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bressay map Bressay shelters Lerwick from the east and can be reached by car ferry from the town in under ten minutes. Noss lies off the east coast of Bressay. Both islands feature striking landscapes, abundant bird life, coastal mammals and place wild flowers. Bressay has almost everything that Shetland can offer the thesis visitor: a ten minute ferry ride whisks you from the bustling centre of Lerwick to another world. You will find seabird cliffs, quiet bays, hill and coastal walks, a dozen freshwater lochs (many with good trout) and a profusion of archaeological and historical sites. The east side of the island is sparsely inhabited, a place of peace and quiet where birds and sheep wander undisturbed. The Bressay ferry sails from Albert Buildings in the centre of Lerwick every hour, with later sailings scheduled on Friday and Saturday nights. The ferry berths in favorite essay Bressay right next to the Bressay Heritage Centre which features seasonal exhibitions on the culture, history and natural heritage of the island.
The centre is open part time from May to September. Much of someone write my lab Bressay is accessible by car on the single-track roads which radiate from the shop and post office at Mail (the place-name means the sands and long pre-dates the Royal Mail). The side roads are rough tracks unsuitable for cars and the best way to enjoy the wild east side of the to visit island is on foot. The south-eastern corner in particular has some fine walking country but is nowhere more than three miles from the essay centre of Lerwick. Bressay shelters Lerwick harbour from the place essay North Sea and for many centuries Bressay Sound has been a port of with essay styles refuge for shipping, since long before Lerwick was founded in the 17th century. Favorite Place! This natural harbour and essay styles the unique strategic position of Bressay's highest hill, the Ward of Bressay (742'/258m), gave the island special significance from prehistoric times. To Visit Essay! From the summit, all of Shetland is visible: on a clear day, with binoculars, you can see through the natural arch in someone my lab the Gaada Stack on Foula, away to the west, in the Atlantic; to favorite place essay the north-east lie Out Skerries; to the north Ronas Hill and Saxa Vord (Unst); and to the south Sumburgh Head. As our prehistoric and research about Viking ancestors would have noticed, you can also see Fair Isle; from there, as they'd also have discovered, you can see Orkney; and favorite essay from Orkney you can see mainland Scotland. A thriving local history group A boating club Shop Pub Community hall where visitors are always welcome at concerts, dances, social evenings and the annual Up Helly A' fire festival in February. Bressay is also home to the Northern Lights Holistic Spa where a variety of powered by vbulletin facilities and treatments are available. There is plenty of birdlife to see in Bressay, including most of the species found in Noss.
The south eastern corner of the island includes the Puffin cliffs of the Ord and place to visit essay has a breeding colony of several hundred Great Skua around the loch at Sand Vatn as well as breeding Dunlin, Common Sandpiper, Snipe, Curlew, Whimbrel, Golden Plover and other moorland birds. Resume Writing Greensboro! The Merlin is sometimes seen and occasional sightings of Peregrine falcons, once a regular breeding bird, have been reported. Spring and autumn bring Bressay its share of place to visit essay migrating birds. Great flocks of Redwing and Fieldfare can be seen and the island has some rarities on its checklist including a Surf Scoter from North America. In winter the lochs are used by parties of the political up to a dozen Whooper Swans. Turnstone, Purple Sandpiper, Great Northern Diver, Grey Heron, Long tailed Duck, Widgeon, Teal, Tufted Duck and Goldeneye are common winter visitors. The native mammals are Otter, Grey Seal and Common Seal. Rabbits, hedgehogs, rats, mice (and sheep!) have all been introduced by humans over the centuries. There are no snakes or other reptiles but introduced frogs thrive. Bressay's breeding list also includes:
The road north from favorite Maryfield passes Bressay's most imposing building, Gardie House, a laird's mansion built in 1724 and noted for someone write report its walled gardens. Another little road north passes through the crofting hamlet of Crueton (with its very 'birdy' copse of willows) and over the hill to the townships of favorite to visit essay Beosetter and Gunnista, overlooking Aith Voe which is one of the powered best birdwatching spots in the island, noted for place to visit waders, divers and sea ducks. Beosetter has a fine, sandy beach and Gunnista is the site of the greensboro ruined chapel of St Olaf, with an interesting graveyard. The Bressay Kirk is favorite, a delightful little church with 19th century stained glass windows and two handsome memorial tablets to local landlords. For times of services and to view the interior, visitors should contact the minister of Lerwick and Bressay Parish Church at St Columba's Manse, St Olaf St., Lerwick (Lerwick 692125). South from the thesis essays Mail Shop the road winds past modern housing at Glebe Park and Fullaburn to the Bressay Lighthouse on Kirkabister Ness. Built in place 1858 by Robert Louis Stevenson's father, the light is now automatic.
The old lightkeepers' cottages are available as self-catering holiday accommodation. In the finn essays dramatic geo (cove) below the lighthouse the Lithuanian factory trawler Lunokhods was wrecked in a 1993 storm. All 60 crew were rescued by the Shetland Coastguard Helicopter and Lerwick Lifeboat. The wreck site is now a popular dive with visiting scuba enthusiasts, lying next to a beautiful rock arch, Da Ovluss. The old kirkyard lies partly over a ruined broch.
Here was found the Bressay Stone, apparently the essay memorial to essay styles the daughter of a Pictish chieftain, Naddod, and inscribed with Ogham script which has never been fully deciphered. There is a replica on site but the original is stored in the new Museum of place to visit Scotland at Edinburgh. Safety First - Remember, all the cliffs are extremely dangerous, particularly in the wet. On no account should you attempt to different styles climb them or approach the edge nearer than two metres (six feet). Favorite Place! Heed The Birds - Please be careful not to walk through nesting colonies of gulls and terns or you may cause them to the political essay desert their eggs. No Dogs, Please! - The owners and tenants of the land have given permission for these recommended walks to be included in this guide, on condition that visitors do not bring their dogs, even on a leash. Favorite Place Essay! The best behaved dog can disturb livestock and wildlife and you are respectfully asked to culture comply with the farmers' and crofters' wishes. Drop by the Bressay Heritage Centre and favorite delve into the island's history Download a Shetland Heritage leaflet about Bressay Noss (.pdf) A short walk up the Burn of Setter is a good place for a close look at the distinctive, vertical-shaft Shetland watermills.
There are several on this burn and many more throughout Bressay. Once an essential part of every crofting community, these miniature mills have long fallen into decay but there is a restored one in working order at write my lab report, the Dunrossness Crofthouse Museum. A walk around the west shore of the place essay Voe of Culbinsbrough brings you to the old stone and slate quarries in Aith Ness, topped by the remains of a six-inch naval gun from the First World War. Like the gun on Bard Head at writing services, the southern tip of Bressay, this one was installed in the last year of the war and was never fired in anger. If you have only a little time in Shetland, one of the best ways to favorite place to visit sample most of what the islands have to paper offer is to spend a day on this glorious walk round the uninhabited coast and hills between Noss Sound and the Bressay Lighthouse, taking in some of the favorite wildest scenery in the islands. Follow the tarmac road to thesis for huckleberry Noss Sound and then head south along the coast, past the volcanic vent of the Muckle Hell and its colony of Herring Gulls, until you come to the waterfall below the ruined watermill on the burn from the Loch of Grimsetter. Favorite! The boulder beach of Grutwick usually has Grey Seals fishing just offshore. Resume Writing! At Grutwick there is a stone cairn erected by the people of Bressay to commemorate the bravery of Coastguard helicopter winchman, William Deacon, who lost his life while rescuing the Norwegian freighter Green Lily which foundered here during a Force 11 storm in November 1997.
Turning inland, the deserted hamlet of Wadbister has a prehistoric earthhouse. Across the Loch of Grimsetter is the place to visit croft of Gorie, an oasis of trees and resume nc bushes in the hill. South of Wadbister the cliff walk gives superb views of caves and natural arches, including the remarkable triple arch of the Stoura Clettstack - another favourite haul-out for Common Seals. Here too is the favorite place to visit essay ruined medieval settlement of Stobister, where legend has it that the someone write my lab report inhabitants fled when a violent storm sent fish raining down the chimneys - perhaps the same tidal wave that opened Noss Sound. Walking on past the collapsed sea cave of the Gore's Kirn you come to the breeding territory of Great Skuas and Arctic Skuas; then the wild, lonely loch of Sand Vatn where Red-throated Divers nest (please avoid disturbance). Beyond are the cliffs of Bard Head and the old WWI gun still standing on its concrete plinth. Favorite Place Essay! Two hundred feet (61m) below is the tide race of the Bard a strom, a favourite fishing ground for the political Gannets and other seabirds. From here to favorite to visit essay the 400 foot (122m) Ord cliffs there are panoramic views of southern Shetland. The Ord is Fulmar territory, with thousands of these graceful birds wheeling in the updraft, but here and in thesis finn many corners of the Bressay cliffs you will also see Puffins, Guillemots, Razorbills and Tysties. Favorite To Visit Essay! From the Ord there's an essays powered easy walk down to the lighthouse, through the essay ruined crofts of Scrana and Daal.
Once back on the tarmac, you have a pleasant three mile stroll past crofts and fields to research paper the Lerwick ferry by the Maryfield pub. Noss - The Perfect Island For Birds. As soon as you set eyes on the mile-long seabird cliffs of favorite essay Noss you can see why the island was declared a National Nature Reserve in 1955: this is someone my lab report, one of the most spectacular wildlife sights anywhere. Place To Visit Essay! At the peak of the breeding season the stupendous chorus of around 150,000 birds and chicks is unforgettable - as is the smell of the guano which stains the cliffs white! In the words of National Geographic photographer Franz Lanting: This is a world-class cliff. Millions of services years of wind and ice have honeycombed thousands of favorite place to visit nesting ledges in the political sandstone cliffs up to 592 feet (181m) high.
As a result, many different species can find nest sites of the preferred size and shape. Although not the biggest seabird colony in Britain, Noss is the most accessible one, combining very large numbers of birds with a wide variety of species and spectacular scenery. The cliffs are only one of the Noss wildlife habitats: there's also extensive moorland, boulder beaches, sandy beaches, rich grazing and former cultivated land, all of which support other birds and animals. Resident seals and the visiting Otters feed in place to visit the dense kelp forest surrounding the 711-acre (313 hectare) island. The spectacle of: festooned over resume writing greensboro, a mile of cliffs, up to 592’ (181m) high, is simply astounding, as is the roar of the mass ‘choir’ parents and chicks.
