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Writing Great Book Reports: Fiction and Nonfiction. You probably began writing book reports in elementary school. When you were younger, it seemed like an easy assignment. Sanjaya did many book reports when he was younger but this is the first one he will be doing in high school. His teacher has explained all the information that should be included. Sanjaya began by reading the first few pages of several books. He told the library about the kind of books he likes. The librarian made several suggestions.
This one combines interesting characters and some wild adventures. Colning Essay? It#8217;s so good that Sanjaya hates to put the book down for meals. Lord Of The Flies Essays Evil? Book Reports in lower grades were easy. They included. 1. Reading a book usually a book you wanted to read anyway. 2. Writing about the story, without telling the ending. 3. Writing your opinion of the book including what you liked best and what you didn#8217;t like. 4. Students often ended y oral reports by telling classmates it was a great book and they should #8220;Read the book and find out what happened.#8221; 1. You are older and your teachers now expect book reports showing advanced organization and colning essay writing skills. 2. Each teacher who asks you to write a book report will have different instructions including the types of books, the length of reports, and the topics to cover. Some teachers might give you a list of judy syfers books to choose from.
If you really don#8217;t like any books on colning essay the list you could always ask the teacher if something you like of equal or greater difficulty could be substituted. Writing a Book Report on Works of Fiction. An English teacher will ask you to read fiction, possibly from logical a certain time period or by a certain author. They might tell you to colning essay, include: 1. the setting (place, time, weather) 2. the characters (sometimes including the protagonist or main character and the antagonist or enemy) 3. the genre (category such as romance, science fiction, fantasy, mystery, adventure, suspense, horror, historical, or literary fiction.) If you aren#8217;t sure of the genre, ask a librarian to help. Some books are a combination of genres. One of my favorite authors writes mysteries on other plants: It is ancient egyptian, both mystery and science fiction. Others combine mysteries and romance.
Vampire stories seem to have become a separate genre, at least for now. 4. a summary of the plot. This might include the colning essay type of conflict (if you have studied this) and a description of the climax. Be sure to find out if the teacher wants you to include the ending or resolution of the conflict. 5. the religion tone, mood, or theme of the book. 6. the Point of View who is the narrator of the book? 7. When evaluating the book, you might support your opinions by essay including several quotations from the book. Your teacher might consider #8220;You should read this book to see what happens,#8221; to be out of place at your age. You might instead describe the strong and wife judy thesis weak points in the book.
Writing a Book Report on a work of colning human essay Nonfiction. This is less common but could be assigned in c. wright essay, classes such as history or science. This will seem strange. Colning Essay? You won#8217;t use setting, characters, genre, plot, theme, or point of view. Instead of a report on a book, you might be asked to report on an article. Your teacher will probably explain what they do expect. Connectors Essay? They will probably want: 1. The main idea of the entire book . This is the reason the author wrote the book. Sometimes there is human, a question that the writer attempts to answer. Sometimes it is an analysis of a situation. Look for the author#8217;s thesis, the logical connectors essay brief statement of their main idea.
Use this as the introduction to your report. 2. You cannot summarize every chapter in the book. Choose three or four of the most important ideas that support the colning human essay author#8217;s thesis. These should form the three or four paragraphs in the body of the report. Lord Of The Flies Essays? 3. In nonfiction, the background of the author is colning, important. What qualifies this author to write on religion this topic? Look at the bibliography and see how much research the essay author has done.
Are the books in the bibliography all from one particular perspective or from logical many different points of view? You might check the Internet for more information about the author. Colning Human Essay? This along with the analysis of the author#8217;s thinking might form the conclusion if it is brief. If they are detailed and significant, they can be additional paragraphs in the body of the essay report, followed by a conclusion. 4. It is important to colning, use critical thinking. Does the author separate facts and opinions? Are the #8220;facts#8221; they use accepted as true by connectors educated people in human essay, the field?
Does the author look at a topic from many points of view? Would you consider the ancient egyptian author fair-minded or does the essay author show bias or a certain slant (particularly common in books on politics)? Does the author #8220;jump to conclusions#8221; without sufficient proof? Know what your report should include BEFORE you begin to read. As you read, take notes on appropriate topics. You could use bookmarks or sticky notes for pages you might want to re-read or take quotes from. Your outline is easy. You will use the categories above or what your teacher recommends. Be sure you have three or four main ideas in each category. With this, the report should be easy to write. If your report includes an oral presentation, you might add visuals to make the report more interesting.
Try to begin with an exciting introduction that will make your listeners want to hear more.
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How to colning, write First Class Law Essays: Eight Guiding Principles. Unlike problem questions which require you to apply the law to fact patterns, law essays require you to on intellectual craftsmanship, resolve a legal controversy of some kind. This can sometimes seem a daunting and impenetrable task. However, by understanding what is colning required of you, and following some basic principles to understand the question, formulate your arguments and structure your answer, you will soon find that excellent marks are in your grasp. An outstanding law essay requires: Clearly identified legal authority, which requires. Sophisticated legal arguments, which require.
Critical evaluation and analysis, which require. Clear and precise organisation, which requires. Simple, concise and direct language. This guide will gives practical guidance on how to achieve these things. While the writing of a law essay requires the same skills as a problem question, those skills are used and evidenced in a slightly different way. This guide will demonstrate the skills that are needed to translate your legal knowledge into a first class essay. Very few law schools take the time to teach their students how to write legal essays, and even fewer do it well. However, good essay technique is fundamental to achieving a good grade on a dissertation, term paper or exam answer.
While good essay technique cannot be used as a substitute for solid legal understanding and lord of the flies knowledge, understanding the human essay, law is not itself enough to guarantee a good performance in essays. That understanding must be applied in a concise, structured and critical manner in order to achieve a top grade. Essay Romeo And Juliet Act 3 1! This guide will show you how to achieve this goal. 1. What all good essays have in common – some basic points. All law schools have explicit criteria regarding what constitutes a first class essay, an upper second, a lower second, and human essay so on, and these may differ superficially However, there is an overwhelming consensus regarding what is required to achieve a high mark in a law essay, whether as an assignment or an exam. All first class essays will include: Attention to detail when considering the logical connectors, precise requirements of the question.
A good essay will not talk generically about a subject, but will seek to human essay, address the precise controversy raised in the wording of the question. Lord! An in-depth understanding and knowledge of the relevant law, accurately described. Clear structure and a stated and well-defended thesis (argument). Human! A demonstration of the romeo scene 1, wider context within which the law exists. This may include the relevant policy considerations, the historical development of the law and its genesis, and the academic controversies which exist regarding this precise area of the law An excellent critical approach in answering the question posed, involving analysis and evaluation, as well as accurate description of the ‘black letter law’. Human! The best candidates demonstrate creativity and flair in their answers, and engage in lateral thinking.
The inclusion of less obvious points of law or analysis. Appropriate use of sources, supporting arguments and ideas. Correct and appropriate use of quotations, paraphrasing and citation. The consideration of opposing arguments and sources. The exclusion of irrelevant law and arguments.
Excellent style, concise writing, and flawless grammar and language. Poor style will only hinder the marker from identifying your arguments. The key to good style can be summed up in three words: Keep it simple! Marks will fall into the second class, and then third class, or lower, as these principles are departed from. The less you abide by them, the lower your mark will be.
You will notice that almost all of the points are connected to want wife syfers, organisation, technique, style and organisation in colning human some way or another. Knowledge of the essays applied psychoanalysis, law is of course paramount, but it will not be enough alone. In order to colning, score a high mark for any essay you must use good technique and structure. It does not matter how well you think you know the romeo and juliet act 3, law, a poor essay technique will mean a lower grade than you deserve, perhaps considerably lower. When you write an essay, compare it to the list of criteria listed above and consider how many of the requirements you have met.
You will be surprised how accurately. Human Essay! In the c. wright mills essay craftsmanship, following sections, you will find detailed guidelines on how to improve different aspects of technique, helping you to perfect your essay-writing skills. 2. Common pitfalls – What to avoid. There are some very common mistakes in terms of essay-writing style that can be pointed out immediately. You should always try avoid these: Students often write in a casual, informal or insufficiently academic style. ‘I don’t think that he is right’ is poor style in a law essay. ‘The author’s argument is unconvincing [for the following reasons. ]‘ is human far more appropriate.
Colloquialisms, slang and spoken abbreviations should always be avoided. ‘Does not’ instead of ‘doesn’t’. Make sure that you write in full prose. This means writing in full sentences, in paragraphs of appropriate lengths (not to want wife judy syfers thesis, long, not to short – just enough for your point to be made). Do not write in incomplete sentences or in lists or bullet points. Colning! As you will see, writing in complete prose allows you to engage in evaluation and analysis, a key component of a good essay. Students do not cite cases or legislation correctly. Flies Essays! Law schools have different rules regarding this matter, and those rules are usually different for dissertations, shorter essays and colning essay exams. Make sure you learn the applied psychoanalysis, rules and apply them. Human! There is no reason to lose marks for something so silly. Ensure that you credit your sources. Essay Craftsmanship! This is the number one rule in legal argument, and in legal essay writing.
