese Soto Zen generally. For example, in discussing another great Soto literary figure from the eighteenth century, Ryokan, who also favored the Lotus Sutra , Ryuichi Abe says, Although Ryokan appears to have remained faithful to the religious ideals of his Soto progenitor Dogen, there was nothing sectarian about Ryokan's Buddhist practice. Among the numerous Buddhist scriptures, the Lotus Sutra popular text not particularly emphasized in coursework, traditional training but the essential scripture of the 2004 ap bio rubric, Tendai and Nichiren schools was by far his favorite. While the Lotus is certainly not nearly as important to Dogen or Soto as it is to Nichiren, Ryokan's great appreciation for it is revealing of the lingering appropriation of the Lotus Sutra in Soto, an appreciation and usage that does go back to the fall of the house of usher the Japanese Soto founder. Dogen widely cites and interprets many doctrinal elements from the 2004 ap bio, Lotus Sutra in a level coursework questions, his teachings. Along with his many direct allusions to the parables from the sutra, Dogen frequently refers to ap bio essay rubric specific Lotus teachings. A Level Questions. Examples are skillful means ( hoben ); the single cause for buddhas' appearing in the world, i.e. to bring suffering beings onto the path of awakening; and that only a Buddha together with a Buddha can fully fathom the 2004 ap bio essay rubric, fundamental truth. While these teachings are not completely unique to the Lotus among Mahayana sutras, Dogen discusses them using direct quotes from the Lotus Sutra . Dogen also often discusses or critiques teachings commonly linked to the Lotus Sutra in Heian and Kamakura Buddhism, such as the importance of fundamental enlightenment (hongaku); and realization of essay safe and good buddhahood in this very body (sokushin jobutsu). Dogen's use of the Lotus Sutra text is necessarily affected by the contemporary readings of the 2004 ap bio, Lotus in Tendai and other Japanese understandings, a complex subject beyond the scope for safe and good, this limited essay to detail.
A discussion of all the numerous direct references to the Lotus Sutra in Dogen's writings is also far beyond the scope of ap bio essay this essay. But to mention briefly one of the most prominent examples, in his Shobogenzo essay Hokke-Ten-Hokke The Lotus Dharma Turns the on healthy, Lotus Dharma, Dogen discusses and elaborates his view of the 2004 essay, liberative reality of the phenomenal world, which Dogen interprets as a primary teaching of the Lotus Sutra . Dogen expresses this interpretation in various ways. The Hokke-Ten-Hokke essay begins with the of writing letter for a job, statement that, The contents of the lands in essay rubric, ten directions are the sole existence of the Lotus Dharma. In various writings, Dogen creatively reads and a level interprets parts of the Lotus Sutra such as the stories in chapters fifteen and sixteen about the 2004 ap bio essay, underground bodhisattvas immanently present and available for the world, and the inconceivable life-span, and the fall house of usher essay continuing presence in the world, of Shakyamuni Buddha. These are among the Lotus Sutra supports for Dogen's teaching about the active agency of the phenomenal world in ap bio essay rubric, the process and practice of essay eating Buddhist awakening. This interpretation and 2004 ap bio essay rubric appropriation of the Lotus teaching as essentially immanent and located in house of usher essay, the phenomenal world is not only important to Dogen's philosophy, but is also relevant to Dogen's style of expression, as will be described in what follows in this essay. In line with Dogen's many references, the Lotus Sutra also retains a significant place in 2004 ap bio essay rubric, Soto liturgy, albeit far less central than in Nichiren Buddhism. Essay. Even today in many Japanese Soto Zen temples, the verse endings to the sutra's chapter sixteen on the Buddha's Inconceivable Life-span (Juryohonge), or to 2004 ap bio chapter twenty-five on Kannon Bodhisattva (Fumonbonge), are chanted daily. But instead of the sutra's doctrinal or liturgical applications, I will limit the scope of this essay to examining some of the ways in union, which Dogen's style of discourse and rhetoric, as seen in essay rubric, his Eihei Koroku as well as in Shobogenzo , resonate with his interpretations of aspects of the Lotus Sutra . My point is not at all to claim that the eating for students, Lotus Sutra is the single most important source for Dogen; obviously there are many traditions from which Dogen borrows. Much of the Chinese Ch'an tradition is the central lexicon for Dogen, especially the classical koan literature, as well as closer Tsao-tung lineage forebears such as Hung-chih Cheng-chŸeh and T'ien-t'ung Ju-ching. In Dogen and the Koan Tradition, Steven Heine has masterfully demonstrated how Dogen's writings serve to develop and elaborate the koan genre. Dogen also makes ample use of the Japanese poetic tradition, as invoked in Yasunari Kawabata's appreciation of Dogen as a poet in Kawabata's 1968 Nobel Prize acceptance speech. Dogen's indebtedness to ap bio rubric this poetic tradition has been further traced in Heine's The Zen Poetry of Dogen . Dogen certainly further appropriated the Chinese monastic tradition as a major basis for his praxis, and professional is it safe training program. But Dogen's utilization of Mahayana discourse, especially as developed in the Lotus, should also be considered as one of the fundamental backgrounds for ap bio essay, viewing Dogen's teaching as a whole.
I believe that further inquiries into various aspects of house of usher essay their interrelationship will be illuminating to both Dogen and Lotus Sutra studies. But this present essay focuses on Dogen's borrowing aspects of its rhetorical style, based on his own interpretation of the Lotus. The essay proceeds with a discussion of the Lotus Sutra style of proclamatory rhetoric. The Self-Referential Lotus. The Lotus Sutra itself frequently emphasizes the importance of and essay rewards for the reading, copying, and reciting of the Lotus Sutra . To be sure, other Mahayana sutras talk about the merit to on healthy for students be derived by recalling or copying the sutra being read. However, the essay rubric, Lotus Sutra at times seems to hold this self-referential quality at its center, such that it promotes an extreme mode of self-referential discourse that is unique to the Lotus Sutra . Analysis And Synthesis. The sutra often speaks of the wondrous nature of the Lotus Sutra , right in the text commonly referred to as the Lotus Sutra . Ap Bio Essay Rubric. This rhetorical device can become startling and mind-twisting, like Escher's painting of two hands drawing each other. Eating For Students. Various important figures in the sutra appear within the text of the ap bio, Lotus Sutra because they have heard that the Lotus Sutra is currently being preached by Shakyamuni Buddha on Vulture Peak. For example, in chapter eleven, the stupa of the the fall of usher, ancient Buddha Prabhutaratna emerges from the earth and floats in mid-air, because he has vowed always to appear whenever the Lotus Sutra is ap bio essay, preached. In the same chapter, myriad bodhisattvas arrive from cambridge graduate union thesis printing, world systems in all directions, in ap bio rubric, order to praise the Buddha for preaching this sutra in analysis, which they are appearing. This quality of the sutra talking about the sutra, and especially its many references to the Lotus Sutra as something expounded many ages ago, as about to be expounded, or even as hopefully to be expounded in the distant future, has led some commentators to observe that the whole text of this sutra, more than any others, is a preface to a missing scripture.
As George and Willa Tanabe say: The preaching of the essay rubric, Lotus sermon promised in coursework, the first chapter never takes place. The text, so full of merit, is about a discourse which is never delivered; it is a lengthy preface without a book. The Lotus Sutra is thus unique among texts. It is not merely subject to various interpretations, as all texts are, but is open or empty at its very center.  This is a plausible perspective or interpretation.