There are two very different ways to experience Noss and many visitors choose to do both: Excursion boat from Lerwick. This is easily the favorite place essay best way to view most of the seabird nesting sites at culture, close range (and the only way when the island is closed to visitors) but it doesn't include a landing on favorite place essay Noss. If you have mobility problems you can still see this wonder of the essay wildlife world: wheelchair users are welcome on a highly manoeuvrable boat with twin engines which can take you safely into the coves, right alongside the lower cliff ledges and, in calm weather, even into the Cave of Noss, with an underwater camera to explore the kelp forest as well. Details of daily sailings from the VisitScotland Information Centre, phone 01595 693434.
The Noss Sound ferry operates five-days-a-week (not Mondays or Thursdays) during the summer season (late April - late August) while the wardens are living on the island. You first take the Bressay ferry from Lerwick, then walk or drive the place to visit essay three miles (5km) across Bressay to Noss Sound where the ferry, a small inflatable boat with an write my lab outboard motor, will take you across the narrow sound to the Noss landing place at Gungstie. For more information or to book, phone: 0800 107 7818. Arctic sandstorms and giant waves. In addition to its ornithological importance, Noss is also of great geological interest.
It is made of the same Devonian desert sandstones as Bressay but slightly finer-grained. To Visit Essay! The cliff face is usually a zone of rapid weathering due to a number of processes that can attack it. There are three types of weathering: physical (eg. frost actions), chemical (involves hydrolysis) and biological (eg. growth of powered lichen or large amounts of favorite essay guano). Essay Styles! The products of weathering and weakened rocks are quickly removed by storm wave action. This causes roughened surfaces where further etching out of other rocks units is easy. The extraordinary erosion patterns are now favoured as seabird nesting sites.
Noss Sound is place essay, a relatively new channel and was probably made by storm waves that breached the sandy spit that once joined Noss to finn essays Bressay. A clue is that the name Noss is a Viking word meaning 'headland shaped like a nose'. If it had been an island when they arrived in to visit the ninth century they would certainly have recorded the fact in their name for essays the place and it would be 'Nossay' - 'island shaped like a nose'. There are physical traces of a gigantic wave along the Bressay coast south of favorite to visit essay Noss Sound, and someone also a legend of place a clifftop croft washed out by the sea at Stobister. Because the grazing on Noss is restricted (and because even Shetland sheep can't find their way everywhere) the cliff vegetation of Noss is more luxuriant than in more heavily grazed areas, despite the plague of rabbits which each winter's cull only the political just keeps in check.
In early summer, as the Sea Pinks and blue Spring Squill fade, the cliffs present a palette of white Sea Campion and Scurvy Grass, Red Campion, yellow Birdsfoot Trefoil and Roseroot and the distinctive blue of Sheep's Bit Scabious, to set off the brown Heather moorland with its patches of Cotton Grass, Lousewort and orchids. As well as its fascinating natural history, Noss has a long history of human occupation, starting with a burnt mound at Hellia Cluve which may be 4,000 years old. Place name evidence and the remains of a mediaeval chapel on Big Ness ('promontory of the essay buildings') suggest that Noss was home to resume writing services nc a Celtic Christian community before the Viking invasion. What those marauders did to the priests in Papil Geo ('the Priests' Cove') may be imagined. From time to time, winter storms shift the sands at Nesti Voe to reveal human bones from the to visit ancient graveyard. Research Paper About! The sandy soils around the 17th century house at Hametoun were easy to work - and to fertilise with seaweed from beaches such as Da Stinkin' Geos ('the smelly coves' where storm-blown seaweed lies and rots to favorite this day). In subsistence times Noss was a very productive island, where good crops of oats and barley could grow and the grazing was so good there was even a milk surplus to make cheese. From the mid-18th century onwards, whenever the tenancy became vacant there were usually eager bidders. Signs of that relative prosperity are still visible in the long, slightly curved 'rigs' on essay Turr Ness - the traces of ploughing by oxen which were swum across the sound from Bressay at low tide and herded at night in Da Owsen's Pund (the oxen's enclosure') at favorite to visit, the north end of the resume services big cliffs. In those days ordinary people tilled the ground with spades, not ploughs and oxen. Favorite Place To Visit! By the early 19th century there was a second settlement on Noss, at Setter, half way between the low-lying western end of the isle and the cliffs to the east.
By 1861 the the political essay population peaked at 24, but may have included some visiting fishermen who spent the place census night in summer lodges at Booth's Voe. From 1871 to 1900 the Marquis of Londonderry took a lease of with different essay Noss to breed Shetland Ponies for his County Durham coal mines. A display in the old Pony Pund tells the story of this rather cruel trade, which also involved building a stone wall around the higher cliffs to stop the mares falling over. The stallions were kept in favorite place to visit Bressay until required. Successive farming tenants and their families lived year-round in Noss until 1939. After that it was occupied in summer only until 1969 when the last resident tenant (who was also honorary RSPB birdwatcher and ferryman) gave up the lease. Since 1970 the island has been part of the by vbulletin Garth Estate's home farm and staffed by summer wardens who also provide the ferry service across Noss Sound. Essay! Noss is open to visitors during the summer (except on Mondays and Thursdays) and closed in winter (September to someone my lab mid-May) Boat trips which don't land on the island can visit Noss on any day of the year if the weather is favorite to visit, suitable. In the summer season a warden is usually on duty at the Noss visitor centre to answer any questions. It is also possible to arrange guided tours with groups.
If the weather's too bad for the Scottish Natural Heritage ferry to cross Noss Sound the wardens hoist a red flag outside their house but to avoid disappointment you should check with the essay VisitScotland Information Centre before setting out for Noss. Favorite Place To Visit! If going to Noss by the Noss Sound ferry, be sure to wear sensible footwear - the rocks on both sides of the sound can be slippery. Take warm, waterproof clothing, as the weather on Noss can be very changeable. Visitors' dogs are not welcome. Even well-trained dogs can disturb wildlife and sheep. Don't leave litter - it can kill or maim wildlife. Don't take plants, eggs, birds or animals - only photos. Resume Writing! Stick to the shore path and don't disturb nesting birds, particularly Arctic Skuas. If nesting Bonxies dive-bomb you on the moor, check that you haven't strayed from the perimeter track and, if you have, retrace your steps. Hold a stick above your head or wave your arms to deter the favorite skuas - they're only finn defending their nests - and you'd do the same if some hairy monster invaded your child's bedroom!
For more information see the SNH Noss website. Contact: Scottish Natural Heritage, Ground Floor, Stewart. Building, Alexandra Wharf, Lerwick, Shetland. ZE1 0LL. Telephone +44 (0)1595 693345.
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Patent Abuse or Genius? Is Kyle Bass Abusing the Patent System? Yesterday the Wall Street Journal published an article explaining the novel strategy of Kyle Bass, head of Hayman Capital Management, to make money by invalidating patents. Bass, who has teamed up with Erich Spangenberg, has filed several petitions for to visit inter partes review (IPR) at the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) asking the Patent Trial and Appeal Board (PTAB) to write report invalidate patent claims covering drugs. After filing the IPR Bass then either shorts the stock of the company owning the patent, or he buys shares in place companies that would be benefited by the patent claims becoming invalidated. What Bass is essay doing is alternatively characterized as creative and favorite place to visit essay, brilliant, or evil and abusive. Once upon thesis for huckleberry, a time it was widely believed that post grant challenges would only be a problem for patent owners in favorite place to visit the high-tech sector. Increasingly, however, pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies are finding that their patents are coming under fire, which is alarming given that these companies have relatively few patents covering the commercialized product. If the Bass challenge is successful there will be many more that follow due to the heavy reliance on patents to protect the extremely expensive research and development required to take pharmaceuticals and biosimilars to market. Resume Services Greensboro Nc! Indeed, if Bass is successful it could be catastrophic for the industry.
Regardless of whether you believe Bass is doing a public service, or he is engaged in favorite to visit essay an unforeseen abuse of get creative with essay process, an important question remains: Is Bass able to place essay use IPR to challenge patent claims in this way? Unfortunately, the answer is complicated due to the fact that the statute seems to suggest one answer, while the legislative history suggests a different answer. Post Grant Review at the USPTO. The history of post grant review at the USPTO is relatively short. Services Greensboro! Starting on place to visit essay, September 16, 2012, on the first anniversary of the resume services, signing of the America Invents Act (AIA), the favorite place, PTAB was born. The jurisdiction of the PTAB is greatly expanded compared to the previous Board of Patent Appeals and Interferences (BPAI). Most specifically, the PTAB conducts trials within the Patent Office. These trials are required by the new procedures ushered in by the AIA, namely Inter Partes Review (IPR), Post-Grant Review (PGR) and Covered Business Method (CBM) Review. The Political Essay! These three new varieties of patent challenge allow a petitioner to challenge the propriety of one or more patent claims once they have been granted by the Patent Office. The challenges being brought by favorite essay, Bass are IPRs. In an IPR the petitioner may request to cancel as unpatentable one or more claims of a patent only on a ground that could be raised under 35 U.S.C.
102 or 103 and with, only on the basis of prior art consisting of patents or printed publications. See 35 U.S.C. 311(b). The contest between the favorite to visit essay, petitioner and resume writing nc, patent owner is favorite to visit played out in an administrative trial in front of a panel of the essay, PTAB. The PTAB will not institute an IPR unless there is favorite place to visit a reasonable likelihood that the petitioner would prevail with respect to at least one of the claims challenged in someone write my lab the petition. Essay! The determination by the Director whether to institute an inter partes review under 35 U.S.C. 314 is final and nonappealable.
See 35 U.S.C. 314(d). According to the statute, “[a] person who is not the owner of a patent may file a petition to institute an inter partes review of the essay, patent.” 35 U.S.C. Place To Visit! 311(a). Similarly, with PGR “[a] person who is not the owner of a patent may file with the essay, Office a petition to institute a post-grant review of the patent.” 35 U.S.C. 321(a). However, when it comes to CBM things are quite a bit different: “[a] person may not file a petition for a transitional proceeding with respect to a covered business method patent unless the person or the person’s real party in interest or privy has been sued for infringement of the patent or has been charged with infringement under that patent.” AIA § 18 (a)(1)(B). As you can see, in order to challenge a patent using CBM the petitioner must be a defendant in a patent infringement lawsuit, or have been charged with infringement. No such similar requirement exists for place to visit either IPR or PGR. This is why Bass has a legitimate reason to essay believe that he can challenge patents despite having no direct interest in the patent either as an alleged infringer, licensee or prospective licensee. Despite the fact that the place to visit essay, statute on its face seems to research paper about allow any petitioner to file an IPR, it still feels wrong to many in the industry that a wealthy businessman should be able to reap financial rewards for a situation he creates.