Without a source, legal argument is almost meaningless. Similarly, do not simply cite sources for no reason. This is remarkably common. Know why are citing a case, for instance. Do not forget to essay, respect the formatting requirements that your law school dictates. 3. What is an essay asking you to do?
The importance of logical essay, having a thesis. Essay titles will vary greatly, from long quotes to short, sharp questions. Colning Essay! In essence, however, all essays will require you to ‘discuss’ some legal controversy or other. Ancient Religion! Indeed, many essay questions will include the instruction ‘discuss’. What that thing may be will vary, and will be considered below. However, what many students misunderstand or ignore is the need to colning human, resolve the controversy. Some students live in the mistaken belief that you must simply ‘take a position’ or ‘take sides’ in the controversy that you are discussing. While this may be a tactical device that you may need to c. wright mills essay craftsmanship, adopt in an emergency, it is not a healthy practice in general. What an essay must do is propose , discuss and prove a thesis , that is to say a way to resolve, to answer the colning, question that has been. What is important is not that you do not consider other potential arguments, but rather that you consider and disprove them. Very few students seem to appreciate the logical connectors, need to prove their arguments, or even to have an colning human argument in the first place.
An essay without a thesis is very unlikely to achieve a high grade, and will prove far more difficult to answer, structure and write. Whereas problem questions will ask you to resolve many separate legal problems, an essay will ask you to resolve perhaps one or two. As such, the entire essay must be dedicated to the resolution of this issue. While in problem questions, the order of the question will be a failsafe guide in terms of structuring your answer, essays are far more difficult to structure and write. Because they leave more freedom to the student, you must take far more care over your thesis, arguments and structure. However, this freedom also means that a good essay will stand out more easily than a problem question, where all satisfactory answers will resemble each other. While a good essay requires detailed argumentation and legal analysis, its thesis should be capable of being summed up in a sentence or two – indeed these may constitute your conclusion. Applied Psychoanalysis! Your essay should prove this conclusion, and disprove competing views. In order to do this you will need to be able do several things: Understand what different types of essay are asking you to do, understand how to engage in essay legal analysis and answer the question, and how to structure this legal analysis into essay scene a coherent and successful structure. The following sections should help you in understanding how to do these things. 4. Working out human essay what is being asked.
The wording of essay questions can often seems obtuse. Have a look at ernest essays psychoanalysis, an exam paper of a law module that you have not yet studied; at colning human essay, least some of the ancient egyptian religion, questions will seem complete enigmas, alluding subtly to human, controversies and issues that you cannot possibly hope to identify, let alone resolve. Wife Judy Syfers Thesis! This may also seem to case with essay questions on subjects that you do know well ad ave revised thoroughly. Essay! Lots of candidates in exams are put off answering essay questions because they seem to ‘vague’ or ‘obtuse’. Of The Flies Essays Evil! However, these are often the questions that best allow candidates to show off their legal knowledge analysis. What you need to be able to do is essay identify what the question is asking you to do. Firstly, almost all questions will be alluding to a controversy that you are familiar with. These questions are asking you to discuss and resolve this controversy through legal analysis, proving your thesis, as discussed in section 3. Try and identify the controversy that the question is alluding to.
Sometimes the question will be a quote which rather than ask a question, actually proposes a answer to ancient, a question. Take, for instance, the question: “The TOLATA does not sufficiently displace English land law’s obsession with the commodity value of colning essay, land.” (Joe Bloggs). Discuss. What is this question asking you to do? How do you go about ‘discussing’ this (fictional, but very realistic) quotation? The first rule is to jones psychoanalysis, understand that such quotations are in fact a potential conclusion to a question. In order to colning, ‘discuss’ it, you must first identify the question that it answers and understand the arguments that could lead to this conclusion. You are in essence being asked, not to consider the quotation as such, but to reconsider the question that it is asking, and as a consequence, consider whether this is the correct answer to that question. As such, you need to consider counter-arguments to c. wright mills on intellectual, the conclusion that is hinted at in the quotation. These arguments will usually be familiar. The same controversies always arise in colning human the same modules, even across different questions.
What is being asked of you is to apply that particular aspect of the law to that controversy. So, what is being asked in this question? The broad controversy in land law is whether property law should protect the valuable use of land, or whether it should protect the commercial value. In the case of TOLATA it is whether the numerous rights that are given to beneficiaries (right to occupy etc) are sufficient, or whether they should be extended to give more rights to people who live on land. The first step in answering this question is to understand that this is what is lord of the evil being asked of you – you must resolve this dispute with a thesis (your answer) proved by legal argument and analysis in human a good structure.
The same controversies arise again and again in essay on intellectual craftsmanship law essays, with merely different emphasis on where to concentrate the focus of your answer. Just as problems questions will always focus on the ‘margins’ of the law – the areas where the law is human essay less clear, essay questions will (by and large) focus on areas where there is general disagreement. Understanding where these areas lie will help you identify what a question is asking. While essay questions may seem complex or difficult to understand, this is lord not usually their point. Human! Unlike in problem questions, where there will often be red herrings, or tricks to knock you off track and try and catch you out, essay questions do not generally do this – they are looking to ernest essays, inspire your answer by being controversial and thought-provoking. Human! A word of advice though – just as you should not merely ‘take a side’ in a controversy, do not think, as some students do, that the essay scene 1, best course is to merely disagree with the quotation or essay’s wording. You should give an answer which considers the argument fully and resolves it in human essay a clear thesis.
5. Different types of essays. While essay questions can take an ancient egyptian religion infinite number of forms, they can generally be grouped into three types, each of essay, which requires a slightly different form of answer. However, they all still require a thesis, analysis and evil a good structure, Questions on human essay legal theory are asking you to discuss why the law takes the form and shape that it does, and to discuss its merits. Lots of candidates perform poorly in essays because they fail to understand this aspect of mills essay craftsmanship, essay-writing. They do not require you to merely discuss what the law is, but also WHY it is like this and/or whether it should be like this. This is essay probably the most common form of lord, essay question. Here are some examples from different subjects: “The rules of offer and essay acceptance are no longer suitable for modern transactions.” Discuss.
Could Community law have achieved any effet utile without the mechanism of direct effect? Tort law has no coherent uniting thread. Discuss. The Separation of Powers has no place in the UK Constitution. Discuss. Legal reform questions can take two principal forms: those questions which ask you to evaluate a recent reform of the ancient egyptian essays, law, and human those which ask you to consider whether a certain area of romeo and juliet, law should be reformed. These questions require you to engage in the same process as legal theory questions but put greater emphasis on the comparison between two different legal solutions to a problem (either new and old, or current and future). To answer these questions you need be familiar with the problems with the past (or current) law, and the ability of the new (or proposed law) at resolving these problems.
Identifying these questions is relatively simple – they will draw attention to colning essay, a recent change in lord essays the law (such as legislation or a landmark case) or ask you to suggest such a change. Here are some examples: The Contracts (Rights of Third Parties) Act 1999 has not resolved the problems it set out to essay, resolve. Discuss. The decision of the ECJ in Viking has resolved the tension between free movement and freedom of association in a satisfactory manner.
Discuss. How should the essay and juliet act 3 scene 1, law of manslaughter be reformed? The law regarding charitable trusts is now settled and colning human satisfactory. Discuss. Legal history questions are asking you to pace more emphasis on a gradual change in ernest jones a certain area. They still require you to consider the essay, issues of legal theory and legal reform, but place more emphasis on the historical changes that have occurred. In some ways, legal history questions may seem more appealing, and they are easy to structure (chronologically) and seem to jones essays applied, involve less ‘risk’ if you know the colning human, cases and legislation well. This may be true to a certain extent, in order to achieve a second class grade at flies essays, least.
However, legal history questions which achieve a high mark still require legal analysis, a thesis and a good structure. A list of cases or statutes can only get you so far. You still need to be creative in your answers, perhaps more so, as questions like these will often generate many similar answers for the marker to go through. If you look at the wording carefully there are usually not only colning asking you to list facts or trends but also critically evaluate those trends, just as with legal theory questions. Some examples of connectors essay, legal history essays: The requirements for locus standi in UK courts have become too relaxed over time. Discuss. “Legislative reform has pushed land law closer and closer away from human essay, a system based on essay flexibility and fairness. ” (John Doe) Consider this statement using legislation passed since 1925. Direct effect is a doctrine which has lost its coherence as it has developed. Discuss with reference to colning human, relevant ECJ jurisprudence. Has the scope of c. wright essay on intellectual craftsmanship, labour law kept pace with new employment practices? There is a fourth form of human, question, which is the purely theoretical legal essay question, which is usually limited to jurisprudence or legal philosophy.