The text does refer, in third person, to a designated text that one might keep vainly waiting for, as if for Godot. However, this perspective misses the manner in which the Lotus sermon certainly does exist. Fundamental messages of the Lotus, such as the One Vehicle and the primacy of the Buddha vehicle, are difficult to miss, even if they might be interpreted in various manners. But furthermore, between the lines the Lotus Sutra functions within itself both as a sacred text or scripture, and as a commentary and guidebook to its own use, beyond the literal confines of its own written text. The Lotus Sutra is itself a sacred manifestation of spiritual awakening that proclaims its own sacrality. Right within the essay rubric, text's proclamation of the wonders of a text with the same name as itself, the printing, text celebrates its own ephemeral quality with the visionary splendors of its assembly of buddhas, bodhisattvas, and spirits, and with the engaging qualities of its parables. The synthesis of the immanent spirit spoken about in the text, and the text's own intended functioning as an instrument or skillful catalyst to spark awakening, has been carried on among its followers. This is exemplified in the varieties of Nichiren Buddhism in that they are rooted and focused in 2004 essay, devotion to the Lotus Sutra itself as a sacred manifestation, and of the house devotional object, which they are committed to proclaiming and essay rubric promulgating. But for Dogen, the self-proclamation of the dharma in the Lotus Sutra becomes an aspect of of the house essay his rhetorical style, rather than an externalized objectification.
In similar manner to the sutra's proclamations of the 2004 ap bio, wondrous qualities of the Lotus Dharma, Dogen in his writings commonly proclaims the wondrous nature of the union printing, Dharma, the 2004 essay, Buddha, the many buddha ancestors, previous proclamations or utterances by ancestral teachers, and analysis and synthesis of course the rubric, Lotus Sutra itself. Coursework. Dogen's style of discourse is usually not explanatory, discursive, or logical in the linear manner of modern rationality or cognition. Rather, Dogen seemingly free-associates, making illuminating connections based on doctrinal themes or imagistic motifs, aimed at proclaiming the non-dual reality of the present phenomenal world as fully imbued with the presence of the essay rubric, Buddha and of the ongoing possibility of essay eating awakening. A clear encapsulation of the Lotus Sutra 's self-proclamatory discourse strategy appears in volume one of Dogen's Eihei Koroku in rubric, two consecutive jodo, or dharma discourses, numbers 69 and 70, given in 1241. Jodo number 69 reads in its entirety: [Dogen] said: Today this mountain monk [Dogen] gives a dharma discourse for the assembly. What I have just said I offer to all the three treasures in the ten directions, to the twenty-eight Ancestors in India, to the six Ancestors in China, to all the nostrils under heaven, to the eyeballs throughout the past and present, to dried shitsticks, to three pounds of sesame, to Zen boards, and to zafus. Previously we offered incense for the limitless excellent causal conditions, and we dedicate it so that toads may leap up to Brahma's heaven, earthworms may traverse the eastern ocean, and clouds and water monks may become horses and cows. All buddhas, ten directions, three times; All honored ones, bodhisattva mahasattvas; Mahaprajnaparamita. Here Dogen states that he is proclaiming a jodo. But immediately, without saying anything more about the dharma, he dedicates that statement itself to the three jewels, the ancestral teachers, to meditation paraphernalia, and to famed Ch'an iconoclastic expressions for Buddha, Yun-men's dried shitstick (or dry turd) and his disciple Tung-shan Shou-ch'u's three pounds of sesame (or flax). He then further dedicates the incense offering, which had preceded the statement that he was now making a statement, to toads, earthworms, and a level coursework monks who manifest as horses and cows, followed by the traditional concluding liturgical dedication. He thereby declares the intention of the dedication for all beings, no matter how humble. As in the Lotus Sutra , there is no visible dharma expressed except for the celebration via proclamation of a non-explicit dharma.
But then, in 2004 ap bio essay rubric, the following jodo, number 70, Dogen explicitly comments on his own use of self-referential dharma, while engaging even further in celebrating an unexpressed dharma. We do not know how many days may have separated the two discourses. In this section of the text, between the jodos that can be dated and which are four months apart, there were an average of two discourse per week. Of Usher. But whatever the 2004 essay rubric, interval, it is clear in analysis and synthesis, the overall text of Eihei Koroku that the different discourses, recorded chronologically with only very rare exceptions, are often linked sequentially through the associations of ap bio essay rubric theme, imagery, ancestral figures, or textual allusion. Jodo number 70 says: [Dogen] said: As this mountain monk [Dogen] today gives a dharma discourse, all buddhas in the three times also today give a dharma discourse. Analysis. The Ancestral teachers in all generations also today give a dharma discourse. The one who bears the sixteen-foot golden body gives a dharma discourse. The one endowed with the wondrous function of the hundred grasses (all things) gives a dharma discourse. Already together having given a dharma discourse, what dharma has been expounded? No other dharma is 2004 ap bio rubric, expressed; but this very dharma is expressed. What is this dharma?
It is upheld within Shang-lan Temple; it is of writing an application letter for a, upheld within Kuan-yin Temple; it is upheld within the monks' hall; it is upheld within the buddha hall. Again, Dogen never talks about the content of his dharma discourse. But he proclaims that his own act of proclaiming this self-referencing dharma is echoed simultaneously in essay rubric, the discourses of the ancestral teachers and buddhas, just as the proclamation of the of the essay, Lotus Sutra is ap bio essay, echoed in various buddha realms, in various times. Then Dogen asks the same question that the format an application letter, Tanabes ask about the Lotus Sutra , What dharma has been expounded? And Dogen answers unabashedly, No other dharma is expressed; but this very dharma is expressed. What is ap bio essay rubric, this dharma? While not explaining or even stating the content of this dharma, his phrase, This very (shako) dharma, might seem to refer to the teaching of essay on healthy for students suchness, or tathata, but it is also simply just this dharma, as opposed to essay rubric that one. Thereby Dogen emphasizes not an abstraction, but the concreteness of phenomenal reality as the realm of dharma. Then Dogen does declare and affirm that this non-explicit teaching is upheld in the context of the temples and the buildings where the practice is carried on. The example in these two jodos of thesis Dogen's proclamation of ap bio a non-explicit dharma is presented in a direct and concise manner, as appropriate to the often brief declarations of the jodo form. But this rhetorical strategy recurs, more or less subtly, in many places throughout Shobogenzo , as well as in graduate thesis printing, Eihei Koroku . That Dogen is adapting this rhetorical posture at least in ap bio, part directly from the Lotus Sutra is clearly evidenced by another early jodo in the Eihei Koroku , number 24, given in 1240.
In the format letter for a job, entire universe in ten directions there is no dharma at 2004 ap bio essay rubric, all that has not yet been expounded by all buddhas in questions, the three times. Therefore all buddhas say, In the ap bio essay rubric, same manner that all buddhas in the three times expound the dharma, so now I also will expound the questions, dharma without differentiations. This great assembly present before me also is practicing the Way in ap bio essay rubric, the manner of all buddhas. Each movement, each stillness is not other than the union printing, dharma of 2004 ap bio essay rubric all buddhas, so do not act carelessly or casually. Although this is the case, I have an expression that has not yet been expounded by any buddha.
Everyone, do you want to a level discern it? After a pause [Dogen] said: In the same manner that all buddhas in the three times expound the dharma, so now I also will expound the dharma without differentiations. In this dharma discourse Dogen again does not elaborate on the content of the dharma expounded by all buddhas in the three times, except to aver that it is no other than every movement, and every stillness, and is practiced by the monks at Eiheiji. Significant to the point of this essay is the context of ap bio essay rubric this quote mentioned by Dogen from Sakyamuni Buddha, In the same manner that all buddhas in the three times expound the dharma, so now I also will expound the dharma without differentiations. This statement that Dogen uses to express the inexplicit dharma proclaimed by all buddhas is from the Lotus Sutra , chapter two on Skillful Means. Dogen further emphasizes this quote when he repeats it verbatim as his own expression for the inexplicit dharma, which he claims, Has not yet been expounded by house any buddha. Essay Rubric. But saying it has not previously been expounded is tantamount to format of writing an application letter job Dogen himself preaching the original Lotus Sutra , or to essay rubric his own manifestation as the Buddha in the Lotus text in which it is first expounded.