This is no doubt reinforced by familiarity with post grant procedures at the USPTO and essay, why they were created in the first place. Time and time again throughout the essay, legislative history post grant proceedings were explained as being a faster, low-cost alternative to litigating validity disputes in Federal District Court. That being the case, it would seem extremely odd that any petitioner could bring a post grant challenge to a patent when that petitioner would not have standing to sue to invalidate the patent in Federal District Court. Make no mistake about it – Kyle Bass would not be able to take his challenge to Federal District Court. He would have no standing to favorite to visit bring a Declaratory Judgment Action. There is no case or controversy. So why then would he have standing to bring a post grant challenge?
Patent reform efforts that ultimately culminated in the AIA were underway for at least five years prior to thesis for huckleberry enactment of the favorite, legislation. Essay! In one earlier round of favorite place reform attempts, on April 18, 2007, Congressman Howard Berman speaking on the introduction of the Patent Reform Act of 2007, explained that the post grant procedures in the legislation were to “provide meaningful, low-cost alternatives to litigation for challenging the patent validity…” Berman would go on to say: “The post-grant procedure is designed to allow parties to challenge a granted patent through a expeditious and less costly alternative to thesis litigation. Many have expressed concerns about the possibility of harassment of patent owners who want to assume quiet title over their invention. Place! In an effort to address those concerns, the bill prohibits multiple bites at the apple by restricting the cancellation petitioner to essay opt for only one window one time. The bill also requires that the Director prescribe regulations for sanctions for abuse of process or harassment.” This theme is constantly repeated throughout the legislative history. Post grant procedures were designed to to visit be an resume writing greensboro nc alternative to litigation, and Congress was well aware of at favorite place to visit essay least some potential abuses of the new procedures. Someone My Lab Report! The intent was to give those with a justiciable grievance a cheaper, faster forum in which to challenge a patent. Likewise, the procedures were designed to the greatest extent possible to essay prevent abuse of process and/or harassment. The legislative history is silent with respect to the type of challenge Bass is get creative essay bringing, although it stretches the imagination to believe that Congress intended to allow pharmaceutical companies to be subjected to favorite place a challenge by culture, an individual or entity that would not have standing to sue in Federal District Court. But Congressman Berman was not the only one to make these same assertions, nor were they only made with respect to the Patent Reform Act of place 2007.
One of the three goals of the get creative essay, Patent Reform Act of 2007 was “to improve and clarify several aspects of patent litigation, including the creation of a less expensive, more expeditious administrative alternative to litigating patent validity issues,” explained Senator Patrick Leahy (D-VT) on January 24, 2008. “The time has come to eliminate the inter partes reexamination system and replace it with a new post-grant review system at the USPTO that will give third parties a quick, inexpensive, and reliable alternative to place to visit district court litigation to resume services resolve questions of patent validity.” Similarly, in a report from the minority relating to post grant review procedures contained within the Patent Reform Act of 2007, Senators Tom Coburn (R-OK), Charles Grassley (R-IA), Jon Kyl (R-AZ) and Sam Brownback (R-KS), explained that post grant review procedures “should be timely and streamlined and should take issues off the table that cannot be resurrected in subsequent litigation, providing a cost effective alternative to litigation. To protect patent holders from harassment and abuse by a competitor or infringer, the system must be narrowly crafted with appropriate safeguards.” Fast forward to 2011. On the Senate floor during the patent reform debate on February 28, 2011, Senator Orrin Hatch (R-UT) explained: “The bill will also establish another means to administratively challenge the validity of favorite a patent at the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office, USPTO— creating a cost-effective alternative to formal litigation, which will further enhance our patent system.” Senator Grassley similarly explained that the pending bill would “provide faster, less costly alternatives to civil litigation to challenge patents.” Senator Leahy also explained during the debate that post grant procedures would “offer productive alternatives to costly and essay, complex litigation.” On March 7, 2011, Senator Leahy would again echo his previous comments, saying the bill would “streamline the current ‘inter partes’ system so that it will be a more efficient alternative to favorite essay litigation.” Similarly, Senator Mark Udall (D-CO) explained that post grant proceedings “are intended to serve as a less-expensive alternative to courtroom litigation and provide additional access to the expertise of the Patent Office on questions of patentability.”
Senator Jeff Sessions (R-AL), also spoke in some detail about the writing nc, measures Congress was taking to help ensure that post grant proceedings did not become abusive. Sessions explained: “The bill also includes many protections that were long sought by favorite essay, inventors and patent owners. It preserves estoppel against relitigating in court those issues that an inter partes challenger reasonably could have raised in his administrative challenge. It imposes time limits on starting an inter partes or post-grant review when litigation is pending. And it imposes a one-year time limit on the duration of these proceedings. All of these reforms will help to ensure that post-grant review operates fairly and is not used for purposes of harassment or delay.” In the House of Representatives, on research paper about culture, June 22, 2011, the to visit, primary architect of the political essay reform in the House, Congressman Lamar Smith (R-TX) repeatedly explained that the purpose of allowing post grant challenges to to visit essay issued patents was to provide a low cost alternative to invalidate patent claims. At one point during the day Smith explained that post grant challenges “would create a cheap and speedy alternative to litigation— allowing parties to resolve these disputes rather than spend millions of dollars that litigation now costs.
In the get creative with styles, process, the proceeding would also prevent nuisance or extortion litigation settlements.” Even the Obama Administration understood post grant proceedings to be for the purpose of creating an alternative to litigation in favorite place Federal District Court. Then Commerce Secretary Gary Locke explained that a post grant challenge “decreases the likelihood of expensive litigation because it creates a less costly, in-house administrative alternative to review patent validity claims.” Given the universal agreement that the purpose for creating new post grant challenges was to create a low-cost alternative to litigation to determine the validity of patent claims it is difficult to understand why the Bass challenge should be allowed to move forward. Furthermore, given the concern about extortion litigation settlements, abusive challenges and resume writing greensboro, harassment of essay patent owners, it seems unlikely that Congress would be supportive of the type of challenge that Bass is pursuing using IPRs. Of course, if Congress wanted to with essay styles limit IPR and PGR to petitioners who had a vested interest in the outcome they could have done so, as they did do with CBM challenges. It will be interesting to see what happens with the Bass petitions, and place to visit essay, even more interesting to see whether Congress steps in to bail out the pharmaceutical industry. After all, it was the resume greensboro nc, pharmaceutical lobby that drafted the AIA in the first place. How ironic that the AIA could bring the industry to place its knees. * For a compilation of get creative with different essay documents that make up the legislative history please see Comprehensive Legislative History of the Leahy-Smith America Invents Act , Compiled, Edited, And Abridged by Patrick A. Doody, Pillsbury Winthrop Shaw Pittman. Gene Quinn is a Patent Attorney and Editor and founder of IPWatchdog.com.
Gene is favorite place also a principal lecturer in research the PLI Patent Bar Review Course and an attorney with Widerman Malek. Gene’s specialty is in the area of strategic patent consulting, patent application drafting and favorite, patent prosecution. He consults with attorneys facing peculiar procedural issues at with styles the Patent Office, advises investors and executives on patent law changes and pending litigation matters, and works with start-up businesses throughout the place to visit, United States and around the world, primarily dealing with software and computer related innovations. Gene is admitted to practice law in with essay New Hampshire, is a Registered Patent Attorney and is also admitted to practice before the favorite essay, United States Court of report Appeals for the Federal Circuit. CLICK HERE to send Gene a message. Warning Disclaimer : The pages, articles and comments on IPWatchdog.com do not constitute legal advice, nor do they create any attorney-client relationship. The articles published express the personal opinion and views of the author and should not be attributed to the author’s employer, clients or the sponsors of place to visit IPWatchdog.com. Read more. There are currently 37 Comments comments. The problem for Pharma is only in respect of invalid patents they hold.
The valid patents will remain intact. Essay! So one way of avoiding this problem and place to visit, ensuring they have robust stock values is to make sure they only try and monopolize patentable inventions. You miss the point. When an IPR challenge is brought patent owners need to be prepared to spend about $1 million (or more) to defend a patent already lawfully obtained. Paper! Further, there is no reason to believe that IPR was intended to allow for favorite to visit this type of strategy. Further, your view of a patent as a monopoly misses the point as well. A patent only provides the opportunity for monopoly profits for a very short time. A patent is not a monopoly, nor does it guarantee a monopoly.
This is a critical distinction because to have monopoly power you need to have something that other people are willing to pay for and acquire. These valuable inventions were not the type of about culture inventions that anyone thought would be subject to post grant challenge. Post grant challenges were created to deal with low quality patents in the tech sector, not pharmaceuticals. Place Essay! Indeed, no industry actor would ever consider challenging a pharmaceutical patent in an IPR when there are significant advantages to challenging in Federal District Court under Hatch-Waxman. So it seems pretty clear to me that the Bass action here is the result of an unintended consequence of the AIA. I think this is further evidence that no one was really thinking very much or well when they improved the patent system. Standing has been a requirement in article iii litigation since the beginning of time.
Really, the write my lab report, improvements have only weakened inventor’s rights and converted a property system into place essay, a litigation/tort system stacked against writing greensboro nc, inventors and firms who invest in favorite research and development. Research About Culture! They have substituted 1000 page requests for motions with 50 page limits, given disinterested individuals the right to threaten property rights of favorite place essay innovators, and introduced massive uncertainty into the field of innovation. And yet we will see another wave of write report “improvements” soon. Perhaps better regulations could be promulgated that would institute a standing requirement. Perhaps the Office should also consider whether it should respect the decisions it has already made in issuing the patent. Place To Visit! While the statute creates a presumption of validity in the courts, shouldn’t it be logical that the Office should be bound by its own factual findings, at least to thesis for huckleberry essays some extent? If the favorite place to visit essay, Office isn’t so inclined, doesn’t it really decrease faith in write report its own operations? The real mystery to place to visit me is why this ever took place. The Political Essay! I may be wrong, but most of the invalidation arguments are obviousness arguments. In a world with all of the information technology available so readily, the fact that an obviousness argument can be collaged doesn’t seem impressive to me, nor fatal to the merits of an invention.
The fact that often the challenges are based upon several references, strikes me as an indication that we are focusing on the wrong things. Place To Visit Essay! We really need a property system that will encourage creativity in writing nc effective business relationships and licensing more than we need fanciful litigation. I can assure you I am not missing any of the favorite, points and I like the article. These procedures may be a new thing for the US but outside of the US we have had patent opposition procedures for years that have been instigated by numerous interested third parties for 101 reasons one of which I am sure is making money on stock fluctuations. The thing is that a reasonable number of the political US patents that have been “lawfully” obtained are not actually “lawfully” valid. Big Pharma are just as prone to push the boundaries on this as anyone else. There is so called “abuse” of the patent system from all quarters. This “new” US phenomena may get some to up their game. I see US patents across sectors that are of suspect validity every week.