This will require you to consider theoretical controversies in a more abstract manner. However, such questions do no depart as far as one would imagine from the principles discussed above, but rather require greater emphasis on the theoretical merits of arguments. While it is paramount that you are able to identify which kind of question is being asked, it is important not to overstate the difference between them. The difference is one of degree; all three questions still require the same basic tenets of thesis, legal analysis and logical essay structure. However, it is important to be able to differentiate between these different kinds of questions. Where the focus is on legal theory an unthinking ‘trotting out’ of the history of colning human essay, a doctrine is wholly inappropriate. Similarly, where the focus is on legal history, you should not simply focus on the most recent reform. So, you have your thesis, having correctly identified the area that has to essay and juliet act 3 1, be examined and what type of question it is. How do you go about writing your essay? This requires two elements – good legal argumentation and good structure.
Here we look at how to engage in legal analysis and evaluation, and in the following part we look at how best to structure those arguments. Essay questions may seem to colning essay, be looking for an opinion, and indeed they are on and juliet act 3 some level. However, they are not looking for opinion of the sort you would find in a casual conversation about politics in a pub, or about last night’s match over colning human essay, lunch. Romeo 1! Legal argumentation – analysis – must respect certain principles. What form does legal argument take? While this guide will give you an excellent overview of how a law student should structure his arguments, the best way to learn is from judgments. Some tutors will insist you read lots of cases, while others will place less emphasis on colning human this. Whatever they say, there is no better way to learn to reason like a lawyer than to c. wright mills essay on intellectual, read judgments, in particular Supreme Court (formerly the House of Lords) and European Court of Justice cases. This will also help immensely with answering problem questions.
Another great way of understanding how to structure critical legal thinking is to read academic articles, beyond your simple text-book reading. These articles will often appear on your reading list as extra reading. Reading them will give you concrete examples of the kind of colning human, how to resolve the controversies that law essays require you t resolve. Reading cases and academic articles will help you in a more fundamental manner when it comes to legal argument however. Egyptian! They are examples of the most crucial component in legal analysis – sources! When identifying, evaluating, analysing or criticising the law, the most important thing is the human essay, source of anything you say. In law what determines an argument’s validity is not primarily its logic or its attractiveness but its source. In essence, just as important as what is said is ancient essays who said it.
This is the principle of authority. There are fundamentally two kinds of authority in human legal argument: Binding authorities and unbinding authorities. Both are fundamental to a good argument in a legal essay. When you identify a legal principle you must identify its source. Binding authorities tell you what the law is: these almost exclusively stem from either case law or legislation. When you try and explain the current (or past) state of logical connectors essay, law, you must be clear in your attributing any principle of law to a source. A principle without a source has no validity at all. Similarly, however, you must not cite sources for colning human no reason, or simply cite sources at logical, random. Principles and sources must only human be used where they are relevant. Where considering the law in a particular area, you will need to identify the general rule, and, where applicable, the exceptions to that rule. Without sources this is impossible.
The basic rule is: What is the principle? What is the source? While in c. wright mills essay on intellectual problem questions most of your answer will be dedicated to this task and applying in to the facts of the question, in colning essays the identification of the correct principles and judy sources will usually require less time and will cover fewer principles. This is because more emphasis should be placed on the consideration of the second kind of legal authority: non-binding, or persuasive authorities. These are crucially important in questions of legal theory and legal reform, and play a very important role in essay legal history essays. Essay And Juliet Act 3! At least some persuasive authorities must be considered in a law essay to human, achieve a good grade.
‘Public Policy’. Lord Flies Essays Evil! Public policy is the broadest form of colning human essay, non-binging authority, and is often poorly used by of the flies students in colning human law essays. Public policy covers all forms of political and moral argument which can be applied to the law. Ancient Egyptian! It can be used to criticise or praise law or legal reform, and used to propose new laws or explain historical changes in the law. Human Essay! Public policy arguments must be used precisely however. Logical Essay! Firstly, they must be identified correctly.
You cannot simply say ‘this law is unfair for public policy reasons’. You must identify and explain those reasons, and then further explain how they apply to this area of law. Colning Essay! Also, you must always consider the opposing view. If the use of constructive trusts in essay scene the context of the colning human essay, family home is unfair because it penalises women, what is the argument that justifies the approach? Only if you consider such counter-arguments will your use of public policy be successul. Judy Syfers! Legal commentary. All good law essays contain the human essay, principle and source of legal commentaries, that is to say articles and essay romeo and juliet case notes written by colning human academics. The identification of an academic’s argument and its citation, and it’s application to essay scene 1, your current essay is human essay a great way of increasing your mark, especially if you engage critically with the commentary, considering its validity, either on your own or by making use of other academics’ views. Remember: if you use someone’s ideas, mention their name, and the source. Without the name it is at best aimless and at worst plagiarism; with the name is great use of persuasive authority. Dissenting judgments.
The use of want wife thesis, dissenting judgments is a tell-tale sign of a top-class student. You can use them to give extra weight to your arguments, and serve the purpose of demonstrating to your marker that you have read cases. Legislative papers/Proposals for reform. Green and white papers, draft Bills of essay, legislation, Law Commission reports and essay romeo and juliet Commission proposals are all excellent sources of non-binding authority. They are of particular use in legal reform questions. International law.
Because of the structure of essay, English law international law is not immediately incorporated into our legal system. Ancient Religion Essays! As such, it is a non-binding authority which can be used to support a claim in legal theory essays. Law from other jurisdictions. It is often useful to look at colning human essay, the solution of other jurisdictions where there is a gap in English law, or you have made a case for reform. As such, this form of non-binding source is particularly appropriate for legal reform questions, but can also be used in c. wright legal theory questions as a point of colning, comparison. Ernest Essays Applied! Because of their similarity in structure and use of similar concepts, other common law systems are most commonly used, but you should not feel limited to those systems if you think a different legal system offers a better solution to a legal problem. A good essay will contain the colning, correct mix of egyptian, binding and persuasive authorities. It is impossible to write an outstanding essay without including both.
One is not enough. Some more tips on colning essay using authorities: Always obey the essay, rules at your law school regarded correct citations. Use quotes and paraphrasing where appropriate. Do not make the mistake of including long quotes, especially from statutes, where concise paraphrasing would be more appropriate. Colning Essay! However, a brief quote from an academic or judgment, when it makes a good point succinctly is often very impressive. An essay question will give you strong clues regarding both which types of binding and persuasive authority you should focus on. While it is important to connectors essay, always use sources, you must always ensure that these sources are relevant to the question that has been asked. Colning Human Essay! Using the wrong sources will not help you answer the question, and will no get you a better mark.
Remember what we went through regarding identifying the content of the c. wright on intellectual, question, and the type of question that is being asked. Where a source is not helpful in discussing your thesis in colning essay response to this question, it should not be included. Ernest Applied! Do not fall into the trap of colning, trying to show that you know everything about the law. Structure is a crucial element in all essays; a good essay must have a good structure. How do you go about lord flies evil structuring an essay? There are no cut-and-fast rules regarding how to structure a law essay, but there are several principles which you should always respect. Remember what we discussed in part 3 regarding the colning human, importance of having a thesis. This thesis should provide you with a ready-made structure for your essay – you must structure your essay so that it supports your thesis.
Those essays which lack structure are almost always those which are lacking a thesis. Structuring an essay without a thesis is ancient egyptian almost impossible. Writing an easy without a thesis or structure is almost impossible, and will produce a painful read for the marker. Many students do not appreciate the fact that they must organise their legal argumentation so as to support their thesis. Their introduction should inform the reader of the human essay, thesis, the body of the essay should examine the various arguments for and against this thesis in a clear and precise manner (see section 6) and these should lead logically to your conclusion.
The ‘substance’ of wife judy thesis, your essay (your legal argumentation) should come in colning human the middle paragraphs. There are several ways of structuring an wife essay. Perhaps the colning, best way of structuring an argument is the classic ‘five paragraph’ structure. There is essay nothing sacred about there being five paragraphs – there may well be more – but this basic structure is a good basis for any essay, whatever the thesis. Human Essay! It can be illustrated graphically like this: As you can see from the diagram, this kind of essay involved an introduction where you explain the essay 1, thesis that you will defend, three paragraphs which critically assess (using the correct forms of legal argumentation discussed in the previous section) three supporting arguments for your thesis, and your conclusion sums up the essay, findings of these paragraphs. Religion! This will ensure that you have a concise and focussed analysis of relevant factors, without straying from your overall thesis. This structure might be more suited to more focused essay questions where you need to consider fewer issues but in greater detail.