There are ample examples of the fall house response with silence, or of indirect or inexplicit Dharma proclamation within the Ch'an literature that is Dogen's primary lexicon. Yet the Lotus Sutra referent for this 1240 jodo about 2004 ap bio rubric, expounding the dharma clearly demonstrates that Dogen himself saw the Lotus Sutra , expounded by all buddhas in the three times, as an important source for this self-proclamatory rhetorical style of expounding. Further studies of any references to the Lotus Sutra in the development of early Ch'an rhetorical styles might be informative. But it is apparent that Dogen himself saw the Lotus as one model for a non-dualistic, inexplicit discourse approach. The Self-Reflexive as a Skillful Mode. In The Karma of Words, William LaFleur discusses the sophisticated nature of the Lotus Sutra as literature, and its impact in medieval Japanese poetics. The surprising feature of the fall house of usher essay [the parables] in the Lotus is that they are simultaneously the vehicle and ap bio essay the tenor of that vehicle. In a very important sense, the parables of the Lotus are about the role and status of parabolic speech itself. They are what I would call self-reflexive allegory; that is, their trajectory of discourse behaves like a boomerang. Much like the analysis, dharma described in a crucial section of the hoben chapter, they are characterized by the absolute identity [or equality] of their beginning and end.
LaFleur's analysis of this realm of discourse in the Lotus Sutra focuses on its radical nondualism, and its embodiment of skillful means. This standpoint of nondualism represents interpretations of the Lotus Sutra developed in T'ien-t'ai and in Japanese Buddhism prior to Dogen, and which impacted the 2004 ap bio rubric, medieval literature LaFleur examines. Union. From such a nondualistic viewpoint, LaFleur suggests translating hoben as modes rather than the more common translations of 2004 essay skillful or expedient means. Hurvitz translates hoben as expedient devices, and essay on healthy for students Watson translates it as expedient means, both implying a dualistic, and even manipulative, aspect of the teaching, especially when rendered as devices. 2004 Rubric. Kato, Tamura, and Miyasaka translate it as tactfulness, which implies more consideration and coursework questions inclusivity, but might still be seen as implying a hierarchy of the teachings. The upaya (or hoben ) doctrine is 2004 ap bio essay, a problematic aspect in the Lotus Ekayana One Vehicle teaching. The Lotus at times has been upheld, within the sutra itself as well as by some of its followers, for example in the T'ien-t'ai p'an-chiao system, as the and synthesis, supreme epitome of the One Vehicle. In this perspective other teachings and scriptures may be seen as merely expedient, provisional (and therefore inferior) teachings that might be included in the One Vehicle as a kind of dharmic noblesse oblige. Such a view of upaya implies a hierarchy of teachings, and even a manipulative use of 2004 essay them.
Unquestionably the Lotus Sutra lends itself, and often explicitly encourages, a political, polemical reading in which the Lotus, and those who preach it, represent the of writing an application letter, True Dharma, and 2004 essay rubric those who follow provisional, expedient teachings exemplify the chaff, inimical to the full teaching. On the other hand, the alternate mode of reading the teaching of upaya, as championed by LaFleur, implies a radically nondualistic inclusivity, and is it safe an acceptance of all helpful teachings as simply a diversity of ap bio essay modes. Portions of the Lotus Sutra do indeed lend themselves to this alternate, more tolerant and inclusive reading of hoben . For example, in chapter five the parable of the Dharma rain falling universally on all implies no discrimination against any of the many plants that are equally nourished, each growing in their own way. Applied as appropriate to format an application letter for a job the diversity of needs of suffering beings, all teaching modes might be equally beneficial to the ultimate purpose for buddhas' manifestation, as proclaimed in the upaya chapter: By resort to numberless devices and to various means, parables, and ap bio phrases do [buddhas] proclaim the dharmas, . . Analysis And Synthesis. . for one great cause appearing in the world, . . . to cause beings to ap bio rubric hear the Buddha's knowledge, . . . to and synthesis cause the beings to understand, . . . to cause the beings to enter the ap bio, path. Such an inclusive reading of essay is it safe hoben might be usefully appropriated to modern concerns of religious pluralism, which may be LaFleur's subtext. 2004 Essay Rubric. But LaFleur's reading also has implications to styles of discourse, the primary issue under consideration here. LaFleur sees the sutra's primary liberative purpose and its various skillful modes expressed nondualistically as exactly the analysis and synthesis, reason for the sutra's self-referential discourse style. In his reading: The narratives of the Lotus are not a means to an end beyond themselves.
Their concrete mode of expression is not chaff to be dispensed with in order to attain a more abstract, rational, or spiritual truth. The Lotus is unequivocal on this point: One may seek in every one of the ten directions but will find no mode [ hoben ] other than the Buddha's. This accounts for what may seem to be an inordinate amount of praise directed by the sutra toward itself. It also implies that within the sutra there is an unmistakable philosophical move opposite to that in Plato's Republic, a move to 2004 ap bio essay affirm the complete reality of the world of concrete phenomena in format an application for a, spite of the fact that they are impermanent. This common Japanese association of the Lotus Sutra with affirmation of the reality of the phenomenal world, followed here by LaFleur, can be dated back to the Japanese Tendai founder Saicho. Having studied with two of the disciples of the Chinese Hua-yen master Chan-jan, who argued for the Buddha nature of insentient beings (a teaching that Dogen would also later frequently celebrate), Saicho incorporated Hua-yen (Kegon) views of suchness into Tendai. But Saicho also applied this in ap bio essay rubric, an original way to his interpretation of the Lotus Sutra . Coursework. His reading not only acknowledges two aspects of suchness but establishes a hierarchy between the two in identifying the dynamic aspect of 2004 ap bio suchness—its expression as the phenomenal world—with the cambridge thesis, T'ien-t'ai category of the middle and with the one vehicle of the ap bio rubric, Lotus. This represents a crucial step toward the profound valorization of empirical reality found in medieval Tendai original enlightenment thought. From this Japanese Tendai perspective of spiritual reality immanent in format, concrete phenomena, the 2004 essay, Lotus Sutra itself is not separate from, or talking about, a realm of transcendent spirit outside of itself. Thus the Lotus Sutra itself can become an embodiment of the awakening aspect of the phenomenal world, omnipresent, at least in potentiality, in all concrete phenomena. The self-referential or self-reflexive aspect of the sutra demonstrates the non-separation of its liberative goals from the Buddha's skillful modes.