Just because Pharma spends big on RD and innovation does not mean they are entitled to invalid patents. They are no more worthy than any other sector. We all know that Pharma play games with the patent system to extend their monopoly periods. Essay! I think the monopoly issue is just semantics anyway. There is significant advantage for post grant challenge over the courts.
The main one being the quality of assessment and with different essay, another is the costs. In Europe for example most would prefer an to visit essay opposition division that at report least understands novelty as opposed to a Judge that may not and a quality low cost outcome. The US system at $1 million or more is just a bad joke from a relative point of view on costs but it is cheaper than the unpredictable US courts. I know there may have been certain motivations for favorite to visit essay this new US system derived from for huckleberry finn essays a desire to “clean up” tech sector patents (which I support entirely), but I see no reason why it should not be used to “clean up” the patents in favorite place to visit essay all sectors and Pharma is as good as any. I suppose Pharma is an obvious target for this “new” business model as they have fewer patents that are more critical. If you look at get creative with different styles the tech sector post Alice 80% of their patents are complete trash…..but what about their stock values? Hardly a flutter.
That tells you something. I agree that this Hedge fund activity does not appear to have been envisaged at least by those who proposed the favorite to visit essay, system in the US, but it’s not that surprising to those outside of the US. It may have been unintended but you could actually see it coming a mile off! What Kyle Bass is doing here just proves (again) that Congress failed to think through all the potential consequences of these IPR proceedings when enacting the AIA (Abominable Inane Act) legislation. And HR 9 has the same potential to cause such “unintended consequences.” I would make one further point on “unintended” consequences. Essays By Vbulletin! We see that occur all the time when the courts make decisions that are clearly not supported by the actual legislation or the favorite to visit, spirit of the legislation. These Judges just make the law up as they go along. Business method patents are a prime example.
These abominations and associated bad behaviour are the root cause of much of the rapid and ill thought out legislation we are wrestling with in the US. There is plenty being caught in resume the crossfire. This is rather intriguing. When Erich Spangenberg was a big bad patent troll, he was using patent law to favorite to visit essay find infringers and make money. Now, he’s finding bad patents (at least from his perspective) and attempting to invalidate them. He’s only going after publicly traded companies which should have vetted their patents long ago. I suspect you’ll be seeing challenges to patents like, US 7,769,600, Disease Management System and Method — Allowing a patient access to an automated process for get creative different essay managing a specific health problem called a disease. A low quality patent is favorite essay a low quality patent. Invalidating pharma and the political, biotech will require a deeper bench of experts on both sides and isn’t going after businesses who want to let their customers read their email via wifi while sipping their morning coffee. One thing that I have not seen much reflection on is the fact that inter partes reviews replaced the inter partes reexamination system, which also did not have a standing requirement.
Would Bass’ business model have worked just as well under that system, or are there special features of the favorite place essay, current IPR system that are of get creative with styles particular concern? Sorry, but if you are trying to say that business method patents are a creation of the judiciary you are sadly mistaken. Read the Patent Statute and you will notice that business methods are specifically mentioned in the text. Furthermore, all kinds of business methods were patentable long before State Street. Not surprisingly, I agree with you completely.
The problem with patent legislation is favorite place to visit essay that it does nothing to essays actually improve the system. The AIA just rearranged the chairs on the deck to create a different set of laws. It didn’t harmonize our laws with other countries. We are just different in other ways than we once were. Favorite Place To Visit! This is also a major problem with the Innovation Act. Research About! It seems that Congress wants to play whack-a-mole without any kind of thought about whether this improves the system or even addresses the problem they intend to solve. For example, fee shifting will not solve the problem they think they observe. To get fees you have to actually prevail, which means going all the favorite to visit essay, way to the end. But we know that the big companies settle with patent trolls for nuisance value. The only resume writing services greensboro nc time they fight to favorite to visit the end is with valuable commercial innovations.
Gene — should Bass be successful in write my lab report his IPR effort(s), would he have Article III standing assuming the losing pharma/bio company appealed? Yes I am aware of the history. I was of course referring to computer or internet implemented inventions and post State Street. Someone recently pointed out the clear increase in patenting rates post State Street. It’s clearly part of the problem hence the place to visit essay, need to deal with junk tech patents. The “unintended consequences” of State Street are “real” Patent Trolls not NPEs and the current attacks on invention and resume nc, innovation. I think the problem is more complex than that. The shift to favorite place to visit this area of thinking has infested all areas of innovation and lead to some amusing outcomes. One example is US 8,865,100. The other is US Supreme Court and “abstract ideas”.
The only problem I have with the US IPR area is the essays, ridiculous costs. We can achieve a usually quality result after an Appeal process in Europe for a fraction of these costs. Place Essay! The parties get justice as does the public when bad patents are dead. So these people are engaged with a stock play. Big deal. Thesis Essays! Parties have been using IP related issues for decades to impact company values and make money. One upside of this activity is decluttering the top end of Pharma and favorite place to visit essay, increasing the drive for new technologies and acquisition from start-ups and dare I say it NPEs. Thesis Essays! I wonder if Mr Bass and Mr Spangenberg have a bob or two invested in essay that area? #128521;
Here’s a thought….perhaps we should label Kyle Bass a “reverse patent troll”, draw up an new scary image of what would look like and bring a new round of legislation with massive Google-style lobbying efforts to resume writing Congress to place to visit essay combat this out of powered control “problem”. All one needs to do is convince Goidlatte and Issa that you are a champion for favorite place to visit essay innovation, and essay, visit the White House 230 times over essay the next few yearS #128578; Is anyone laughing yet about the current HR9 situation and all of it’s “unintended consequences”? Wonder if any of paper culture it’s backers give a hoot about this issue? I would bet not. Jeez, looks like true innovation in America is under attack from all sides, even if for favorite place to visit essay sport, by paper culture, those with tremendous influence and financial resources….and only their own sole interests at place to visit heart. Get Creative Essay Styles! Maybe the Wall Street Journel (besides you Gene) is becoming the mainstream paper of record on this brazen daylight heist of favorite place to visit essay America’s essential new business incubating process. Let’s hope folks in research paper about Washington are reading and paying attention. with all due respect – looking from the lens of purpose or intent may be informative. seeking to invalidate ip for the purpose of profit by speculation primarily serves a few people, speculators. it also seems to undermine the system that encourages entities to take risks in the process of expanding mankind’s understanding by rewarding them with exclusivity. speculation just produces more capital – the federal reserve has invented the favorite, mean to create endless capital – that at the end of the day seems to be hurting many people… i am in favor of ensuring a better life by encouraging and protecting people and entities that focus on making life better by thesis for huckleberry finn, finding new and novel solutions and not just by making more money by favorite essay, speculation.
i am very much a capitalist, but believe without purpose and service to thesis for huckleberry finn others we are lost. hope this is helpful. big lather inventor. Same sad, old story: Money men vs. idea men. Money men win. same story, new day with more understanding. we are learning that capital creation is endless, but good ideas are harder to come by – so as we evolve, good ideas need to to visit triumph over endless bad capital creation… or we all perish, surrounded by piles of worthless money:) “Given the universal agreement that the purpose for creating new post grant challenges was to create a low-cost alternative to litigation to determine the validity of the political essay patent claims it is difficult to understand why the Bass challenge should be allowed to move forward.” I have a hard time agreeing with this statement. Nothing about Mr. Bass’s action are contradictory to the purpose of favorite to visit creating a low-cost alternative for determining validity.
Even if each IPR/PGR costs $1 million to litigate (which is on the very high end of the ones I have worked on), that is powered by vbulletin still cheaper than litigation for both the challenger and the patent holder. Favorite Place To Visit Essay! If anything, the statement made in the conclusion is inapposite to the issue of cost. Although I generally do not approve of the business model of NPEs/trolls, I am opposed to the sweeping legislation that is pending in Congress. Similarly, I do not like the idea of having Congress “fix” the issue of hedge funds challenging patents of questionable validity. If anything, I view invalid patents to be a market inefficiency to essays by vbulletin the extent that they create barriers to entry (real or perceived) for competitors. Mr. Bass is exploiting that market inefficiency to make money. That sounds like an entrepreneurial approach that most capitalists could get behind. This article seems to suggest that IPRs and PGRs should be modified to favorite to visit change the standing requirement to prevent challenges from parties like hedge funds.
I see a similarity between this idea and finn, efforts to curb patent trolls. With respect to the latter, observers often say that we could cure the problem of patent trolls by preventing a party from suing another unless it is actually practicing its patent. I abhor this idea, and place, I would guess that many of the commenters on this blog feel the same way. But how is that approach any different from what is suggested with respect to with styles preventing a hedge fund from challenging a patent’s validity? At the end of the day, I think the market can solve the favorite to visit essay, problem posed by Mr. Bass all by itself. If a publicly-owned corporation wants to avoid exposure to challenges like this, they should give more careful consideration to the patent claims they prosecute. They can pursue a range of claims, some more broad and others more narrow. By obtaining a large number of the political essay claims of varying scope, it makes challenges by favorite essay, third parties more difficult and less attractive to culture people like Mr. Favorite Place Essay! Bass.
“. . . Resume Writing Services Greensboro! it still feels wrong to many in the industry that a wealthy businessman should be able to reap financial rewards for a situation he creates.” This is another statement that seems incorrect to me. How has Bass created the situation? He did not prosecute the patents, not did he examine/allow the claims having specious validity. Favorite Place To Visit! He did not create the IPR/PGR processes. Essay! I hate that I am defending Bass’s actions, but I have yet to see a criticism of his tactics that makes sense. If the patent is favorite to visit essay valid, then I trust that the patent owners will be vindicated either at the PTAB or the Federal Circuit. with all due respect, mr. bass and other extorters of get creative with different unearned rents may not care if they win or loose in the patent review process as long as they extract more profit than the cost of the hit and run process – that is what really needs to be debated… as well as the collateral damage to the spirit of place essay innovation that must now fear the essay, bully of place to visit essay too big to research about fail money… big lather inventor.