As you can see, the introduction and conclusion fulfil the same role as in the five paragraph essay, however the middle ‘substantive’ paragraphs consider first a the arguments for a particular proposition, followed by a paragraph against that proposition, with a third paragraph which seeks to resolve the tensions between the first two paragraphs. Essay! This is a difficult essay structure to pull off successfully and candidates may often lose their way more easily as compared to the more focused five paragraph structure. C. Wright Mills On Intellectual Craftsmanship! However, it is possible to write an excellent essay using this structure. As the name suggest, this form of essay is colning human essay best suited to those questions which fall into the legal history category considered in part 5. It could be illustrated like this: In a historical structure, the ancient egyptian essays, paragraphs are used to separate separate strands or periods in legal history. While this form of essay might seem to be very appealing in terms of colning essay, easy structure, beware! It is more difficult (but not impossible) to lord of the, include a strong thesis and advanced legal argument involving persuasive authority rather than just a list of binding authorities. You still need to include this thesis in your introduction, and your conclusion.
There are no rules regarding essay structure, and several more basic structures could be listed here. Feel free to be more creative with structure, but bear in mind that you should only change the human, structure of an essay to mills essay on intellectual, the extent that it helps to back up your thesis. Some more general points of colning human essay, advice include: Avoid long, scene-setting introductions or over long opening paragraphs Do not spend too long on one aspect of your middle paragraphs. Give each point more or less equal weight. Do not, as a general rule, introduce new points in essay craftsmanship your conclusion (with the exception of a proposal for reform in legal theory or legal history essays).
While a twist may occasionally make for a very entertaining essay, generally speaking your conclusion should simply reflect what you have proven in your substantive paragraphs. This guide, if followed, will certainly improve your essays immeasurable, however it cannot teach you the most effective way to achieve a good thesis and exceptional legal analysis to prove that thesis: Creativity. You must be prepared to think laterally and creatively – use all your intellectual flair – to apply to legal knowledge to the question your are answering. In law essays, you will often have to consider issues from different parts of the syllabus, or even outside the syllabus in human essay the case of logical, public policy arguments. However, this does not mean that ‘anything goes’ – far from it.
A good essay will be rigourous in its legal argumentation and use of authority, but creative and original in essay its thesis.
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Essays in support of human cloning - Human Cloning Foundation
essay on rumi Be Lost in the Call. O you who've gone on human essay pilgrimage. We are as the flute. On the Deathbed. Our Death is our Wedding. I've said before that every craftsman. These Spiritual Window-shoppers.
From Fihi ma Fihi. Soul receives from soul. If thou wilt be observant. A Star Without a Name. How Did you Get Away. Gone to the Unseen. The Progress of Man. Reality And Appearance. Lord, said David, since you do not need us, why did you create these two worlds? Reality replied: O prisoner of time, I was a secret treasure of kindness and generosity, and I wished this treasure to be known, so I created a mirror: its shining face, the ancient religion essays heart; its darkened back, the world;
The back would please you if you've never seen the face. Has anyone ever produced a mirror out of mud and straw? Yet clean away the mud and straw, and a mirror might be revealed. Until the juice ferments a while in the cask, it isn't wine. If you wish your heart to be bright, you must do a little work. My King addressed the soul of my flesh: You return just as you left. Where are the traces of my gifts? We know that alchemy transforms copper into gold. This Sun doesn't want a crown or robe from God's grace. He is a hat to a hundred bald men, a covering for ten who were naked.
Jesus sat humbly on the back of an ass, my child! How could a zephyr ride an human essay, ass? Spirit, find your way, in seeking lowness like a stream. Reason, tread the religion essays path of selflessness into eternity. Remember God so much that you are forgotten. Let the caller and essay the called disappear; be lost in the Call. Threshold Books, 1993. O you who've gone on pilgrimage - where are you, where, oh where?
Here, here is the Beloved! Oh come now, come, oh come! Your friend, he is your neighbor, he is next to your wall - You, erring in essay on intellectual craftsmanship the desert - what air of love is essay, this? If you'd see the Beloved's. form without any form - You are the house, the master, You are the Kaaba, you! . . . Where is a bunch of lord flies essays evil, roses, if you would be this garden? Where, one soul's pearly essence. when you're the colning human essay Sea of God? That's true - and yet your troubles. may turn to treasures rich - How sad that you yourself veil.
the treasure that is yours! Translation by Annemarie Schimmel. Oh, if a tree could wander. and move with foot and wings! It would not suffer the axe blows. and not the pain of saws!
For would the connectors sun not wander. away in essay every night ? How could at ev?ry morning. the world be lighted up? And if the ocean?s water. would not rise to the sky, How would the plants be quickened. by streams and gentle rain? The drop that left its homeland, the sea, and then returned ? It found an oyster waiting. and grew into a pearl. Did Yusaf not leave his father, in grief and tears and despair?
Did he not, by such a journey, gain kingdom and fortune wide? Did not the Prophet travel. to far Medina, friend? And there he found a new kingdom. and ruled a hundred lands. You lack a foot to travel? Then journey into c. wright essay yourself! And like a mine of rubies.
receive the sunbeams? print! Out of yourself ? such a journey. will lead you to your self, It leads to transformation. of dust into pure gold! Come, come, whoever you are. Wonderer, worshipper, lover of leaving.
It doesn't matter. Ours is not a caravan of human essay, despair. Come, even if you have broken your vow. a thousand times. Come, yet again, come, come. We are as the flute, and the music in us is from psychoanalysis, thee; we are as the mountain and the echo in us is from thee. We are as pieces of essay, chess engaged in victory and defeat: our victory and defeat is from thee, O thou whose qualities are comely! Who are we, O Thou soul of act 3 1, our souls, that we should remain in being beside thee? We and our existences are really non-existence; thou art the absolute Being which manifests the perishable. We all are lions, but lions on a banner: because of the colning wind they are rushing onward from jones essays psychoanalysis, moment to colning essay moment. Their onward rush is visible, and the wind is on intellectual craftsmanship, unseen: may that which is unseen not fail from us!
Our wind whereby we are moved and colning human essay our being are of thy gift; our whole existence is from thy bringing into being. On the DeathbedGo, rest your head on a pillow, leave me alone; leave me ruined, exhausted from the journey of this night, writhing in a wave of lord of the essays evil, passion till the dawn. Either stay and be forgiving, or, if you like, be cruel and human essay leave. Flee from me, away from c. wright mills, trouble; take the path of safety, far from colning, this danger. We have crept into this corner of grief, turning the water wheel with a flow of wife syfers thesis, tears. While a tyrant with a heart of flint slays, and no one says, Prepare to colning essay pay the evil blood money. Faith in the king comes easily in lovely times, but be faithful now and colning human essay endure, pale lover. No cure exists for this pain but to essays die, So why should I say, Cure this pain? In a dream last night I saw. an ancient one in the garden of love, beckoning with his hand, saying, Come here.
On this path, Love is the emerald, the beautiful green that wards off dragonsnough, I am losing myself. If you are a man of learning, read something classic, a history of the human human struggle. and don't settle for mediocre verse. May these vows and this marriage be blessed. May it be sweet milk, this marriage, like wine and halvah. May this marriage offer fruit and shade. like the date palm. May this marriage be full of laughter, our every day a day in paradise. May this marriage be a sign of compassion, a seal of happiness here and hereafter. May this marriage have a fair face and a good name, an omen as welcomes the moon in a clear blue sky.
I am out of words to describe. how spirit mingles in essay romeo 1 this marriage. Praise to colning the emptiness that blanks out existence. Existence: This place made from our love for that emptiness! Yet somehow comes emptiness, this existence goes. Praise to that happening, over and over! For years I pulled my own existence out of emptiness. Then one swoop, one swing of the arm, that work is over. Free of who I was, free of ancient egyptian religion essays, presence, free of dangerous fear, hope, free of mountainous wanting.
The here-and-now mountain is a tiny piece of a piece of straw. blown off into emptiness. These words I'm saying so much begin to lose meaning: Existence, emptiness, mountain, straw: Words and what they try to colning essay say swept. out the window, down the slant of the roof.
It is said that after Muhammad and the prophets revelation does not descend upon anyone else. Why not? In fact it does, but then it is mills on intellectual craftsmanship, not called 'revelation.' It is what the Prophet referred to when he said, 'The believer sees with the Light of God.' When the believer looks with 'The believer sees with the Light of colning essay, God.' When the believer looks with God's Light, he sees all things: the first and the last, the present and the absent. For how can anything be hidden from wife judy syfers thesis, God's Light? And if something is hidden, then it is not the Light of God. Therefore the meaning of revelation exists, even if it is not called revelation. quoted from William C. Essay! Chittick, _The Sufi Path of Love:
The Spiritual Teachings of Rumi(Albany: SUNY, 1983 ) we are sweeping the connectors road to colning human the sky. Your joy is here today, what remains for tomorrow? The armies of the day have chased the army of the night, Heaven and earth are filled with purity and logical essay light. Oh! joy for he who has escaped from colning human essay, this world of perfumes and color! For beyond these colors and these perfumes, these are other colors in the heart and the soul.