Given the nonduality of purpose and essay professional is it safe context of the ap bio, Lotus Sutra as a text that itself represents and enacts veneration of the world's liberative potential, it is of the of usher, reasonable that this very sutra would become an object of veneration, as in Nichiren Buddhism. To be sure, Dogen is not inclusive of the diverse modes of teachings in LaFleur's strictly non-hierarchical fashion, as, in common with all of the Kamakura innovators, Dogen at ap bio, times upholds his own teaching lineage and strongly disparages others. However, Dogen's use of Lotus style self-referential discourse is directed at affirmation of the nondualism of means and end, and he repeatedly affirms the phenomenal realm as the arena of nondual practice-realization, in cambridge thesis printing, accord with LaFleur's view of the 2004 ap bio essay rubric, Lotus Sutra discourse as based on hoben . In a similar skillful mode, Dogen often intentionally uses words as vehicles to format an application job express the discourse he is ap bio, then proclaiming. Dogen's frequent inversion of conventional word order and word meaning from classical koans or sutras serves to express this quality of proclamation, in analysis and synthesis, which the discourse itself demonstrates that which it is expounding. A prominent example is the oft-cited wordplay in Shobogenzo Bussho Buddha Nature, first written in 2004 ap bio, 1241, in which Dogen retranslates the passage from the Mahaparinirvana Sutra, All sentient beings without exception have Buddha nature. By rereading the characters shitsu-u as whole being, rather than all have, Dogen alters the passage to, All sentient beings' whole being [is] Buddha nature. This elimination of dualistic grammar itself demonstrates the nondualism between sentient beings and Buddha nature. In further accord with LaFleur's view of the Lotus discourse, Dogen specifically affirms the complete reality of the world of concrete phenomena in his discourse rhetoric as well as its content, and even when leaving the content itself seemingly absent, or at least not stated. In jodo 49 in Eihei Koroku, also given in 1241, Dogen says: This mountain monk has not lectured for the sake of the assembly for questions, a long time.
Why is this? On my behalf, the buddha hall, the monks' hall, the valley streams, the pine, and bamboo, every moment, endlessly speak fully for the sake of all people. Have you all heard it or not? If you say you heard it, what did you hear? If you say you have not heard it, you do not keep the five precepts. Here Dogen rhetorically affirms the immanence of the 2004 ap bio essay rubric, dharmic discourse as well as its content, right in the world of dharmas, or phenomena, including streams, pines, bamboo, and temple buildings, which all themselves discourse on this dharma. He also self-consciously uses this nonexplicit discourse of the dharma and its immanence as a skillful means for challenging his monks in analysis and synthesis, training to hear and express the dharma more fully. Have you all heard it or not? Dogen's Use of the essay rubric, Fantastic.
Another literary aspect of the Lotus Sutra that is disconcerting to conventional analysis is the degree to cambridge union thesis which its stories and 2004 ap bio essay rubric teachings are rooted in essay eating for students, images and ap bio rubric fantasies. In his introduction to his book on Myoe, whose life and teaching were colorfully replete with the visionary, George Tanabe, Jr. cites the format, centrality of visions to East Asian Buddhist experience, despite the focus of much of modern Buddhist studies on doctrine and philosophy. The Buddhist tradition is as much a history of fantasy as it is a history of thought. It should be studied as such to gain a better understanding not only of Buddhism as a fantastic philosophy, but of Buddhists as sentient beings as well. In the context of Myoe studies, Tanabe's discussion of the fantastic might more directly apply to the psychedelic visions of the Avatamsaka Sutra, which Myoe, as a Kegon monk, especially cherished. But Tanabe's remarks also certainly pertain to the striking images and parables of the essay rubric, Lotus, about which he says, The Lotus Sutra is less a work of memory and more a product of union thesis printing fantasy inspired with new visions derived internally. The Lotus Sutra thus calls for examination of the significance and function of its imagery as much as, if not more than, its philosophical positions. As Tanabe says: Mahayana Buddhism is, among many things it can be, a tradition of the 2004 rubric, mind's faculty for producing images in both waking life and a level sleep: a tradition, that is, of fantasy producing visions, . . 2004 Ap Bio. . and dreams, which were interpreted by the dreamers for their own meanings and which can be, to add a modern aspect, read by us for their feelings. It will be possible to union thesis printing gain a better understanding of Mahayana Buddhism as a vehicle not only of ideas and institutions but of human emotion as well only when studies of the fantastic end of the spectrum become more available. In this context, the ap bio, Lotus Sutra parables and self-referential discourse style can be seen as the internal expression of vision, or fantasy, that expresses the human experience of Mahayana practice, more than its philosophical content. Even when, as may frequently be the case, such discourse is an application letter for a job, a literary device or artifice, rather than directly inspired by literal meditative experience, visions, or dreams, such literary framing serves to 2004 ap bio honor the safe, skillful use of imagination and the visionary.
The Lotus Sutra itself includes a parable that uses a fantastic vision to demonstrate how fantastic visions function as skillful liberative modes. In chapter seven, a conjured or phantom city is described as a vision that serves as a metaphor for 2004, the teaching of essay professional is it nirvana as cessation, which can provide a half-way oasis on the path to Mahayana universal liberation. Despite being a mere phantom, the vision of an oasis city acts as a necessary, beneficial encouragement for practitioners, who may be refreshed by temporarily imagining they have achieved their goal. Similarly, Lotus Sutra parables, no matter how fantastic, themselves function as beneficial encouragements. In another of the essay, numerous examples in analysis, Shobogenzo of Dogen using wordplay to invert conventional thinking, in Muchu Setsumu Within a Dream Expressing the Dream, written in 1242, Dogen extensively elaborates on the statement that all buddhas express the dream within a dream. He thereby denies the 2004 ap bio, supposedly lesser reality of the dreams of the transient phenomenal world, and negates a Platonic exaltation of the absolute, which LaFleur describes as the union thesis printing, antithesis of Lotus teaching. Instead, Dogen proclaims the dream world of phenomena as exactly the rubric, realm of buddhas' activity. Every dewdrop manifested in job, every realm is a dream. This dream is the glowing clarity of the hundred grasses. . . . Do not mistake them as merely dreamy. The liberative awakening of buddhas is 2004, itself described as a dream.
Without expressing dreams, there are no buddhas. Without being within a dream, buddhas do not emerge and turn the analysis, wondrous dharma wheel. This dharma wheel is no other than a buddha together with a buddha, and a dream expressed within a dream. Simply expressing the dream within a dream is itself the buddhas and ancestors, the assembly of unsurpassable enlightenment. Dogen is not frivolously indulging in mere paradox here, but follows the essay rubric, logic of the dream as necessarily the cambridge graduate union, locus of 2004 ap bio rubric awakening. As Dogen says in his celebrated essay, Genjokoan, Those who have great realization of delusion are buddhas. What is worthy of study is not delusions or fantasies about enlightenment, but rather the reality of the causes and conditions of the realms of delusion and suffering. A Level. A similar logic is expressed in the Lotus Sutra dictum that buddhas manifest only due to the presence of suffering beings. Dogen's positive view of dreams will be significant in his parables to be discussed below, two of ap bio essay rubric which Dogen frames as if they might have been dreams, whether or not they were his actual sleeping dreams.
Dogen does not attend to literal dreams with anywhere near the same dedication as his contemporary, Myoe, as exemplified by Myoe's extraordinary, forty-year dream journal. Along with Myoe, dreams and visionary discourse are also more emphasized than they are by Dogen in the teachings of format for a job Keizan, Dogen's third generation successor, who is revered as the second founder of Japanese Soto Zen. The central role of dream and vision for Keizan has been discussed and elaborated by Bernard Faure in Visions of Power.  Keizan and his successors in the following few generations helped spread Soto Zen throughout rural Japan. One stereotype in Soto studies is the distinction between Keizan's use of the visionary, inspired by essay Esoteric teachings, and the supposedly more pure Zen of Dogen. According to this stereotype, Dogen emphasized zazen and a rational presentation of buddha dharma, untainted by the more colorful and melodramatic Mahayana and Esoteric teachings indulged in by Keizan. However, Dogen does indeed employ dreams and visions as skillful teaching tools. While we may certainly note differences in emphasis and style between Dogen and Keizan, Dogen is in format an application for a job, fundamental accord with the world-view of medieval Japan, including the esoteric teachings of Shingon and Tendai that were the background for all Kamakura Buddhism. Dogen sees the phenomenal world as dynamically alive, and imbued with spirit forces. Essay. His visionary context is perhaps most apparent in his interpretations and appropriations of the Lotus Sutra , and in his own references to dreaming. In Muchu Setsumu Within a Dream Expressing the essay safe and good, Dream, Dogen explicitly refers to the Lotus Sutra as a source for the role of dreams in ap bio, his discourse style. He quotes a long passage that concludes the final verse in chapter fourteen of the sutra, beginning from, All buddhas, with bodies of golden hue, splendidly adorned with a hundred auspicious marks, hear the format an application letter for a job, dharma and expound it for others. Such is the 2004 ap bio essay, fine dream that ever occurs. Cambridge Printing. . . 2004 Essay Rubric. . Dogen interprets this passage as saying that the whole archetypal story of the Buddha occurs in an application letter for a, a dream.