To be fair, Bass’s scheme relies on targeting publicly-held companies. The patents of small businesses (i.e., loosely-held corporations and privately owned companies) are not going to be at risk here because there is little money in it. Favorite Place To Visit! I suppose he could challenge a patent of a small business if doing so would raise the stock of a publicly-held competitor, but I believe those situations are uncommon. Considering the thesis for huckleberry essays, fact that large corporations are probably the most common target of his challenges, I think that these parties have the place to visit essay, ability to defend their patents, so I am not sure how much “bullying” is taking place. And they certainly can find creative ways to make these types of challenges less attractive, such as by obtaining a large number of claims with different scope (as I mentioned above). Certainly there is a calculus of balancing the potential profit against the cost, but I have a hard time believing that the stock will fluctuate very much just due to the fact that someone files an IPR challenge. Beside, if the challenge has little merit, the patent owner can seek sanctions against the challenger. “Loosely-held” should be “closely-held” in the comment above. Sorry for the typo. Post grant trials instituted by the AIA did not really provide a “new” avenue of essay attack on favorite place to visit, patents, rather they are essentially just revised versions of previously available reexamination procedures (ex parte (which is still available) and essays, more closely inter partes reexam). The scheme being relied upon by place, Bass could have been readily implemented for over a decade prior to enactment of the AIA.
However (and this is a BIG however), the former reexamination proceedings tended to be patent owner friendly and very slow – making implementation of Bass’s scheme much more difficult and risky. Accordingly, it is only the statistical success of invalidating patents in trials in front of the AIA that make IPRs or CBMs an attractive avenue for use in “schemes” such as the one discussed here. We are already seeing a shift in the statistics of thesis finn essays success in invalidating patents in front of the PTAB and I believe (hope) it will continue to become more balanced in the future. In the end, I tend to agree that this is an abuse of the favorite place to visit essay, system, but it is not a new avenue for abuse – just a more friendly one (at least currently). From this side of the pond, the problems seem to the political essay be procedural in favorite nature. The theory of allowing challenges by persons without locus standi is finn good. To Visit! The issue is that there is writing services greensboro nc no penalty for over-lawyering. The system will shake out once the rules genuinely allow a fair defence to be launched, and the PTAB proves it issues high quality judgments. Patents in Europe have high value and essay, are challengeable by research about, any person in EPO opposition procedures, but the to visit essay, costs are 5% because the greensboro nc, EPO does not encourage parties to instruct the level of lawyering that seems commonplace in place essay USA. Let the hedge funds play in our world, their main interest is their own pockets, but the general public benefits from the register being cleared of research culture patents that are invalid.
“That being the case, it would seem extremely odd that any petitioner could bring a post grant challenge to a patent when that petitioner would not have standing to sue to invalidate the patent in Federal District Court. ” How is the place to visit essay, IPR Process any different than prior reexamination (post grant) procedures? In fact ex parte can be filed by get creative with styles, anyone anonymously. I see absolutely no prohibition on this, and in fact the CBM procedure shows you Congress knew when it wanted to impose restrictions, and essay, when it did not. I think we are going to see more of Bass and others because the language contains no restrictions. Congress was specifically trying to fix a problem with inter partes reexamination. Someone Write My Lab! It was not viewed as an adequate or suitable alternative to district court litigation.
So that is why they say over favorite place to visit and over again in someone write the legislative history that they wanted to scrap inter partes reexamination in favorite place essay favor of something that would be a meaningful (and used) alternative to litigation. I think without a legislative fix it will be extremely difficult to prevent this type of use. The statute is the political essay pretty clear, and as you point out they know how to favorite essay require standing because they did that with CBM. Write! With the statute being so clear you probably never get to the legislative history for guidance. The real problem with interpartes was that it was not resulting in favorite to visit the “kill” rate that the IP offenders wanted to research about culture see. Place! Cost, really, has little do with it. Let me explain why, as someone who gets to essays powered by vbulletin see this played out favorite to visit, every day.
The business of patents is now almost 95% a defense attorney “perpetual employment” act. Big firms love patent cases, because their clients are easily cajoled into spending another nickel or dime (to the bottom line) on yet another frivolous motion. Again, easy example from a real case: 1) complaint filed. 2) D immediately files motion for transfer (this costs about $50k-$100k) 3) Court does nothing, sit on it.
4) D files motion for lack of standing (this costs another $100k easily) 5) Court does nothing, sits on it. 6) D now prepares Answer, since no ruling (depending on resume writing, complexity, could be $20-50k) 7) D now starts discovery by noticing the deposition of favorite place essay anyone remotely connected to the case, and the political, asking for every piece of paper printed on favorite to visit, the continent; this “process” easily sucks up $500-$1m. Yet, now, throughout this entire process, not once has the D responded to any of the merits of the case. The case “exists” solely as a vehicle for generating more attorney fees. More importantly, not once has the D responded to a basic inquiry from the Plaintiff, like “hey, how much is at stake here? if its small, lets just figure out a way to solve this amicably” – again, this is not a question D counsel want to answer, because if it became known really how little is stake (i.e., the plaintiff’s real demand) the client might be disinclined to keep spending giant sums of $$ Now fast forward a few years – the only time D counsel decide they want to shut down a case is when they’ve already milked the client pretty well, and now the incremental advantage of trial fees is resume outweighed by the potential negative of an adverse decision. To Visit Essay! Would’nt look good on the firm resume! So you suddenly see otherwise blustering counsel now falling over themselves trying to come to a “reasonable” agreement with you. That’s 5 years and write report, $3m later.
Yet the place essay, plaintiff’s demand may have been as low as $400-$500k depending on essay, the extent of infringement. In the end, the plaintiff may or may not win the case, but the D attys are ALWAYS winners. The client, having been forced to “settle” for place essay $400k, but pay its own lawyers $3m, then starts a massive PR campaign complaining about the “high cost of litigation” without once acknowledging that it is write almost always (and entirely) their own doing. Such is the sad state of anti-patent propaganda today, directly from the front lines. ‘Third-party’ is the broadest possible term for the drafters to have used; you assume too much if you think the drafters meant it to be restrictive. IPR seems to be modeled on opposition proceedings, which are open to all who wish to pay the fee. Gadflies or non-profit groups like EFF should be, and likely were, considered to be a part (however small) of the IPR process.
The quotes from senators don’t prove very much. Of course they confined their remarks to litigation, as this would represent 99% of IPR activity. That doesn’t show that they cared to restrict ‘third party’ to potential litigants. They didn’t care to restrict it, it seems. Again, the model is opposition.
You make it sound like non-litigant involvement is absurd and never contemplated. What about favorite Peer-to-Patent? – the recurring idea to crowdsource patent examination? (however moronic we practitioners know that idea to thesis essays be). Favorite To Visit Essay! See the about, attached link. Gene: I am curious if you view the third party efforts by EFF (funded through crowdsourcing) to invalidate the Podcasting patent – or past 3rd party efforts to invalidate WARF stem cell patents or Gilead HIV patents as any different than what Bass is doing? There i$ one very evident di$tinction…. I personally think that if post grant procedures are an alternative to favorite to visit essay expensive district court litigation, like they were sold, than it should only thesis finn essays be possible to bring a challenge if the place essay, party bringing the challenge could have standing to challenge the patent in district court. Thus, third party challenges without standing would fail. If they want to challenge the patent third parties who have no standing should be required to powered by vbulletin pursue a reexamination, which is a subsequent examination procedure, not a post grant challenge. Of course, the way that the statute is written is not the way it was sold, which is hardly surprising. I doubt seriously that most members of Congress read the AIA before they voted, and those that did probably didn’t appreciate what they were voting for anyway. thanks for the clarification gene!
hopefully, more transparency in government and input from citizens will begin to make meaningful changes… selling one thing then changing meaningful details to pass something else is fraud !! As someone pointed out above, you only need read the EFF’s self-proclaimed mission to to visit get rid of patents they don’t like (i.e. the Podcast patent) to understand who was “selling” this thing years ago. BTW where is Scott McKeown today to lament or criticize THAT supposed “abuse” of scarce agency resources?? Or is it, as we suspected, only the case that IPR=BAD when its inflicted on a non-NPE? I think the get creative with essay styles, main proponents knew full well what the to visit, scope of this procedure was going to with different styles be… they intentionally hid their ant-patent agenda (as they are doing now with the most recent (de)form proposal) because they didn’t want to publicly announce that it was basically granting a hunting license to kill patents – particularly those of favorite to visit small inventors who cannot afford to defend themselves in these expensive proceedings. The whole thing was disguised, right down to the name – “America Invents Act” – the resume writing nc, only thing that was “invented” were new ways to reduce patent rights – how farcical is that? The whole thing had that 1984 doublespeak spin from the very get go. Anon – I would suggest that $$ drives EFF PubPat decisions (and their supporters) as well.
The cost incurred by large corporations defending their patents is the same regardless of why they are dragged into an IPR. Whose to say EFF and PubPat’s constituents don’t short stock as well? Gene: I guess I don’t understand your objections to 3rd parties bringing IPRs. I am not convinced that a 3rd party trying to place essay invalidate patents is that different than a 3rd party NPE buying patents and asserting them against arguable infringers. With Different Essay! It seems to to visit me to be the other side of the same coin.
Valuable patents (those that protect valuable products) are the focus of any invalidity or infringement action. Would it be substantively different if a competitor of Jazz Pharmaceuticals or a generic pharmaceutical company tried to the political invalidate the Xyrem patent? As for re-exam vs. inter partes review – although procedurally different, in essence each provides a similar outcome. Correct? It seems to me like the favorite place, “hunting license to kill patents” only applies if there is an incentive. Why would anyone spend the time or money to invalidate or assert if there wasn’t some type of upside – financial, public good, revenge/leverage or otherwise? To my knowledge most IPR’s have been targeted at thesis for huckleberry finn essays large companies not small inventors…I am sure someone has the data to test this theory… In general, it seems like 3rd party IPR’s provide a reasonable option to challenge valuable patents…The problem as I see it, is the enormous amount of power that the USPTO wields in determining these outcomes. What is the problem with the USPTO wielding the favorite to visit, “power” in IPR? The USPTO was the party that wielded the power to services greensboro grant these often invalid patents in to visit essay the the first place. Are the courts any better a place?
We need to get away from the mindset that issued patents are sacrosanct and each one is a sort of holy grail…..the pro the political essay patent at all costs mindset. It’s this philosophy confusingly wrapped up in the innovation/investment area that has lead to favorite place to visit many of the problems we see. A dispassionate, functional and low cost way of the political cleaning up patents is worthy in and of itself irrespective of peoples actual motives. Why kill a bad patent? Because we can and if so motivated we should.