Oh! joy for this soul and this heart who have escaped. the earth of essay on intellectual craftsmanship, water and essay clay, Although this water and this clay contain the lord flies evil hearth of colning human, the. At every instant and from every side, resounds the call of Love: We are going to sky, who wants to ernest essays come with us? We have gone to heaven, we have been the friends of the angels, And now we will go back there, for human, there is logical essay, our country. We are higher than heaven, more noble than the angels: Why not go beyond them?
Our goal is the Supreme Majesty. What has the human essay fine pearl to do with the world of dust? Why have you come down here? Take your baggage back. Ancient Egyptian Essays! What is this place? Luck is with us, to us is the sacrifice. Like the birds of the human essay sea, men come from the ocean--the ocean of the jones essays applied psychoanalysis soul. Like the colning birds of the ancient egyptian sea, men come from the ocean--the ocean of the soul. How could this bird, born from essay, that sea, make his dwelling here? No, we are the wife judy syfers pearls from the bosom of the colning human essay sea, it is there that we dwell: Otherwise how could the wave succeed to the wave that comes from the soul?
The wave named 'Am I not your Lord' has come, it has broken the vessel of the body; And when the vessel is broken, the vision comes back, and the union with Him. Eva de Vitray-Meyerovitch, 'Rumi and Sufism' trans. Simone Fattal. Sausalito, CA: Post-Apollo Press, 1977, 1987. Our death is our wedding with eternity. What is the secret? God is One. The sunlight splits when entering the windows of the house.
This multiplicity exists in the cluster of grapes; It is not in the juice made from the grapes. For he who is living in the Light of connectors essay, God, The death of the colning human carnal soul is a blessing. Regarding him, say neither bad nor good,
For he is gone beyond the good and the bad. Fix your eyes on God and do not talk about what is invisible, So that he may place another look in lord essays your eyes. It is in the vision of the physical eyes. That no invisible or secret thing exists.
But when the eye is turned toward the colning human essay Light of c. wright mills, God. What thing could remain hidden under such a Light? Although all lights emanate from the human essay Divine Light. Don't call all these lights the Light of God; It is the connectors essay eternal light which is the colning human essay Light of God, The ephemeral light is an attribute of the body and and juliet scene the flesh. . Oh God who gives the grace of vision! The bird of vision is flying towards You with the wings of colning, desire. searches for what's not there. to practice his craft. A builder looks for the rotten hole.
where the roof caved in. Ancient Essays! A water-carrier. picks the essay empty pot. A carpenter. stops at the house with no door. Workers rush toward some hint. of emptiness, which they then. start to fill.
Their hope, though, is for c. wright mills on intellectual, emptiness, so don't think. you must avoid it. It contains. Dear soul, if you were not friends. with the vast nothing inside, why would you always be casting you net. into it, and waiting so patiently? This invisible ocean has given you such abundance, but still you call it death, that which provides you sustenance and colning human work. God has allowed some magical reversal to occur, so that you see the scorpion pit. as an object of desire, and all the beautiful expanse around it, as dangerous and swarming with snakes.
This is how strange your fear of death. and emptiness is, and how perverse. the attachment to what you want. Now that you've heard me. on your misapprehensions, dear friend, listen to Attar's story on the same subject. He strung the pearls of 1, this. about King Mahmud, how among the colning essay spoils. of his Indian campaign there was a Hindu boy, whom he adopted as a son. Essay And Juliet Act 3 1! He educated. and provided royally for the boy. and later made him vice-regent, seated.
on a gold throne beside himself. One day he found the human essay young man weeping.. Why are you crying? You're the companion. of an emperor! The entire nation is ranged out.
before you like stars that you can command! The young man replied, I am remembering. my mother and father, and how they. scared me as a child with threats of you! 'Uh-oh, he's headed for King Mahmud's court! Nothing could be more hellish!' Where are they now.
when they should see me sitting here? This incident is about your fear of changing. You are the Hindu boy. Mahmud, which means. Praise to the End, is the ancient egyptian spirit's. poverty or emptiness. The mother and father are your attachment. to beliefs and blood ties. and desires and comforting habits. Don't listen to them! They seem to protect.
but they imprison. They are your worst enemies. They make you afraid. of living in emptiness. Some day you'll weep tears of delight in that court, remembering your mistaken parents! Know that your body nurtures the spirit, helps it grow, and gives it wrong advise. The body becomes, eventually, like a vest. of chain mail in peaceful years, too hot in summer and essay too cold in winter. But the body's desires, in another way, are like.
an unpredictable associate, whom you must be. patient with. And that companion is helpful, because patience expands your capacity. to love and c. wright mills essay on intellectual feel peace. The patience of a rose close to a thorn. keeps it fragrant. Colning Human! It's patience that gives milk. to the religion essays male camel still nursing in its third year, and patience is what the prophets show to us. The beauty of colning human essay, careful sewing on a shirt. is the patience it contains.
Friendship and loyalty have patience. as the c. wright essay strength of their connection. Feeling lonely and colning human essay ignoble indicates. that you haven't been patient. Be with those who mix with God. as honey blends with milk, and say, Anything that comes and goes, rises and evil sets, is not.
what I love. else you'll be like a caravan fire left. to flare itself out alone beside the road. What is the mi'raj 12 mi'raj according to Islamic tradition is the essay ascend of Muhammad to c. wright essay craftsmanship heavens from the colning essay Al Aksa mosque in Jerusalem. of the heavens? The religion and creed of the lovers is non- existence. who idly ask, 'How much is that?' Oh, I'm just looking. They handle a hundred items and put them down, shadows with no capital. What is spent is essay romeo act 3 scene 1, love and two eyes wet with weeping. But these walk into a shop, and their whole lives pass suddenly in that moment, Where did you go?
Nowhere. What did you have to eat? Nothing much. Even if you don't know what you want, buy _something,_ to be part of the essay exchanging flow. Start a huge, foolish project,
It makes absolutely no difference. what people think of you. I died from minerality and became vegetable; And From vegetativeness I died and egyptian essays became animal. I died from animality and became man. Then why fear disappearance through death? Next time I shall die. Bringing forth wings and feathers like angels; After that, soaring higher than angels - What you cannot imagine,
I shall be that. Soul receives from soul that knowledge, therefore not by book. nor from tongue. If knowledge of mysteries come after emptiness of mind, that is. illumination of heart.
If thou wilt be observant and vigilant, thou wilt see at human, every moment the ancient response to thy action. Be observant if thou wouldst have a pure heart, for something is born to thee in colning human essay consequence of every action. I said, 'Thou art harsh, like such a one.' 'Know,' he replied, 'That I am harsh for good, not from rancor and spite. Whoever enters saying, This I, I smite him on the brow; For this is the shrine of Love, o fool! it is not a sheep cote! Rub thine eyes, and essay and juliet act 3 scene behold the image of the human heart.' Make yourself free from self at one stroke! Like a sword be without trace of soft iron; Like a steel mirror, scour off all rust with contrition. When a baby is taken from the wet nurse, it easily forgets her. and starts eating solid food.
Seeds feed awhile on ground, then lift up into logical essay the sun. So you should taste the filtered light. and work your way toward wisdom. with no personal covering. That's how you came here, like a star. without a name. Move across the night sky. with those anonymous lights. (Mathnawi III, 1284-1288) God has given us a dark wine so potent that, drinking it, we leave the two worlds. God has put into the form of hashish a power.
to deliver the essay taster from self-consciousness. God has made sleep so. that it erases every thought. God made Majnun love Layla so much that. just her dog would cause confusion in him. There are thousands of wines. that can take over our minds. Don't think all ecstacies.
Jesus was lost in his love for of the evil, God. His donkey was drunk with barley. Drink from the presence of saints, not from those other jars. Every object, every being, is a jar full of delight. Be a conoisseur, and taste with caution. Any wine will get you high.
Judge like a king, and human choose the purest, the ones unadulterated with fear, or some urgency about what's needed. Drink the wine that moves you. as a camel moves when it's been untied, and is just ambling about. Mathnawi IV, 2683-96. Gone to the Unseen.
At last you have departed and romeo and juliet act 3 gone to the Unseen. What marvelous route did you take from colning, this world? Beating your wings and feathers, you broke free from this cage. Rising up to logical essay the sky. you attained the world of the soul. You were a prized falcon trapped by an Old Woman. Then you heard the drummer's call. and flew beyond space and time. As a lovesick nightingale, you flew among the owls. Then came the scent of the rosegarden. and you flew off to meet the Rose.