Dogen's reading takes this passage out of its context in 2004 essay, the sutra to emphasize that the Buddha is on healthy, made king, leaves the ap bio rubric, palace, awakens under the bodhi tree, and conducts his whole teaching career, all in an application for a job, a dream. Thus this passage at 2004 ap bio rubric, the close of chapter fourteen is creatively interpreted by analysis and synthesis Dogen to serve as foreshadowing for the revelation in chapter sixteen of Buddha's inconceivable life-span, in which the archetypal story of his birth, awakening, teaching, and death is more explicitly revealed as a skillful means to encourage beings. After quoting this passage, Dogen avers that, This dream of buddhas is rubric, not an analogy. In the original context of the Lotus Sutra text, this passage is merely describing the essay is it and good, rewards of those who preach the Lotus, in this instance the reward of auspicious dreams. But Dogen uses his creative reading to validate, or at least exemplify, his teaching that the ap bio essay, dream-state of the essay, conditioned phenomenal world is 2004 ap bio rubric, exactly the arena for essay for students, awakening. But here he is 2004 essay, furthermore claiming the dream mentioned by the Lotus Sutra as a model for a skillful discourse mode that has recourse to the visionary as a tool for format of writing an application job, liberation. As in the Lotus Sutra self-reflexive discourse style, the parable expression is itself a skillful mode of 2004 essay reality for Dogen, not separate from concrete phenomena. Of Writing An Application Letter Job. Dogen continues, People in the past and present mistakenly think that, thanks to the power of expounding this foremost dharma, mere night dreams may become like this dream of buddhas. Thinking like this, one has not yet clarified the ap bio, Buddha's discourse. Awakening and dreaming from the beginning are one suchness, the genuine reality. Format Letter For A. The buddha-dharma, even if it were an analogy, is the 2004 ap bio, genuine reality.
For Dogen, the particular events of this dream world are the reality, and also the skillful discourse, of the awakening of buddhas. The essays of essay for students Dogen's Shobogenzo , such as Muchu Setsumu, are sometimes philosophical and elaborative of traditional Buddhist or Zen doctrines, and are addressed to ap bio essay a general audience of his contemporaries. In Eihei Koroku , by contrast, Dogen is directly addressing his small cadre of monk disciples at Eiheiji, stretching for means to essay professional is it safe and good encourage and develop their practice. In this work, the essay rubric, primary available source for his mature teachings, as well as occasionally revealing humor or feelings such as sadness or regret, Dogen at times offers his own parables, often using fantastic, playful imagery, sometimes expressed as if in dreams. In the and synthesis, following three parables from Eihei Koroku jodos, Dogen's appropriation of Lotus and Mahayana vision is evidenced through the allusions to Mahayana rhetoric or figures in each of them. In Eihei Koroku jodo number 229, given in 1247, Dogen directly parodies the rhetoric of Mahayana sutras. The millions of billions of transformation bodies [of buddhas] abide throughout a monk's staff, carry water and 2004 rubric gather firewood to make offerings to buddhas as numerous as there are sitting cushions, and, on the tip of a whisk, simultaneously all attain unsurpassed complete perfect enlightenment. They are all equally named Broken Wooden Ladle Tathagata, Worthy of Offerings, Omniscient, Foot of Bright Practice, Well Gone One, World Liberator, Supreme One, Strong Controlling Person, Teacher of Humans and coursework questions Heavenly Beings, World-Honored Buddha. The Country [of this Buddha] is named Clump of 2004 ap bio essay Soil; the kalpa is named Fist.
The duration of the True Dharma Age and Semblance Dharma Age are both twelve hours, and the buddha's longevity is that of a dried turd from three thousand great thousands of coursework worlds. 2004 Ap Bio Essay. Do you all understand? If you state your understanding you are making mistake after mistake. Analysis. If you say you do not understand, even the five precepts are not maintained. Dogen plays with words here, replacing the conventional sutra rhetoric for a buddha abiding throughout kalpas with his abiding throughout a monk's staff.
Instead of making offerings to buddhas as numerous as the proverbial grains of sand in the Ganges River, Dogen substitutes buddhas as numerous as sitting cushions. Instead of the buddha sitting under the essay rubric, bodhi tree as he attains enlightenment, Dogen has him sitting on top of a whisk. Dogen then applies the standard ten epithets for a buddha, starting with Tathagata, to a new buddha invented here by Dogen, named Broken Wooden Ladle, who might be seen as a reference to all of the humble monks practicing under him at Eiheiji. Continuing with his parody of conventional Mahayana sutra rhetoric, Dogen designates the house of usher, buddha land of this fabulous new buddha as Clump of soil, his kalpa as Fist, and his longevity as that of a dried turd. Dogen seems to mock the standard Mahayana sutra rhetoric, iconoclastically mimicking a formula for describing buddhas used often in the Lotus Sutra , for example in chapters eight and nine on the predictions of future buddhahood of the five hundred disciples, and of learners and adepts. However, Dogen actually is affirming his view of the ap bio essay, Lotus Sutra , as originally interpreted by Saicho and analysis and synthesis expressed by LaFleur, that validates the world of 2004 essay rubric concrete phenomena as expressive of the essence of graduate union printing awakening. The new buddha is called Broken Wooden Ladle in celebration of a humble implement, to which Dogen frequently refers in highly exalted terms. Essay Rubric. For example, in essay, jodo 204 in 1246 he says, If you really know it, the temple pillars confirm that, and the wooden ladles study together with you. Then he has wooden ladles doing three prostrations and asking a dharma question. Similarly revered in jodo 229, above, are the practice paraphernalia of sitting cushions, a monk's staff, and a teacher's whisk. 2004 Essay Rubric. But in celebrating humble phenomena, Dogen also emphasizes their ephemerality, as he says that the essay and good, True and Semblance Dharma Ages of Broken Wooden Ladle Buddha endure merely twelve hours. Although an intact wooden ladle is a useful implement, here the Buddha is named Broken Wooden Ladle, further emphasizing transiency, and recalling the 2004 ap bio, Zen phrase, the bottom of a bucket broken out, which signifies the letting go of attachments in opening experiences. Dogen's challenge to his monks at the end of the jodo echoes the prominent Ch'an dharma combat rhetoric style of koan anthologies such as the Hekiganroku , Blue Cliff Record.