There is no value to the wider stakeholder community on not doing so. When it comes to favorite essay “standing” there is one important issue. Someone Write! The public. It is why in EPO proceedings even when a party withdraws the EPO is able to continue to revoke a clearly bad patent in the “public interest” and place to visit, there is nothing that the patent owner can do about that. The patent system is not just for those who actively engage with and use or abuse it. We keep loosing sight of that. Everyone has standing.
with all due respect. standing is get creative essay important to purpose and to visit essay, outcome. the patent system must serve people over money. without protection from rent seeking money pools, innovation will distort society will suffer. recent events are proving money can be an endless commodity – good ideas are harder to thesis for huckleberry essays come by. our founding fathers understood the importance of enabling innovation to improve life over the interest of big money (the king queen in their time) – we should not now hand over that societal benefit to favorite essay too big to fail money pools and get creative essay styles, kleptocracy… i have no personal issue with mr. bass, but do not wish to live by a creed that serves endless money over favorite place essay helping others with better ideas – in my opinion, we are here to serve one another, not money. the nothing new under the the political essay, sun to serve money ideology is dangerous. big lather inventor. I agree that the favorite to visit, patent system must service people over money but it does that through assisting in the focsued use of money. That is the fundamental point and why it is thesis important that standing does not preclude any interested parties. There has been an favorite essay overemphasis in recent times in the US on the money rent seeking players in the system.
It has blinded people to the reality. I have worked with companies that have avoided US market entry because of large volumes of junk patents in the hands of so called innovating practicing entities; big and small. The cost for entry is artificailly high due to this assymetry and the exhorbitent costs of dealing with the junk patent problem. Where is their “standing”. As I have said previously the US patent system does not belong to the USA. In fact as many non-US companies and applicants use it as US companies.
By having inappropriate “standing” requirements you will see less not more innovation as it will push the risks of market entry to a much higher level…..you have to risk being sued, which of course will happen as most abuse litigation to the political essay distort the place, market. Someone Write My Lab! Thats the purpose of a MAD patent strategy. Abuse the system with piles of place essay junk so real innovators can’t enter the market with ease. This has a far geater impact on get creative with different styles, US innovation than any rent seeker behaviour. I am fundamentally on the side of the inventor and the generation and use of ideas but not through the favorite place to visit essay, use of a bastardised system which is research paper culture shaped in the image of those who would abuse it from all quarters.
We have unforseen consequences and the answer is not to knee-jerk but to favorite to visit work out appropriate low cost solutions. Its the same with the NPE/Troll debate. Without careful thought we end up with baby bathwater scenarios and it is with that thought that I have some sympathy with Genes points about the way legislation has been enacated not necessarily the outcomes. I actually think that the notion that we pretend that everyting is new under the sun for get creative with different essay the same money ideology is equally damaging. Non-inventions recieving financial backing just becuase there are bad patents around means less money for real inventions/innovation.
That’s economic madness and place, contrary to the purpose of the writing greensboro, patent system.
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I have been told that I provide a safe pair of hands in challenging times. I am committed to learning and essay, self-development so that I can consistently achieve better results. I am seen as a subject matter expert within the field of workforce management and deployment. I have an extremely versatile skill set. The Top Ten Words to place essay Leave Off a CV. Whilst the words above can be great additions to a CV, our experts also have their bugbears about someone my lab report, certain other words that candidates use. Here is a list of our top ten words to avoid using on place essay your resume. Using this will make you sound like you are a steak! Also, it is so dated.
There are much better words to essays use! Recruiters want a collaborator not a dictator, especially in the customer service field. So, replace a phrase such as “I was in an authoritative position…” with “I was in a position of leadership…”. Give examples of how you were made to place think creatively and the benefits that such innovation brought to the company. Resume Writing Greensboro Nc! To do this, it is important to avoid vague phrases such as “I think outside the box.” There is a chance, no matter how excellent you believe your grammar to be, that you will make a mistake on your CV. Place! Whilst many recruiters may overlook one minor error, pairing the someone my lab, mistake with the phrase “detail-orientated” could create problems. If your CV is written correctly the recruiter will be able to see your track record, so don’t waste your limited space with needless phrases like this.
It is much more convincing to place to visit essay show the recruiter that you are a hard-worker than to tell them. Recruiters will draw their own conclusions from the about culture, evidence that you present, so don’t try to confuse them by using vague phrases… it won’t work. Are results your only favorite essay driver? Don’t limit yourself by using such language. Demonstrate how you are driven by purpose, personal development and colleagues/teammates, as well as by achievement. Not only is this too informal for a CV, it takes focus away from how your skills align with those in the job description. Don’t distract yourself by resume nc, trying to do everyone else’s jobs – they they will be more experienced in these than you. This is favorite place to visit essay, so over-used. If you were not passionate about an finn essays aspect of the role, it is place, assumed that you would not be applying for the position. So, set yourself apart from the average candidate by trying something different, like noting how fulfilling the passion makes you feel. It is important to note that you enjoy a collaborative atmosphere, but the research about, phrase “team-player” is contrived.
Alternatively, refer to favorite to visit a success story of when you worked alongside someone else to bring great benefits to the workplace. The advice above can help to shape a CV, but doing any of the following can seriously damage your chances of acquiring the customer service job that you crave. CVs should never be written in essays powered third person. Use first person and favorite, choose the present or past tense to get creative with different essay styles showcase the most important and relevant information to your employment goals. So, for example, do not say “James Bell is…” , but instead state “I am…” . Things to include: your address, postcode, mobile number and email address! So many people are not including this information, making it very difficult for agencies and organisations to to visit essay know where candidates are looking for get creative different essay styles, work and also to favorite essay register the resume services greensboro nc, CVs on favorite essay their systems. It also makes it impossible to find candidates again when searching in specific locations. This is just a waste of space, especially as you should already be struggling to cut your CV down into two pages.
Also, don’t save your CV as an Infographic. Get Creative With! These may look good, but they can’t be used by agencies and favorite, often won’t upload to company career sites – send your CV as a PDF or Word document and essays powered, keep the formatting simple! Expanding Margins and Cutting White Space. No one wants to read a CV that is formatted with a tiny font and no white space! White space allows the place to visit, eye to greensboro nc rest between reading and favorite, absorbing the content, and it acts as a cue to important information the different, employer should read with care. At the same time, a CV with too much white space will look like you have no relevant experience or skills to place to visit essay offer the employer. Find a happy medium – keep the CV readable and clean, while filling the space. Including Spelling, Grammar and Punctuation Mistakes.
In this day and age there should be NO excuses, but it still happens, and more often than you would expect. These kinds of mistakes can get even the most qualified candidate’s CV thrown into the “no” pile. Remember, the CV is an excellent way to demonstrate to potential employers or recruiters what type of employee you are, your attitude to work and, most importantly, your attention to detail! After you have reviewed your CV carefully, have a friend – or two – review it again for the political essay, you! Heavily Detailing Secondary Experiences. It is very easy to keep adding a new job to your existing CV, but does your previous role still hold any relevance? Or, looking back, should your previous role actually be enhanced to favorite place support more of the political essay, your present role? As your career progresses, your older jobs may not be as relevant as they once were. Place Essay! Your CV is your opportunity to showcase your career and you need to resume services highlight what is most important, taking space from less important detail that you may now be able to favorite to visit essay remove. Listing Your Duties from a Previous Job. Everyone needs to the political essay see and understand what you do, but what is it that sets you apart from the crowd?
In addition to listing some, if not all, of your duties and responsibilities, try and include some achievements, tangibles, or context around the role. This could involve something like the favorite essay, following: You may write: I am responsible for 100 + FTE. You could write: I am responsible for the leadership, coaching and development of 100 FTE. In the past year we have seen an uplift of 5% on service level performance against the previous 5 years.
Do you agree with our lists? Which other words would you have included or perhaps excluded? Please leave your thoughts in someone write report the comments section below. Visit our jobs page to find your next opportunity. Published On: 23rd May 2017 - Last modified: 22nd Sep 2017. These phrases are positive and dynamic . I’m re-writing my CV at essay the moment and find this really useful. I’m currently re-writing my CV. Trying to find words to describe my transferable skills, i’ve used ”HIGHLY motivated and EXTREMELY punctual” but struggling to find more. This is a wonderful an nc important material to place to visit essay increase the powered, knowledge in these kind of topics. I apprecite your special help.
Thank you for posting this wonderful tool. I have included many of these words in my resumes and applications, and i think that they put me over the other applicants with the same qualifications. Amazing I’m using this for my interview. Aamazing. what a load of rubbish. why cant you just be yourself why do we all have to conform to the same surely its all about what you have to essay say soon we be like a communist state……. Brilliant help.
Thank you. Resume Writing Services! I knew that my daughter was good at and what her personal traits are but I just couldn’t think of the right words. Favorite To Visit Essay! Well done! i am always trustworthy. This is very good. You should also do negative words so that we can understand what not to resume writing services use in place our CV. Used correctly and appropriately, the above words can work wonders. However, there is a risk that they are over-used or (worse) used as ‘filler’, where the CV ends up being a mish-mash of buzz-words.
Use these key ‘postivifiers’ succinctly rather than sporadically thrown in, and you will see far more companies return to you offering an interview. You are a life saver! awarded is write, a good word to favorite place use. Yeahhhh, conform to not being conformist. Cv are hard as employers usually only report look at the cv for place to visit, about 4/6 seconds.
Getting a job now is more about powered by vbulletin, who you know, rather than what you know.. Etc.. If your face fits and are incapable of the job then you are fine. Keeping at it people #128578; Something always comes along. This is amazing, I used this via email and it worked wonders. Thank you. DO NOT use any of these words. DO NOT say ‘I am creative/energetic/hardworking/dependable’. What have you done that shows you are creative, energetic hardworking/dependable?, use your achievements to highlight your skills and let the employer judge for themselves!
These so called ‘buzz-words’ are found on every cv, use creative ways of writing to place give the same impression… Having read all the praise and criticism I can say that you’re all right and services nc, also wrong. Favorite Place Essay! In fact its both… Yes, use these words to ensure you have said what needs to write my lab be said however, that alone will not win you an interview. Place To Visit Essay! To say ‘don’t use these words’ is get creative with different, also pretty stupid as you’ll end up with the CV that doesn’t say ‘honest’ etc so, at favorite place to visit least bring yourself in line with everyone else at that stage!
To win an interview you need to write basic information SUPPORTED with substantial evidence of competence. For example, a sales person stating only their title, dates and role responsibilities is nearly a total waste of time. Instead, support this with achievements: Target of X, won Y. Won X client, grew Y account by ?20k, increased GP by 47%, etc. Think about the key skills required to do the paper about, job well and focus on providing evidence that you can do them. e.g. Place! Communication, Negotiation, Closing, etc – then add an example/result of essay, having done it. Simple. If you’re in a job where success is harder to quantify than a sales role think about favorite to visit essay, how your manager measures your performance.
If he/she targets you on cost savings, lead times, quality, complaints, etc then that dictates your achievements. Resume Writing Greensboro! Remember that if you’re going for a job in the same sector with similar managers, speak their language to impress them. Also, think about the changes you have introduced that have had a positive impact on favorite essay your employer’s business. Each one is an achievement, even if its not work related! (e.g. started social events, charity runs, etc) In short, its WHAT YOU DID, not just a regurgitated job description and dates.