The wine of this fleeting world. caused your head to ache. Finally you joined the tavern of Eternity. Like an arrow, you sped from the bow. and went straight for the bull's eye of colning essay, bliss.
This phantom world gave you false signs. But you turned from the illusion. and journeyed to the land of ernest essays psychoanalysis, truth. You are now the Sun - what need have you for a crown? You have vanished from this world - what need have you to tie your robe?
I've heard that you can barely see your soul. But why look at all? - yours is colning human, now the Soul of ancient egyptian religion, Souls! O heart, what a wonderful bird you are. Seeking divine heights, Flapping your wings, you smashed the pointed spears of your enemy. The flowers flee from Autumn, but not you - You are the fearless rose. that grows amidst the freezing wind. Pouring down like the rain of essay, heaven. you fell upon the rooftop of this world. Then you ran in every direction. and escaped through the drain spout . . . Now the words are over.
and the pain they bring is gone. Now you have gone to rest. in the arms of the egyptian Beloved. How did you get away? You were the colning human essay pet falcon of an old woman. Did you hear the falcon-drum?
You were a drunken songbird put in with owls. Did you smell the odor of ernest applied psychoanalysis, a garden? You got tired of sour fermenting. and left the colning human essay tavern. You went like an arrow to the target.
from the bow of time and place. The man who stays at the cemetery pointed the way, but you didn't go. You became light and gave up wanting to be famous. You don't worry about what you're going to eat, so why buy an engraved belt? I've heard of living at romeo and juliet act 3, the center, but what about. leaving the center of the center? Flying toward thankfulness, you become. the rare bird with one wing made of fear, and one of hope. Human Essay! In autumn, a rose crawling along the ground in the cold wind.
Rain on the roof runs down and out by the spout. as fast as it can. Talking is pain. Applied! Lie down and rest, now that you've found a friend to be with. Copper Beech Press, 1988. He comes, a moon whose like the sky ne'er saw, awake or dreaming. Crowned with eternal flame no flood can lay. Lo, from the flagon of thy love, O Lord, my soul is swimming, And ruined all my body's house of clay! When first the colning essay Giver of the lord essays evil grape my lonely heart befriended,
Wine fired my bosom and my veins filled up; But when his image all min eye possessed, a voice descended: 'Well done, O sovereign Wine and peerless Cup!' Love's mighty arm from roof to base each dark abode is colning human essay, hewing, Where chinks reluctant catch a golden ray. My heart, when Love's sea of a sudden burst into its viewing, Leaped headlong in, with 'Find me now who may!' All hearts attend thee, O Tabriz's Sun! 'Persian Poems ', an judy syfers, Anthology of verse translations. edited by A.J.Arberry, Everyman's Library, 1972. Poor copies out of heaven's originals, Pale earthly pictures mouldering to human decay,
What care although your beauties break and fall, When that which gave them life endures for aye? Oh never vex thine heart with idle woes: All high discourse enchanting the rapt ear, All gilded landscapes and egyptian essays brave glistering shows. Fade-perish, but it is not as we fear. Whilst far away the living fountains ply, each petty brook goes brimful to human essay the main. Since baron nor fountain can for ever die, Thy fears how foolish, thy lament how vain! What is this fountain, wouldst thou rightly know? The Soul whence issue all created things.
Doubtless the of the flies rivers shall not cease to flow, Till silenced are the human essay everlasting springs. Farewell to sorrow, and with quiet mind. Drink long and lord flies evil deep: let others fondly deem. The channel empty they perchance may find, Or fathom that unfathomable stream. The moment thou to this low world wast given, A ladder stood whereby thou might'st aspire; And first thy steps, which upward still have striven,
From mineral mounted to the plant; then higher. To animal existence; next, the human essay Man, With knowledge, reason, faith. Ernest Jones! Oh wondrous goal! This body, which a crumb of colning human, dust began-
How fairly fashioned the consummate whole! Yet stay not here thy journey: thou shalt grow. An angel bright and logical home far off in human heaven. Plod on, plunge last in connectors the great Sea, that so. Thy little drop make oceans seven times seven. 'The Son of God!' Nay, leave that word unsaid, Say: 'God is colning human essay, One, the logical essay pure, the single Truth.' What though thy frame be withered, old, and dead, If the soul keep her fresh immortal youth? 'Persian Poems ', an colning human, Anthology of verse translations. edited by A.J.Arberry, Everyman's Library, 1972.
Up, O ye lovers, and away! 'Tis time to leave the world for aye. Hark, loud and essay clear from heaven the from of parting calls-let none delay! The cameleer hat risen amain, made ready all the camel-train, And quittance now desires to gain: why sleep ye, travellers, I pray? Behind us and before there swells the din of parting and of bells; To shoreless space each moment sails a disembodied spirit away. From yonder starry lights, and through those curtain-awnings darkly blue, Mysterious figures float in view, all strange and colning human essay secret things display. From this orb, wheeling round its pole, a wondrous slumber o'er thee stole: O weary life that weighest naught, O sleep that on my soul dost weigh! O heart, toward they heart's love wend, and O friend, fly toward the ancient Friend,
Be wakeful, watchman, to the end: drowse seemingly no watchman may. 'Persian Poems ', an essay, Anthology of verse translations. edited by A.J.Arberry, Everyman's Library, 1972. 'Tis said, the pipe and lute that charm our ears. Derive their melody from and juliet scene 1, rolling spheres; But Faith, o'erpassing speculation's bound, Can see what sweetens every jangled sound. We, who are parts of Adam, heard with him. The song of angels and of seraphim. Out memory, though dull and sad, retains. Some echo still of those unearthly strains.
Oh, music is the meat of all who love, Music uplifts the soul to realms above. The ashes glow, the latent fires increase: We listen and are fed with joy and peace. 'Persian Poems ', an Anthology of verse translations. edited by A.J.Arberry, Everyman's Library, 1972. THE SPIRIT OF THE SAINTS.
There is colning human essay, a Water that flows down from Heaven. To cleanse the act 3 scene 1 world of sin by grace Divine. At last, its whole stock spent, its virtue gone. Dark with pollution not its own, it speeds. Back to the Fountain of all purities; Whence, freshly bathed, earthward it sweeps again, Trailing a robe of glory bright and pure. This Water is the colning essay Spirit of the Saints, Which ever sheds, until itself is ernest essays applied, beggared,
God's balm on the sick soul; and then returns. To Him who made the purest light of colning human, Heaven. 'Persian Poems ', an Anthology of verse translations. edited by logical essay A.J.Arberry, Everyman's Library, 1972. What makes the Sufi? Purity of heart;
Not the patched mantle and the lust perverse. Of those vile earth-bound men who steal his name. He in all dregs discerns the colning human essence pure: In hardship ease, in tribulation joy. The phantom sentries, who with batons drawn. Guard Beauty's place-gate and curtained bower, Give way before him, unafraid he passes, And showing the King's arrow, enters in. 'Persian Poems ', an Anthology of verse translations. edited by A.J.Arberry, Everyman's Library, 1972. THE UNSEEN POWER.
We are the flute, our music is all Thine; We are the mountains echoing only Thee; And movest to defeat or victory; Lions emblazoned high on flags unfurled- They wind invisible sweeps us through the world. 'Persian Poems ', an Anthology of verse translations. edited by A.J.Arberry, Everyman's Library, 1972.
THE PROGRESS OF MAN. First he appeared in the realm inanimate; Thence came into the world of plants and lived. The plant-life many a year, nor called to judy mind. What he had been; then took the onward way. To animal existence, and once more.
Remembers naught of what life vegetive, Save when he feels himself moved with desire. Towards it in the season of human essay, sweet flowers, As babes that seek the breast and know not why. Again the lord essays wise Creator whom thou knowest. Uplifted him from animality. To Man's estate; and so from realm to realm. Advancing, he became intelligent, Cunning and keen of wit, as he is now. No memory of his past abides with him, And from his present soul he shall be changes.
Though he is fallen asleep, God will not leave him. In this forgetfulness. Awakened, he. Will laugh to think what troublous dreams he had. And wonder how his happy state of being. He could forget, and not perceive that all.
Those pains and sorrows were the effect of sleep. And guile and vain illusion. So this world. Seems lasting, though 'tis but the sleepers' dream; Who, when the appointed Day shall dawn, escapes. From dark imaginings that haunted him,
And turns with laughter on his phantom griefs. When he beholds his everlasting home. 'Persian Poems ', an colning human, Anthology of verse translations. edited by act 3 A.J.Arberry, Everyman's Library, 1972. REALITY AND APPEARANCE. 'Tis light makes colour visible: at night. Red, greene, and russet vanish from colning human essay, thy sight.
So to thee light by darness is made known: Since God hat none, He, seeing all, denies. Himself eternally to mortal eyes. From the dark jungle as a tiger bright, Form from the viewless Spirit leaps to ligth. 'Persian Poems ', an Anthology of verse translations. edited by A.J.Arberry, Everyman's Library, 1972. I made a far journey.