However, his statement, If you state your understanding you are making mistake after mistake, might also be seen as a rationale for the whole Lotus Sutra self-referential strategy of not explicitly stating the content of the dharma being celebrated and proclaimed. Simultaneously, there is a mandate for a level questions, this Dharma to essay rubric be actually proclaimed. If you say you do not understand, even the five precepts are not maintained, implies the analysis and synthesis, ethical responsibility not to deny whatever is realized, despite its ephemerality. 2004 Essay. This may be seen as echoing the frequent theme in the Lotus Sutra of the responsibility of Shakyamuni's disciples to maintain the Lotus Dharma in the future. Again, whether Dogen's rhetoric here borrows more from Ch'an tradition or more from the indirect modes of the Lotus Sutra is not the essay safe, issue. The fact that he uses this style to ap bio essay mimic Lotus Sutra rhetoric, however, does indicate that in this jodo Dogen is concerned and aware of graduate printing Lotus Sutra discourse style, and of appropriating it rhetorically, at least in 2004 rubric, part. In the following two examples, Dogen provides fantastic parables that seem to be framed as dreams when he describes them as happening last night.
Whether they were literal dreams or meditative visions is beside the point. As Bernard Faure says, For Buddhists there is no clear distinction between dreams that come during sleep and visions achieved in a waking state, or more precisely during meditation, in a state (samadhi) that, like trance, is often defined as being 'neither sleeping nor waking.' Whether realized in sleep or samadhi, or merely used intentionally as literary devices invoking the visionary qualities of samadhi, Dogen uses these visions to express the dream within the dream, i.e. to reveal awakening amid the phenomenal. In his Enlightenment Day jodo, number 88, in 1241, Dogen says: Two thousand years later, we are the of the essay, descendants [of Shakyamuni]. 2004 Rubric. Two thousand years ago, he was our ancestral father. Essay Safe And Good. He is muddy and wet from following and chasing after the 2004 ap bio rubric, waves. Is It. It can be described like this, but also there is the principle of the Way [that we must] make one mistake after another. 2004 Rubric. What is this like? Whether Buddha is present or not present, I trust he is right under our feet.
Face after face is essay professional, Buddha's face; fulfillment after fulfillment is Buddha's fulfillment. Last night, this mountain monk [Dogen] unintentionally stepped on a dried turd and 2004 rubric it jumped up and essay for students covered heaven and earth. This mountain monk unintentionally stepped on ap bio, it again, and it introduced itself, saying, My name is Shakyamuni. Then, this mountain monk unintentionally stepped on format of writing letter, his chest, and immediately he went and sat on the vajra seat, saw the morning star, bit through the ap bio essay, traps and snares of conditioned birth, and cast away his old nest from the past. Without waiting for of usher essay, anyone to peck at his shell from outside, he received the thirty-two characteristics common to all buddhas, and together with this mountain monk, composed the following four line verse: Stumbling I stepped on his chest and his backbone snapped, Mountains and rivers swirling around, the dawn wind blew. Penetrating seven and accomplishing eight, bones piercing the 2004 essay rubric, heavens,
His face attained a sheet of golden skin. In this jodo Dogen describes a dream-like fantasy in which he accidentally steps on a level coursework, a piece of shit, and in accord with Yun-men's utterance often cited by 2004 ap bio rubric Dogen, it jumps up and declares itself to safe be Shakyamuni. This vision increases the apparent disrespect for Buddha in Yun-men's utterance, as Dogen again steps on his back (albeit again accidentally), even after the dried shit identifies himself as Shakyamuni. But Dogen uses this scatological vision not to ap bio rubric degrade, but rather to further celebrate Buddha, by declaring that upon letter for a being stepped on, He went and sat on the vajra seat, saw the morning star, bit through the traps and snares of conditioned birth, and cast away his old nest from the 2004 ap bio essay rubric, past. Here Dogen skillfully proclaims and celebrates, non-explicitly, one of the major revelations of the Lotus Sutra , that of the Buddha's life-span enduring over inconceivable ages (mentioned above in connection with Dogen's reference in cambridge graduate thesis printing, Expressing the Dream Within the Dream.) In chapter sixteen, Shakyamuni reveals that his archetypal story of his home-leaving and awakening is demonstrated simply as a skillful mode. The effect of essay this dream parable of Dogen is to reinforce the story about skillful modes in chapter sixteen by describing Buddha and his awakening process as still omnipresent, last night right at Eiheiji, and of usher essay even in excrement.
Dogen's dream story also echoes the Lotus Sutra , chapter four, parable of the prodigal son, who can only come to realize his fundamental endowment after years of shoveling manure in his father's field. As Dogen says in the introduction to his parable, even Shakyamuni is muddy and ap bio rubric wet from essay, following and ap bio chasing after the waves. Dogen's further introductory statement, Whether Buddha is present or not present, I trust he is right under our feet, echoes the essay on healthy for students, Lotus Sutra parable about the 2004 ap bio essay rubric, ragged beggar unknowingly having the dharma jewel sewed within his robe. It further suggests the a level coursework questions, image in 2004 ap bio, chapter fifteen of myriad bodhisattvas suddenly springing forth from a level questions, beneath the ground under our feet, which represents the essay rubric, omnipresence of the essay safe and good, bodhisattva potential in the ground of concrete phenomena. Having venerated Shakyamuni Buddha via seeming desecration in this last jodo parable, in 2004, Eihei Koroku jodo number 123, given in 1243, Dogen describes another dream vision, this one seeming to poke fun at Avalokiteshvara, the bodhisattva of compassion. One sheet of dull stubbornness is three inches thick. Of Writing An Application Letter Job. Three lengths of upside-downness is five feet long.
Last night, this mountain monk [Dogen] struck the 2004 essay rubric, empty sky with a single blow. My fist didn't hurt, but the empty sky knew pain. A number of sesame cakes appeared and of usher essay rushed to become the faces and eyes of the great earth. In the mock creation myth in the introduction to the jodo, Dogen punches out the empty sky. Then with bravado akin to such classic Ch'an masters of 2004 essay fisticuffs as Lin-chi or Te-shan (Rinzai and Tokusan in Japanese), Dogen declares that his fist didn't hurt, but the sky, which can also be read as emptiness itself, knew pain. Like the skillful fists of Lin-chi or Te-shan, with their constructive impact on their monk trainees, Dogen's fist brings forth a cascade of sesame cakes, which in turn shower down as thousands of faces and eyes.
The several references to the koan lexicon by Dogen in this jodo include case 78 of the Shoyoroku Book of Serenity anthology. When asked by a monk about eating for students, talk transcending buddhas and ancestors, Yun-men answers, Sesame cake. In case 82 of the Shoyoroku, the association of Yun-men with sesame cakes continues when he says, The Bodhisattva Avalokiteshvara brings money to buy a sesame cake: when he lowers his hand, it turns out to be a jelly-doughnut. This story must have inspired Dogen's vision of ap bio rubric Avalokiteshvara striving to purchase sesame cakes. But Dogen envisions the sesame cakes as transformed into dynamically active eyes and faces rather than jelly-doughnuts, which are still mere commodities, even if richer than sesame cakes. As Dogen's parable in jodo 123 unfolds with dream-like narrative, someone shows up who wants to buy the sesame cakes (transformed into faces and cambridge graduate union eyes). When Dogen inquires, the rubric, person identifies himself as Avalokiteshvara, just as the piece of shit in the previously discussed dream parable identifies himself as Sakyamuni.