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30 Free Printable Resume Templates 2017 to Get a Dream Job. Job search is a time-consuming and nerve-racking process that exhausts all candidates. And I wasn’t an exception. When I was looking for the job of my dreams, I focused mainly on preparing for an interview and neglected to create a professional resume. I simply opened a Word doc and listed my skills, education, and previous part-time jobs I took as a student. The outcome was like someone shut the favorite to visit, door in thesis finn essays, my face.
I sent my CV to about 20 companies, and place, NONE of them got in touch with me. I didn’t expect prompt replies from writing greensboro recruiters, but in a week I understood there was no point to keep on waiting. Favorite To Visit! I even thought something went wrong with my mailbox. To test it, I sent my CV to my close friend, and he got it. So, the problem wasn’t in the political, my mailbox. It was my CV that failed.
Today, I want to share free goodies with you and favorite place to visit, other desperate job seekers who don’t want to screw up their resumes like I did. How To Make The Perfect Resume [Ultimate Tutorial] Instead of sweating over your CV, you can use a ready-made solution that looks professional, stylish, and eye-catching. Check out my exclusive set of 30+ free printable resume templates 2017 . Your CV is the only chance to writing services greensboro make a favorable first impression on recruiters before the interview, so it’s crucial to polish it from all angles. While the first and foremost thing to favorite place to visit essay focus on is definitely content, you can’t neglect the importance of its structure and look. If your CV doesn’t appeal to essay styles employers visually, they won’t expect that from you either and will probably throw it off without reading a single line of favorite text. You may be the perfect candidate for services nc, a vacancy, but no one will ever know it if your resume doesn’t accentuate this fact. Favorite To Visit Essay! According to nc the estimates revealed at inc.com , every job opening attracts around 250 applicants.
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Furthermore, you can optionally combine two formats to highlight your expertise and skills the same well. 2. Focus on the resume design . Your CV must be attention-getting and memorable, but you shouldn’t achieve such a wow effect by making it content-heavy, excessively colorful or, say, cluttered with multiple unnecessary elements. Try to keep its layout clean, titles clear, information concise, typography readable, and favorite place to visit essay, palette eye-friendly. Don’t impose yourself on HR managers. Instead, do your best to research paper about culture deliver your merits to them in a somewhat reserved yet inviting manner. Compiling this set of favorite to visit free CV templates, we took into account all the mentioned key points. As a result, we picked 30 unique printable resume designs that can keep your content well-structured, consistent and easy-to-read. You can leave each of them as is or customize a little bit in writing nc, order to add a personal touch to the presentation of your candidacy. Using one of these ready-made templates, you will have an opportunity to get a professional CV at no cost and favorite place to visit, as quick as a flash.
In such a way, there will be much more time for working on the resume content and searching for vacant positions. When choosing the right template for yourself, follow one more tip , please. 3. Consider the industry , in which you’re involved. If you need a job in a traditional sphere, keep your CV a little conservative, but it doesn’t mean plain and dull. Essay! Combine streamlined fonts with bold colors to favorite place give prominence to the most important details, e.g. headings, dates, etc.
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Light blue is used to accentuate headings for better content hierarchy. Classy Emerald – A Fancy Word Resume Template Freebie. If you need a classy design for your CV, try this Word template. Its content-packed layout is perfect for engaging employers with various facts, from experience to education. An emerald green palette will make your resume easy on the eye. Subtle Resume Freebie – The Intelligent Applicant. This creative resume template will capture attention of any HR manager. Gray shades can add a formal tone to your CV, while calligraphy fonts will present your content with style.
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Curriculum Vitae for a Graphic Designer. This free curriculum vitae template in the AI format boasts well-structured blocks and mild colors for a pleasant view. Graphic Designer Resume Template PSD. Get your dream job with the help of this free professional PSD freebie. Edit it the way you like in paper about, the shortest possible time. This freebie is packed with 3 fully layered and editable PSD files of A4 size, 300-dpi resolution, 0.25 bleed, and CMYK . Favorite To Visit Essay! The files are designed for creating a resume, portfolio and cover letter. Each of them boasts a clean look, yellow accents, and resume greensboro nc, Roboto font, which will give a modern look to your documents. Freebie 2015 | Graphic Blue Resume. Here is one of the best free CV templates to print. All the favorite place, elements of this PSD file are editable, which means you can experiment with its design without any limits. Consider this ready-to-print design if you need a simple yet elegant CV.
This AI vector file features 8.5” x 11” dimensions, 300-dpi resolution, and CMYK color profile. Free PSD Resume Cover Letter Template. Photographers, designers, or any other artistic individuals are advised to consider this PSD package. It gives a free access to both a resume and cover letter. The freebie is notable for 3 color options, minimalist icons, and transparent background where you can add your photo or any other image. Write! Take a look at another CV template to impress potential employers. Available in the AI format, it features ample white space spiced up with green accents and geometric shapes for an edgy look.
Here is a contemporary, print-ready and 100% editable PSD design for A4 resumes. This free package is composed of resume, cover letter and business card templates. Free Minimalist Clean Resume Template. This free resume template can be used in place essay, both Photoshop and Illustrator . Its major characteristics include A4 size, 300-dpi resolution, 3-mm bleed, Montserrat font, and get creative different essay styles, smart object header. A cover letter is essay, also accessible in finn, this free package. The next free resume template is designed in the form of a brochure. This PSD file with a thought-out layout can be easily adapted to your preferences. Give a try to this PSD resume template of 300 dpi with fully editable text and artwork. It makes use of modern tricks including Lato font, Flat Icon and Font Awesome . This tastefully simple PSD template features colorful elements, which will let you attract recruiters’ attention to the most important details instantly. Here is an favorite to visit A4 resume template with well-grouped PSD layers and dark layout. The fonts used in its design include Arial, Roboto , and Segoe UI Symbol . Let your resume look creative with this ultramodern freebie.
It comes with PSD folio pages of the political essay a resume and cover letter. You can also choose from favorite place light and dark versions of these designs. Boost your chances to get a desirable job with this professional CV freebie. The template comes in the AI format and get creative different styles, 11” x 8” resolution. Oswald from the Google Fonts API was chosen for favorite place to visit, its typography. Here is a freebie with a two-column layout, star rankings, icons and small yet catchy labels. The template is made is the AI format.
This is an exclusive freebie packed with a clean CV and cover letter. The templates are available in EPS, AI and PSD formats. A logo is also included to the package. This modest PSD -layered template features all the essential resume sections, from writing greensboro education and place essay, work experience to awards and research, personal skills. Its design catches an eye with progress bars and favorite place to visit essay, circular pre-loaders. If you want to give a detailed overview of your merits in an easy-to-perceive manner, use this well-structured template of powered by vbulletin A4 size. Its high-quality PSD file is fully customizable.
Free Elegant Resume Cover Letter PSD Template. Favorite! Here are free layered PSD files to design a successful resume and cover letter. They come in 2550 x 3284 px , 300 dpi , and 3 color variations. 2 of essays them boast a white background with colored borders, while the third one has a black and white palette. To edit the files, you are required to use Adobe Photoshop CS4+ . Favorite Place Essay! Free Professional Resume (CV) Template for Graphic Designers.
This free CV design provides an opportunity to express your best qualities with a minimum amount of words. Made in the AI format, this editable template features an elegant and the political essay, legible font dubbed Champagne Limousines . Free Simple Professional Resume Template. Favorite Place To Visit Essay! The austere look of this template makes it perfect for job seekers involved in essays, business, finance, industrial, politics, education and place essay, many other fields. This AI file with Larke Sans font can be altered in thesis for huckleberry finn essays, line with your requirements. Take advantage of a smart information architecture and clean look of this resume template.
Built in favorite place to visit, the PSD format, the freebie is easy to edit in Photoshop . Readability, minimalism, and uncluttered layout are the essay, main characteristics of this freebie. It can be easily edited in to visit essay, Adobe Illustrator . Resume Writing Services Greensboro Nc! This three-page resume template in favorite to visit, PSD is designed to put emphasis on resume greensboro, all the major details, namely the personal info, skills, experience, and hobbies. Look at place a free CV template ready to print. Its main properties are as follows: AI format, 300 dpi, CMYK , unlimited resolution as well as editable colors, fonts and icons. To make the most of this freebie, use a step-by-step PDF guide available in finn essays, its package.
Smart Freebie Word Resume Template – The Minimalist. The next resume freebie has a minimalist yet content-rich design. It will help you reveal your candidacy in full to employees. Favorite To Visit Essay! The template is available in the .doc format, which means you’ll find it easy to customize it. Check out essay, a bundle packed with 12 resume templates, 12 cover letters, and a creative portfolio template. There are also 30 hobbies icons, 50+ social media icons, and vector world maps.
You can choose from Word and Indesign file versions. Which one of these 30 free printable resume templates 2017 is worth a try, in your opinion? Do you know any other noteworthy CV freebies that could be a perfect complement to this set? Feel free to share them in to visit, the section of comments to for huckleberry finn this article. Those are life saver #128578; Thanks for this nice collection.
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Custom Radio Frequency Identification essay paper. Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) is a technique of favorite, automatically identifying a particular object or a person by keeping and distantly retrieving information from minute transponders, referred to as RFID tags. This method has been applied in various forms for over forty years. The tags contain a built in antenna which enables broadcast and reception of radio waves from an RFID transceiver. It is expected that the RFID technology will continue to gain more application due to advancing commerce and technology (Chachra McPherson, 2003). RFID technology application on a global scale will continue to grow because of their growing demand in the current dynamic world. The origin of RFID can be traced back to world war when a related technology called Identification Friend or Foe, IFF was used. The purpose of this system was to find out whether an arriving plane was an ally or an enemy by employing coded radar signals.
These signals would initiate the by vbulletin planes’ transponder, and a right response showed a friendly military or civilian aircraft. When the war ended, researchers commenced to investigate the use of RFID to keep and send information. Place? The main challenge that affected the culture research was finding a suitable source of power. To Visit? As a matter of fact, it took approximately thirty years for the research to make internal power sources for the chips and the tags (Intermec Technologies Corporation, 2007). All RFID tags fall under active or passive categories. The difference between the two is mainly in operation in that passive tags do not need a power source while active tags require a power source to perform. Passive RFID tags do not have the power supply inside but a tiny electric current is made in the antenna when a signal reaching it. The current gives adequate power to actuate the tag briefly. This takes place normally sufficiently to transmit simple information, for essays, instance an identification number or the name of a product.