Earth's fair cities to view, but like to love's city. City none I knew. At the first I knew not. That city's worth, And turned in my folly. A wanderer on earth. From so sweet a country. I must needs pass,
And like to c. wright mills essay on intellectual cattle. Grazed on every grass. As Moses' people. I would liefer eat. Garlic, than manna. And celestial meat. What voice in colning essay this world. to my ear has come. Save the voice of love. Was a tapped drum. Yet for that drum-tap.
From the want syfers thesis world of All. Into this perishing. Land I did fall. That world a lone spirit. Like a snake I crept. Without foot or wing. The wine that was laughter. And grace to sip. Like a rose I tasted. Without throat or lip.
'Spirit, go a journey,' Love's voice said: 'Lo, a home of human essay, travail. Much, much I cried: Yea, and logical rent my raiment. And made great woe. Even as now I shrink. To be gone from here, To part I did fear.
'Spirit, go thy way,' Love called again, 'And I shall be ever nigh thee. As they neck's vein.' Much did love enchant me. And made much guile; Love's guile and enchantment.
Capture me the while. In ignorance and folly. When my wings I spread, From palace unto prison. I was swiftly sped. Now I would tell. How thither thou mayst come; But ah, my pen is colning human essay, broke. 'Persian Poems ', an Anthology of verse translations. edited by A.J.Arberry, Everyman's Library, 1972.
I am part of the want wife judy thesis load. Not rightly balanced. I drop off in colning the grass, like the old Cave-sleepers, to browse. wherever I fall. For hundreds of thousands of logical essay, years I have been dust-grains. floating and flying in the will of the air, often forgetting ever being. in that state, but in sleep. I migrate back.
I spring loose. from the four-branched, time -and-space cross, this waiting room. I walk into colning human a huge pasture. I nurse the ancient egyptian religion essays milk of millennia. Everyone does this in different ways. Knowing that conscious decisions. and personal memory. are much too small a place to live, every human being streams at night. into the human loving nowhere, or during the day, in some absorbing work. (Mathnawi, VI 216-227)
Rumi: The Path of Love , by Manuela Dunn Mascetti (Editor) Camille Kabir Helminski, ( 4 November, 1999) Element Books Ltd. Look! This Is Love Poems of c. wright, Rumi (Shambhala Centaur Editions) Jalal Al-Din Rumi, et al Published 1996. Rumi's Divan of Shems of Tabriz Selected Odes (Element Classics of World Spirituality) Mevlana Jalaluddin Rumi, et al Published 1997. The Way of Passion: A Celebration of Rumi, by Andrew Harvey.
The Sufi Path of human, Love The Spiritual Teachings of Rumi William C. Chittick (Translator) Published 1983. Where Two Oceans Meet A Selection of Odes from the Divan of want wife judy, Shems of colning, Tabriz Mevlana Jalaluddin Rumi, James G. Cowan (Translator) Published 1992.
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essay posters This attitude survived Russia’s fleeting experience of colning human essay modernity to become characteristic of the more-or-less closed society that embraced Russia’s elites. The great critic Iurii Lotman discerned in Russia what he called “an underlying binary logic of opposition [in which] individuals and groups conceptualize social life in ancient egyptian essays, terms of human essay sets of absolute alternatives that admit of no compromise . . Essays! . Colning Human! either one or the other must be chosen.” 1. Russians are also famous for their lack of moderation. “Sin greatly, that grace may abound,” describes a point of logical essay view that is an extravagant version of what St. Paul wrote long ago in his Epistle to the Romans (5:20) about the relationship between God’s mercy and men’s depravity; there is something very Russian about its suggestion of the colning, powerful linkage of sin and grace.
The idea that you should sin as little as possible so that there may be just enough grace for your needs sounds like some moderate, almost smug culture, far away from Russia. Want Wife Syfers! Something in the English-speaking world, perhaps. A recent critic has echoed traditional voices in Russian cultural studies, proclaiming that Russia’s entire culture lacks “middle ground between the ideal of Sodom and the ideal of the Madonna.” 2 What is human essay needed, he goes on to suggest, is romeo act 3 a concept of purgatory, something between the colning, ideas of Heaven and Hell, with which the Russian story is so richly endowed. But both major and minor figures in want judy syfers, Russian culture confront Heaven and Hell in rapid succession without even bothering to hypothesize about Purgatory, let alone thinking to stop off there. Soviet Marxism was famously described as “dialectical,” and colning, no doubt Marxist dialectics intensified the apparent clarity of the polarized contrasts. 3 The precise meaning of this embattled term is ancient essays not so clear, however. Does it not suggest that in Soviet or even Russian culture, distinctive and often extreme points of view bear within them to some unusual degree their semantic opposites? Are not dualisms and antinomies more common than in tamer cultures further West?
To some, for example, it has seemed that the powerful self-assertion so often found in human, Russian culture coexists with its opposite: deep anxieties and ernest essays, fears of inadequacy, being wrong or not up to whatever the human, challenge might be. Wife Judy! Impulses to desecrate and colning essay, blaspheme coexist with the joy of self-lacerating repentance. Religion! The impulse to innovate radically coexists with a deep, if episodic desire to return to colning the “good old ways.” The coming of a radically secular regime to Russia in wife thesis, 1917 deprived God and Virtue of official representation for awhile, but it scarcely made Russia more moderate. In a broad sense, it was just as important perhaps more so to be in tune with History meaning the essay, Party as it had been to be in tune with God and the Church. Essay! And the Party’s policies powerfully reinforced the strong polarity between friends and enemies. Many of these extreme, contradictory and paradoxical impulses can be seen in the exhibition of Soviet Russian posters, caricatures and cartoons here assembled. 4 The posters were directed first of colning human essay all at a pre-literate or at least imperfectly literate audience, assumed to have been educated, if at all, by c. wright essay craftsmanship the village priest. The beautiful “ROSTA windows” in this exhibition represent the news-plus-propaganda impulse of the Communist Party in the early days of the Russian Revolution (image 1) . Stenciled onto paper or plywood by essay teams of artists, they were sequenced like a comic book and issued abundantly in the very early 1920s. 5 Generally hortatory and idealistic, they resorted only occasionally to satire, and of a kind that peasants could comprehend. But most of the cartoons and satirical drawings also on exhibit here were directed at a later and more sophisticated and urban audience, more caught up in the complexities of Russian culture, especially in attitudes toward the outsider enemy. The posters and the various forms of of the essays visual/verbal assaults demonstrate a keen sense of hostile forces, often disguised or masquerading as friendly.
The idea of secret enemies needing to be unmasked (image 2) . was pervasive throughout the Soviet period but came to an unholy climax during Stalin’s cataclysmic purges. Human Essay! It should be said immediately, however, that the very real hostility of the outside world toward Bolshevism did little to allay the fears of the new Soviet elite and move them toward moderation. Ancient Egyptian Religion Essays! In the first days of the Soviet Union and colning, even earlier, while the Civil War still raged, the targeted enemies were most often persons: the ancient, White generals (image 3) who struggled with the essay, Red Army and the Bolsheviks over ernest essays applied, the political future, or foreign “bourgeois” nations that intervened from outside (image 4) . But rich peasants (“kulaks”), international finance capitalists, or non-socialist “speculators” might also be fearsomely depicted (image 5) . This was a more abstract and sociological enemies list than those of Imperial Russia. The new Soviet regime was initially sympathetic to artists who were disposed to employ their talents anonymously and/or collectively. Human Essay! Like the artists who brilliantly but formulaically turned out the ROSTA prints, the three artists who called themselves the Kukryniksy developed a composite satirical vocabulary (image 6) . Meeting at the state-sponsored Higher Artistic-Technical Studio (VKhUTEMAS) in Moscow in essay craftsmanship, 1924, they were soon publishing their caricatures “under a joint signature.” The Grove Dictionary of Art has well characterized their style: . . . an acute vision, a peculiarly grotesque three-dimensionality, a certain theatricality . . . , social awareness and. . .a sympathy with the colning human, traditions of nineteenth-century critical realism . . . C. Wright Essay On Intellectual! . Colning Essay! 6.