Presumably Avalokiteshvara is trying to the fall of the essay acquire from Dogen the eleven faces and thousand eyes for his hands as depicted in ap bio essay rubric, one of the essay professional safe, bodhisattva's foremost iconographic forms. With these multiple perspectives, the bodhisattva of compassion can fulfill the skillful means that he is known for, as seen in his diversity of forms in chapter twenty-five of the Lotus Sutra . When Avalokiteshvara further identifies himself by the very common Chinese names Ch'ang and Li, this represents Avalokiteshvara as an ordinary person. Even in a dream (or a literary discourse he frames as visionary or dream-like), Dogen is thereby implicitly affirming practice in the mundane world and 2004 rubric the immanent presence of professional is it compassion. In Expressing the 2004 ap bio, Dream Within the Dream, written the and synthesis, year before the parable in jodo123, Dogen declares that, The expression of the dream within the dream is the thousand hands and eyes of Avalokiteshvara that function by many means. Here he explicitly denotes the discourse mode, the essay rubric, expression itself, as an aspect or example of Avalokiteshvara's skillful means. The parable itself ends with Avalokite§vara expressing his commitment and determination to obtain the eyes and faces (formerly sesame cakes), with which to proceed with his work of compassion, whether or not he has any money. Analysis And Synthesis. In his own concluding commentary, Dogen adds, When Avalokiteshvara Bodhisattva makes an rubric appearance, mountains and rivers on the great earth are not dead ashes. Here Dogen emphasizes the dynamic, liberating quality of the world of concrete phenomena. Graduate Union Thesis. For Dogen, the ap bio rubric, whole world and its components, even the dreams within a dream, are the vital functioning of awakening, like the conjured city in the Lotus Sutra parable, assisting those on the path.
Dogen's jodo concludes with a further affirmation of the enlightening potency of the on healthy, phenomenal world, You should always remember that in the third month the partridges sing and the flowers open. Here the emergence of vitality in spring, and also its very invocation, functions skillfully as an encouraging metaphor for the enduring potential of ap bio essay rubric awakening in his disciple audience. The parables in the Lotus Sutra may lack Dogen's humorous irony and visionary whimsy. But in accord with LaFleur's account of the function of those parables, Dogen uses his dream parables similarly as skillful modes with which to encourage his monks' engagement with and affirmation of the complete reality of the letter, world of concrete phenomena in spite of the fact that they are impermanent. In his Eihei Koroku , Dogen relates parables that echo the function of the parables in the Lotus Sutra by demonstrating the presence of wondrous dharma, right in the phenomenal world and in the midst of karmic consciousness. 2004 Ap Bio. While such parables are occasional, and certainly not Dogen's major mode of literary expression, they do exemplify his borrowing of Lotus Sutra styles in his discourse. More significantly than in Dogen's occasional use of parables, the profuse self-referencing of the Lotus Sutra and the complex, skillful impact of this self-reflexive discourse serves as one major resource or model for Dogen's style of proclamation. Dogen follows the letter for a job, Lotus Sutra self-referential style in various of his rhetorical modes to proclaim and celebrate a teaching that often remains unstated, but which may be more provocative because of this quality of the ap bio rubric, non-explicit. Dogen's self-referential, proclamatory discourse (at least in some part borrowed from the Lotus Sutra discourse style), used as a mode with which to express and exemplify radical nondualism, becomes a model for Soto Zen expression and practice, supporting prominent Soto teachings such as the oneness of practice-realization. This essay has focused on and synthesis, suggesting some of the aspects of Dogen's appropriation of Lotus Sutra styles of rhetoric in his own discourse.
Much more can be said about 2004 ap bio essay, his inclusion of its doctrinal contents in his own teaching. Still, Dogen's primary literary source by far was the vast Ch'an koan literature, which he was introducing as a new, foreign language into Japan, and which he had mastered to an astonishing degree. In his prominent use of the Lotus Sutra , on the other hand, he was referencing the Buddhist text that was perhaps most familiar to his Kamakura audience. His wide use of the Lotus Sutra raises many questions. His devoted dissemination of the alien koan literature suggests that he was not citing the Lotus simply to match audience expectations or familiarities. Some aspects of Lotus teaching were clearly useful to legitimatization of cambridge graduate printing Zen positions.
For example, he widely quotes the passage in Kumarajiva's translation of chapter two of the sutra that, Only a buddha together with a buddha can fathom the ap bio essay rubric, Reality of All Existence. Dogen appropriates this saying for his Shobogenzo essay Yuibutsu Yobutsu, Only Buddha and Buddha, as support for the Zen Dharma transmission tradition. The Lotus Sutra focus on Shakyamuni also fits with the main buddha figure in Zen, rather than the Buddhas Amida or Vairocana venerated in the contemporary Pure Land and Esoteric (and Kegon) movements. The Fall Of The Of Usher. But perhaps most fundamentally, the significant presence of the Lotus Sutra in Dogen's teaching content and in 2004 ap bio, his style of presentation may serve to remind us of the substantial underpinnings of Mahayana thought and practice in Soto Zen teachings.  For a discussion of professional and good some Lotus Sutra references by essay Dogen, and essay safe and good a list of some such citations, see Kagamishima Genryu, Dogen zenji to in'yo kyoten-goroku no kenkyu (Tokyo: Mokujisha, 1965), pp. 121-137; 217-219. A list of Lotus Sutra references in Dogen's Shobogenzo appears in Gudo Wafu Nishijima and Chodo Cross, trans. Master Dogen's Shobogenzo , Book 1 (Woods Hole, Mass.: Windbell Publications, 1994), pp. 293-321.  Ryuichi Abe and Peter Haskell, trans. with essays. Great Fool: Zen Master Ryokan; Poems, Letters, and Writings (Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press, 1996), p.xiii. See also p. 21.
 For background on hongaku thought, see Ruben Habito, Originary Enlightenment: Tendai Hongaku Doctrine and Japanese Buddhism (Tokyo: The International Institute for Buddhist Studies, 1996); and Jacqueline Stone, Original Enlightenment and the Transformation of Medieval Japanese Buddhism (Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1999). For Saicho's appropriation of sokushin jobutsu from the Lotus Sutra story about the Dragon King's daughter, see Paul Groner, The Lotus Sutra and Saicho's Interpretation of the Realization of Buddhahood with This Very Body, in 2004 ap bio, George J. Tanabe, Jr., and Willa Jane Tanabe, editors. Format An Application Letter For A. The Lotus Sutra in Japanese Culture (Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1989), pp. 2004 Essay Rubric. 53-74.  For an coursework questions English translation of Hokke-Ten-Hokke, see Nishijima and Cross, Master Dogen's Shobogenzo , Book 1, pp. 203-220. I have also referred to a translation by Kazuaki Tanahashi and Michael Wenger, from the forthcoming Beyond Thinking , edited by Kazuaki Tanahashi.  Dogen appropriation of the Lotus, especially in terms of ap bio rubric its use in Dogen's fundamental world-view underlying his praxis, will be further detailed in my forthcoming dissertation: Visions of Awakening Space and Time: The Bodhisattvas' Earth Emergence and the Inconceivable Life-Span in the Lotus Sutra , and their Impact in Dogen's Teachings.  Steven Heine.
Dogen and the Koan Tradition (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1994).  See Yasunari Kawabata, Japan the a level coursework, Beautiful and Myself, trans. Edward Seidensticker (Tokyo: Kodansha, 1969); and Steven Heine, The Zen Poetry of Dogen (Boston: Tuttle Publishing, 1997).  See Yifa, The Rules of Purity for the Chan Monastery: An Annotated Translation and Study of the Chanyuan Qinggui. Ph.D.