Passive RFID tags can be very tiny mainly because they do not have a power supply. Place To Visit? Occasionally, they can be as thin as a piece of paper this being one of their striking features. Passive tags are actuated from by vbulletin a distance ranging from ten millimeters to over six meters away (Chachra McPherson, 2003). In contrast, active RFID tags have an internal power source giving them a wider range of reading and a superior memory. Place To Visit? The source of power also allows it to keep information relayed by the transceiver. The tags are larger when compared with passive tags, typically somewhat larger than a coin. They can also be read from several meters away and usually their battery life is approximately ten years. The merits of active tags over resume writing services greensboro nc the passive ones incorporate precision, dependability, reliability and favorite place essay, greater performance in difficult surroundings including damp or metallic environments.
According to a report by Intermec Technologies Corporation (2007), most RFID tags categories are passive due to their ease of manufacture. It is envisaged that ever decreasing costs of resume services, RFID and their rising demand will ultimately bring about their extensive usage on a worldwide scale. Basically, the most widespread tags applied are classified by the range of place, radio frequency. This follows that low frequency tags have 125 or 134.2 kHz, high frequency tags have about 13.56 MHz, UHF tags ranges from 868 to 956 MHz and essay, finally microwave tags have approximately 2.45 GHz. RFID systems are made up of various dedicated components including tags, readers, edge servers, middle ware and their software. The system enables data to be sent from the tag to the reader, which then prepares it for place to visit essay, a specific application. The data that is the political, relayed comprises identification, information location, and its cost, appearance and purchase date. The systems can also be used for tracking purposes, which some indicate as an incursion of solitude. Place To Visit? An RFID system performs in a procedure whereby items are prepared with a tag.
The tag contains a transponder given a distinctive electronic product code. The antenna going with it contains a transceiver and get creative different, a decoder that produces an indication and place, actuates the different tag. Once the tag is actuated, information can actually be read and written to the tag. Given that a reader is in range, it decrypts the data being relayed by the tag’s computer and essay, sends it to a host computer where it is processed (DHS, 2008). Application of thesis for huckleberry finn, RFID. Today, use of RFID chips has extended to various fields and the application continues to grow due to the unending demand. In MedicineRFID tags are appended to recommendation pill bottles for the visually afflicted. A unique reader allows perceptible information on the name, directions and warnings of the prescription to be read.
In tracking of favorite essay, patients and personnel some hospitals use RFID tags in tracking system in its department of accident and finn essays, emergency (Fisher, 2006). Fisher (2006) observes that this system requires all patients, their visitors and the hospital staff getting into the hospital to be given a card entrenched with an RFID chip. The card is then detected read by sensors put on the ceiling. This sensor is to visit essay, able to record precisely when someone gets into and leaves the department by services greensboro, sending a signal to the host computer. The data is preserved in a computer for three weeks. This technology helps the facility employees to keep information on every person entering and leaving the place to visit department. The information can be retrieved rapidly from the computer whenever a need arises. For instance, if somebody is styles, diagnosed with an infectious ailment a verification of all other persons with whom that patient has been in contact with can be without delay get treated (DHS, 2008). In animal husbandry and wildlife, RFID tags are utilized in animal identification.
In this case low frequency tags are entrenched in animals either untamed or tamed. The tags can be studied to give data including gender of the animal, the name or the health status or diseases of the animals. The tags also enable missing pets to be given back to their owners. The technology can also be utilized to control poaching of endangered species in the wild. This will enable the animal to be traced fast enough to avoid occurrence of any harm. Researchers verify that the technology is best suited when conduction experimental studies in to visit, the field. The guinea pig or the animal under scrutiny is attached with the RFID tags that can make it be easily traced in its natural habitat. High frequency RFID tags are employed in tracking of items. This is applied in libraries to the political, track library books. Some tracking companies use them in tracking lost properties, luggage or suitcases.
The technology is also used in big stores in favorite place essay, keeping warehouse inventory. The goods from the warehouse can be traced easily and this allows records to be maintained easily. Currently, some credit card companies are using the RFID technology to trace the credit card. There is evidence that the technology is getting embraced in attire tracking. In clothing industry, some stores insert retail stock with RFID tags. The entrenched gadgets allow the workers to track personal inventory possessions by connecting a customers name and resume greensboro, information on the credit card with the serial number in an item of clothing.
The system has hover been criticized by privacy advocates who have warned of the possible abuses of the technology. A good example where the technology has been established is Marks Spencer, a leading retailer in the United Kingdom. RFID technology has provided quicker data transfer speeds and extended read ranges. The company has already utilized the tracking gadgets widely in its food supply section and is planning to use it their apparel items. RFID technology is also applied in tracking of consumer packaged goods. Particularly designed shelve that enables for instantaneous tracking of place to visit, inventory levels is employed to come up with a smart shelves. The shelf will be capable of reading a radio frequency wave produced by a microchip implanted in many products. Services Nc? Large scale stores like Wal-Mart use RFID chips to track their goods, and remove the tags from the products once they are bought. RFID technology is used in geology or Vulcanology. Favorite To Visit Essay? Transceivers utilizing RFID technology sends seismic data to dedicated readers, to a great extent making data collection to the political, be very easy (DHS, 2008).
In automotive industry, car manufacturers have led a plan to implant RFID tags in their tires. This will assist in tracking down troubles in case a recall has to be used. Some successful car manufacturers including Toyota and Lexus have utilized a smart key alternative. This innovation utilizes an active RFID tag to favorite, enable the user to open doors and roll down windows with the keys still in their pocket. The technology is also applicable in preventing car theft by tracking the tires. Tire manufacturer includes a transponder into the tire that keeps tire identification information related to someone write my lab, the vehicle identification number. This enables a tracking company to locate the place where the car is located or travelling (Bacheldor, 2007). In prisons, the RFID technology is to visit, also being utilized in tracking of human being.
Prisoners at maximum prisons all over the US are given unique wristbands with RFID tags entrenched inside. These tags continually send the site of the essay styles prisoner to a remote computer. Favorite Place? The signal can as well be connected to an alarm that alerts the research about authorities if the band is favorite to visit essay, interfered with. In very significant occasions, RFID chips can be entrenched into arms, legs or other parts of the bodies of a person. For Security purposes, the chips can be fixed on some part of a body to thesis for huckleberry finn essays, contact the database and in some cases track a person who has been kidnapped. In tracking currency, Tay (2007) concluded that the technology can track how and where the transaction is made. The thin RFID tags are embedded into the fibers of the notes allowing the currency to verify information about every business operation which it is carried out. The move is place essay, embraced as a method of for huckleberry finn essays, curbing laundering of to visit essay, money, theft transactions and demands for different styles, bribery. Nevertheless, a lot of people dread that the innovation will get rid of the favorite to visit secrecy of using cash.Some studies indicate that the technology has found some application in payment systems.
Wireless payment application has been developed and a wireless radio frequency system of payment has been utilized that employs the RFID system. In one of many applications of RFID chips in controlling human being, the technology can be used to control boarder access and to research paper about, interdict suspects. This can be used for international travelers as well as restriction of entry in sensitive places. As a way of place to visit essay, enlacing security, the technology is able to detect illegal entrants into a country and suspected terrorist. In this application, RFID comes in handy in identification with its high speed and effectiveness of the writing greensboro nc process and its ability to hamper forgery and interference with the favorite to visit traveling documents. With the appropriate employ of write my lab, encoding information, an RFID chip can be made extremely hard to forge or change. To save time, RFID is the best technology to use at ant entry point as the place essay traditional document verification is time consuming. Though the RFID chip does not relate the person with the essays powered biometrics, it is useful in ascertaining the origin of the form and favorite place to visit essay, comparing the form with a particular entry of a traveler (DHS, 2008). RFID can reduce crimes related with forgery and tampering with identification documents. Encoding enables information to powered by vbulletin, be encrypted in such a way that it is to visit, concealed from informal view. In current technologies, any effort to change or forge can be consistently detected by resume writing services, the system.
Encoded information can be concealed in the pixels on a card, providing the similar assurance obtainable by favorite place to visit, encryption in an RFID chip. However the benefit against paper about, forgery given by the utilization of RFID chip is not a product of its application of radio. It is simply based on essay the fact that the data is in digital format and research paper, thus can be encoded (Garfinkel Rosenberg, 2006). In business and supplies operations RFID technology is applied in inventory control. Favorite Place Essay? This ensures enhanced stock tracking, particularly when the RFID’s abilities are utilized in collecting data and provision of visibility in areas where monitoring was not previously done. RFID technology can be applied by manufacturers, suppliers, logistics providers and retailers for inventory uses, and in cautiously designed systems, may share the same tags to decrease accomplishment expenses. RFID effectively gets rid of blind spots from inventory and supply chain operations by tracing an item automatically. The monitoring process using this technology is highly efficient and does not need close attendance. Security measures by installation of writing services, alarms and conveying of notifications can be set up using RFID to favorite place, get rid of theft (Garfinkel Rosenberg, 2006).
RFID is essay, principal automatic identification technologies that relayinformation through a radio wave. The signal is relayed through antennae on a computer chip appended to the target object. The technology is therefore able to identify, place, and to visit, track the research paper about object. The basic configurationof RFID technology necessitates a tag, a scanning device and adatabase where information is stored. The vast application of RFID technology ranges from medicine, inventory planning in business, government agencies curbing crime and immigration. Other applications are in automotive and favorite place to visit essay, manufacturing industries, animals and wildlife and in tracking of business transactions.
Radio frequency identification (RFID) is a leading and a highly anticipated technologies in the current world. Around the world, there has been a lot of coverage by television, newspapers and magazines about the invaluable benefits of the technology. Get Creative Essay? Demand for the technology is increasing as the place to visit RFID are finding new applications in almost all areas worldwide. RFID technology is the political essay, applicable in manufacturing industry, retailers and market stores, logistics providers and government agencies and authorities concerned with security enhancement. The technology applies throughout the life of a product, from the time the raw materials are fed into the manufacturing process to the time when the product is place to visit essay, finally consumed. The vast application of the RFID technology leaves a lot to be expected from the for huckleberry manufacturers of the place chips, the paper about logistic providers and the consumers of the products.
It is very important for the user to have a clear understanding of how the place essay technology works and understand the latest standards and observance environment related to use the technology. This will assist the user in implementing the technology in order to reap most out of the investment. The manufacturers of the chips should provide adequate support documentation and the guidelines of using the products. It is also their responsibilities to work with the research organizations and the government regulations agencies to provide the best products in the market. Some applications of the the political essay technology on humans bring very dire consequences in terms of privacy and place essay, integrity of information.
It is significant to note that, some of RFID’s application in medicine like evaluating the behavior of a person can be very beneficial; however more research is required as the results are still vague and resume services nc, unpredictable.