But many satirical artists maintained an individual identity, or sought to. Dmitri Moor, whose real name was Orlov (18831946) was one of the c. wright mills craftsmanship, most notable. Born into colning human a Cossack family, he had enjoyed a successful career as a satirist before 1917, but was of want syfers thesis a left-wing point of view and readily cast his lot with the new regime; he taught at VKhUTEMAS between 1922 and 1930 (image 7) . Human! Bonnell describes him as the “unofficial ‘commissar of essays psychoanalysis propagandistic revolutionary art.’” 7 Viktor Deni (18931946), whose last name was shortened from Denisov, was a decade younger than Moor and from an impoverished gentry background; he was not initially as receptive to essay the Revolution. More of a satirical caricaturist than Moor, his posters were most popular and successful in the early days of the Revolution and experienced a reprise during the Second World War (image 8) . 8. The posters of the thirties were strikingly different from the more anarchic images that preceded them. The promulgation of socialist realism (1934) and the development of the full blown Stalin cult added to the monumentality and uniformity of the images. The principal contribution of essay and juliet 1 Gustav Klutsis (18951944) was the introduction of photomontage into posters (image 9) , an important innovation in the poster making of the thirties. Colning! The work of Ukrainian Viktor Koretsky (who was a full generation younger than Moor) had its principal impact during the Second World War and the Soviet “peace offensives” of the postwar period. The savage caricatures of Alexander Zhitomirsky (19071993), with their surrealist and pop-art imagery, both demonized and glamorized the Soviet Union’s Western enemies (image 10) . 9. It is egyptian certainly paradoxical that the great opponent of Russia during the Cold War should have been a culture with a few dramatic similarities to colning human essay that of Russia but many more contrasts. Essay! If Russians hate compromise, Americans may seem to fetishize it, at least publicly.
The culture of the colning essay, United States of America, which has come to emblemize capitalism, must of course embrace deal-making, splitting the difference and want syfers, making things work quite unlike the Russians, whose culture is so uneasy about compromise, in olden times associated it with the devil. 10. For Russians, the acquisitive individualism of the United States was the opposite of what was considered sacred under the old regime, or what was representative of colning good citizenship under the new. Publicly reviled as loathsome and hypocritical, it was often secretly envied by Russians, whose love of “stuff” had to be concealed, unlike the Americans, whose materialism was proof of God’s bounty and special concern for them. C. Wright Essay On Intellectual Craftsmanship! If the human, Americans built their “city on a hill,” it gradually became clear that it would not be an austere or uncomfortable place. Some of the attacks on American racism or militarism as seen in the caricatures and c. wright mills essay craftsmanship, cartoons on display here were largely intended by their creator to make successful careers in a world dominated by the Soviet version of Russian values. Essay! Many, however, may well have picked up a little steam along the essay on intellectual craftsmanship, way from Russian awe at the shamelessness of the colning, Americans: building their “city on the hill,” while lynching “the Scottsboro boys” (image 11) . (And those Americans don’t even know what hypocrites they are!) The Americans, during the Cold War, were not disposed to take Soviet criticisms of American life very seriously. Few Americans wanted to risk being seen as pro-Communist or “fellow travelers.” If the Soviet critics charged Americans with racism, the accusation was less serious, because the source was so flawed: everybody knew that Soviet criticism was orchestrated by ancient egyptian religion the Center and ebbed and flowed according to political needs and circumstances.
So the nature of the critic actually mitigated the accusation; the Americans could focus on the Soviet critic’s lack of independence, rather than on the truth of what he was saying. Similarly, responding to colning human Soviet criticisms of American “materialism” wasn’t too difficult for us. They’re just jealous of essay our success at creating affluence, it was commonly (and not entirely incorrectly) said by the Americans. The rapidity with which friends and enemies could trade places also enhanced Western, particularly American, skepticism about Soviet criticism. Even the most bitter enemies could quickly become friends if circumstances seemed to dictate. Colning! In the aftermath of World War I, the British and Americans were portrayed as the most desperate and inevitable opponents of the Revolution, along with the White generals. But after the Nazi invasion of the Soviet Union in 1939, the logical connectors essay, British and Americans became Soviet allies, and the Soviet division of the world into human essay friends and enemies altered dramatically and rapidly (image 12) . After the defeat of Hitler and ernest psychoanalysis, the onset of the human, Cold War, however, the older friend-enemy dichotomy returned, but this time with an especially powerful focus on the United States, now the capital of c. wright essay on intellectual all that was regressive and reactionary in colning essay, the world. Both the Soviet Union and the United States expended a great deal of want wife judy time and effort in describing the other as Hitlerian (image 13) . Racism presented a particular challenge to Americans defending their country against the accusations of Soviet critics.
American racism couldn’t be straightforwardly denied; one response was to deny Soviet good faith or moral seriousness in human essay, making the charge, another was to claim that the flies, Russian accusation was too sweeping or otherwise exaggerated. Essay! But one was constrained to admit there was something in it. Of The Flies Essays Evil! Now that both the American society of the middle of the last century and the Soviet Union have slipped into the past, it may be easier to confront the Soviet charge more candidly (image 14) . Official America rallied against racism partly because oppression of blacks by whites made the U.S. Human Essay! look bad in the Cold War. Had African-Americans not actively protested the inaction of the American government, President Eisenhower might or might not have forced the integration of Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas, in essay romeo, September, 1957. Colning Essay! But when Louis Armstrong an ernest unpolitical icon of colning human American pop culture denounced him as “gutless” and “heartless” it certainly helped propel him into action.
The great trumpet player was about to take his band on a tour of the Soviet Union, but threatened to cancel if Eisenhower didn’t counter Governor Orval Faubus. The Russians also indicated smilingly that they would be very interested in Mr. Armstrong’s opinions on American racism. 11 And Eisenhower federalized the Arkansas National Guard. Inequality was a somewhat less difficult issue. If it was true that Soviet society had somewhat less economic inequality than the U.S. (and this was not always admitted), it was indubitably true that the political equality proclaimed by the Soviet leaders and those who spoke (and drew) for them was less than that of the bourgeois world. So the two sides engaged in a dialogue of the deaf: each trying to link the other with different kinds of essay romeo and juliet scene inequality. Each side wanted to win a Cold War debate; there was little interest in the possibility that their opponents might be to some degree correct about them.
The Cold War, in sum, was an inauspicious arena for colning, honest self-criticism. It certainly cannot be proclaimed that the various visions of the enemies of the Soviet world these posters and especially the cartoons and satirical drawings “hold a mirror up” to Western or American society in c. wright mills craftsmanship, any straightforward way. Soviet and American cultural differences were enormous and no doubt propaganda was a good deal more focused and human essay, purposeful on the Soviet side. But especially in an age in which the worldwide image of the egyptian religion essays, United States is at an all time low, it is interesting to confront these critical images from an earlier time, now emptied of any serious, practical challenge. Do we want to simply write them off as Communist propaganda? Or ought we to ask ourselves whether we can learn anything from contemplating such criticisms soberly?
Keeney Professor of History Emeritus. See Tim McDaniel’s meditation on Lotman in The Agony of the Russian Idea , Princeton University Press, 1996, p. 17. Mikhail Epstein, “The Demise of First Secularization: the Church of Gogol and the Church of Belinsky,” East European Thought , Vol. 58, p. 102. See also Iu. M. Colning Human Essay! Lotman and B. A. Uspensky, “The Role of Dual Models in the Dynamics of Russian Culture”, in The Semiotics of Russian Culture , Michigan Slavic Contributions, Ann Arbor, 1984, pp. 3-35.
Victoria Bonnell, Iconography of essay on intellectual craftsmanship Power: Soviet Political Posters Under Lenin and Stalin , California University Press, Berkeley, 1999, p. 187. See the authoritative statement by colning Bonnell, “Bolshevik Demonology in Visual Propaganda,” Iconography of ernest Power , pp. 187-224. “ROSTA” stands for essay, “Russian Telegraph Agency,” an agency later more or less replaced by TASS. For a good sample of the ROSTA posters, see Alex Ross, ed., Power to the People: Early Soviet Propaganda Posters in logical, the Israel Museum, Jerusalem , Lund Humphries, (n.p.) Ashgate, n.d. (2008), pp. 18-21 and passim . Art Encyclopedia, The Concise Grove Dictionary of Art , Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2002.
Bonnell, Iconography of colning Power , p. 11. There are excellent biographical summaries of Moor’s and Deni’s careers in jones essays, Stephen White, The Bolshevik Poster , Yale University Press, 1988, pp. 39-64. Alexander Zhitomirsky , Robert Koch Gallery, San Francico, CA, 1994. In the West, Iurii Lotman claims, negotiated agreement has lost its nefarious character, while in Russia it has not.
Adhering to one’s agreed word can, even in the West, be a matter of the highest honor, but in Russia “service based on colning essay, contract is romeo and juliet scene bad service.” The unreserved “self-giving” is the model, in Russian culture, for personal relations of the highest type. Iu. M. Lotman, “‘Agreement’ and ‘Self-Giving’ as Archetypal Models of Culture,” in Lotman and Uspensky, Semiotics of Russian Culture , pp. 125-140, esp. p. 130. See “Louis Armstrong, Barring Soviet Tour, Denounces Eisenhower and Governor Faubus,” (AP); David Margolick, “The Day Louis Armstrong Made Some Noise,” New York Times , September 23, 1957.