Dissertation at Yale University, 1996. The Chanyuan Qinggui was a major influence, quoted extensively by Dogen, in his Eihei Shingi. See Taigen Dan Leighton and Shohaku Okumura, Dogen's Pure Standards for the Zen Community: A Translation of Eihei Shingi (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1996).  See, for examples, Edward Conze, trans., The Perfection of Wisdom in Eight Thousand Lines its Verse Summary (Bolinas: Four Seasons Foundation, 1973), pp. 15, 120-121; and Buddhist Text Translation Society, Sutra of the Past Vows of Earth Store Bodhisattva (Talmage, Cal.: Dharma Realm Buddhist University, 1982), pp. 69-71, 89-92, along with many other passages.  I am using the 2004 rubric, Chinese /Japanese edition of Kumarajiva's translation, Myoho Rengekyo, 3 vols. Coursework Questions. (Tokyo: Iwanamai Bunko, 1996). English translations consulted are Leon Hurvitz, trans. 2004 Ap Bio. Scripture of the Lotus Blossom of the cambridge thesis printing, Fine Dharma (New York: Columbia University Press, 1976); Bunno Kato, Yoshiro Tamura, and Kojiro Miyasaka, trans. The Threefold Lotus Sutra: Innumerable Meanings, The Lotus Flower of the 2004 ap bio, Wonderful Law, and Meditation on the Bodhisattva Universal Virtue (New York: Weatherhill, 1975); and Burton Watson, The Lotus Sutra , (New York: Columbia University Press, 1993).  Introduction to George J. Tanabe, Jr., and Willa Jane Tanabe, The Lotus Sutra in Japanese Culture, p. 2.  Jodo, literally ascending the hall, referred to here as dharma discourses, were the major form of presentation in Sung China Ch'an temples.
They were often quite brief, given in the Dharma Hall with the teacher on the high seat on the altar and with the monks standing. Apparently they were the teaching form eventually favored by a level Dogen, since he nearly stopped writing the 2004 rubric, longer essays of Shobogenzo after 1244, but continued using the of writing for a, formal Jodo talks, which were recorded in Eihei Koroku , in training his monks at Eiheiji before his death in 1253.  All references to Eihei Koroku are from the earlier monkaku version (rather than Manzan's later edition) in Kosaka Kiyu and Suzuki Kakuzen, eds. Dogen Zenji Zenshu. 2004 Rubric. vols. 3 and 4 (Tokyo: Shunjusha, 1989). All translations in this essay are from Taigen Dan Leighton and Shohaku Okumura, trans. Dogen's Extensive Record: A Translation of Eihei Koroku (Boston: Wisdom Publications, forthcoming).  Yun-men's response to a monk's question, What is Buddha? of format of writing letter for a job kanshiketsu has been interpreted legitimately either as a dried shitstick, a standard implement that was used as we now use toilet paper, or simply as a dried turd, an interpretation derived from Chuang-tzu's usage, which will be used as the translation in other jodo below, according to varied contexts. Yun-men's equation of Buddha with kanshiketsu appears, for example, in Mumonkan , case 21.
See Yamada, Gateless Gate, pp. 2004 Ap Bio Essay. 109-112. For a discussion of analysis Dogen's likely interpretation of Tung-shan Shou-ch'u's utterance as sesame rather than the usual translation of flax, see the note to Dogen's reference to it in essay rubric, Tenzokyokun in Leighton and Okumura, Dogen's Pure Standards for the Zen Community, P. 56. This story appears, for example, in on healthy eating, case 12 of Hekiganroku and in case 18 of Mumonkan . See Thomas Cleary and J.C. Essay. Cleary, trans. The Blue Cliff Record (Boston: Shambhala, 1977), pp. 81-87; and Koun Yamada, Gateless Gate (Los Angeles: Center Publications, 1967), pp. Graduate Thesis Printing. 96-99.
 See Burton Watson, The Lotus Sutra, p. 45; Hurvitz, Scripture of the Lotus Blossom of the Fine Dharma, p. 45; Kato, Tamura, and 2004 essay Miyasaka, The Threefold Lotus Sutra, p. 74.  William LaFleur, The Karma of graduate union thesis Words: Buddhism and the Literary Arts in Medieval Japan (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1983), p. 87.  Hurvitz, Scripture of the ap bio rubric, Lotus Blossom of the Fine Dharma, pp. 29-30.  LaFleur, The Karma of Words, p. 87.  Jacqueline Stone, Original Enlightenment and a level coursework the Transformation of Medieval Japanese Buddhism, p. 14.  See Norman Waddell and Masao Abe, trans. The Heart of Shobogenzo (Albany: State University of New York Press, 2002), pp. 59-98.  George J. Tanabe, Jr., Myoe the Dreamkeeper: Fantasy and ap bio Knowledge in graduate union thesis printing, Early Kamakura Buddhism. 2004 Ap Bio Essay Rubric. (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1992), p. 9.  See Taigen Dan Leighton and Kazuaki Tanahashi, trans.
Within a Dream Expressing a Dream, in Kazuaki Tanahashi, editor, Enlightenment Unfolds: The Essential Teachings of Zen Master Dogen (Boston: Shambhala, 1999), pp. Essay Professional Is It. 165-172.  Kazuaki Tanahashi, editor, Moon in a Dewdrop: Writings of Zen Master Dogen (San Francisco: North Point Press, 1985), p. 2004 Ap Bio Rubric. 69.  For Myoe's dream journal, and commentary, see Tanabe, Myoe the Dreamkeeper, cited above, and Hayao Kawaii, The Buddhist Priest Myoe: A Life of Dreams, translated with introduction by Mark Unno, (Venice, Ca.: The Lapis Press, 1992).  See Bernard Faure, Visions of Power: Imagining Medieval Japanese Buddhism (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1996).  For further discussion of the professional is it, stereotypical distinctions between Keizan and Dogen, see Faure, Visions of Power, pp. 3-4, 211-215.  Tanahashi, Enlightenment Unfolds, pp. 170-171; and essay rubric Hurvitz, Scripture of the Lotus Blossom of the Fine Dharma, pp. Graduate Printing. 223-224.
 I am indebted for clarification of the difference in Dogen's reading of this passage, and for many other suggestions for this paper, to the kind response commentary of 2004 essay rubric Jan Nattier.  Tanahashi, Enlightenment Unfolds, p. 171.  The Lotus Sutra includes a number of variations on the full formula for descriptions of buddhas and analysis their buddha-fields parodied by Dogen, also including versions in chapter twelve on Devadatta and chapter twenty-three on the Bodhisattva Medicine King. One of the versions closest to the full formula parodied by ap bio rubric Dogen is the a level coursework questions, description of Ananda's prediction in chapter nine. 2004 Ap Bio Essay Rubric. See Hurvitz, Scripture of the Lotus Blossom of the Fine Dharma, pp. 168-169.  Dogen refers frequently to ladles in Eihei Koroku , used as a term for reliable practice implements, and sometimes for practitioners themselves. For other examples, jodo 219 in 1247 begins, Abundant with ten thousand virtues, the on healthy eating for students, sitting cushions and 2004 ap bio rubric wooden ladles are dignified. In jodo 320 in 1249, Dogen refers to Shakyamuni himself as, The wooden ladle at Vulture Peak.
 Faure, Visions of Power, p. 116.  See Thomas Cleary, trans. Book of Serenity (Boston: Shambhala, 1998; originally published by Hudson, N.Y.: Lindisfarne Press, 1990), pp. 332-334.  For the cambridge union thesis, iconographic forms of Avalokiteshvara Bodhisattva, see Taigen Daniel Leighton, Bodhisattva Archetypes: Classic Buddhist Guides to Awakening and their Modern Expression (New York: Penguin Arkana, 1998), pp.
159-170.  Tanahashi, Enlightenment Unfolds, p. 169.  See Kato, Tamura, and Miyasaka, The Threefold Lotus Sutra, p. 52. Compared to 2004 essay the Sanskrit original, which simply denotes plural buddhas, Kumarajiva's rendition emphasizes the relational aspect of a buddha together with a buddha.  See Tanahashi, Moon in format an application letter job, a Dewdrop, pp.